Growing Need For Ground Penetrating Systems

physical properties Responded to by Geophysical Methods

Geophysical Method physical property


Electromagnetic induction

Ground-penetrating radar




Electrical resistivity (or electrical conductivity) Electrical conductivity (or electrical resistivity) Dielectric constant and electrical conductivity

Magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetism Electric potential gradient

Density and elastic moduli (bulk modulus, shear modulus, etc.)

multiple geophysical and nongeophysical spatial data sets. Consequently, GIS will play a greater role in the analysis of geophysical data collected in agricultural settings. Furthermore, as the practice of precision agriculture continues to grow, there is expected to be an increasing need to input geophysical data into the GIS used to make proper management decisions in regard to different areas of a farm field.

6. Expert system computer software and learning-capable computer software incorporating neural networks will be developed for specific agricultural applications to automatically analyze and interpret geophysical data.

7. Tomographic procedures will be employed to obtain geophysical data in agricultural settings when the situation is warranted. It is usually not possible to conduct geophysical surveys in an agricultural field during the growing season, once the crop emerges and begins to develop. Tomographic data collection and analysis procedures are a potential solution to this field access problem, allowing the within field horizontal spatial pattern of a physical property to be determined without actually having to obtain geophysical measurements inside the field. Tomographic data collection and analysis procedures can also provide valuable geophysical information even for circumstances when field access is not a problem. For the geophysical field measurement tomographic approach, geophysical energy source and sensor locations are moved along the perimeter of the field. They will typically involve multiple source and sensor positionings in which the geophysical sensor locations are always on opposite or adjacent sides of the field with respect to the side of the field where the geophysical energy source is located. A map of the horizontal spatial pattern for some physical property within an agricultural field is then generated with measurement data from a sufficient number of geophysical source and sensor positionings used as input for image reconstruction computer software employing inversion techniques.

8. The application of geophysical methods to agriculture will eventually become a well-recognized subdiscipline of geophysics, at which time it may become appropriate to use the contracted term "agrigeophysics" instead of the longer term "agricultural geophysics."

Allred, B. J., J. J. Daniels, N. R. Fausey, C. Chen, L. Peters, Jr., and H. Youn. 2005a. Important considerations for locating buried agricultural drainage pipe using ground penetrating radar. Appl. Eng. Agric. v. 21, pp. 71-87.

Allred, B. J., M. R. Ehsani, and D. Saraswat. 2005b. The impact of temperature and shallow hydrologic conditions on the magnitude and spatial pattern consistency of electromagnetic induction measured soil electrical conductivity. Trans. ASAE. v. 48, pp. 2123-2135.

Allred, B. J., M. R. Ehsani, and D. Saraswat. 2006. Comparison of electromagnetic induction, capacitively coupled resistivity, and galvanic contact resistivity methods for soil electrical conductivity measurement. Appl. Eng. Agric. v. 22, pp. 215-230.


Bailey, J. T., S. Evans, and G. de Q. Robin. 1964. Radio echo sounding in polar ice sheets. Nature. v. 204, pp. 420-421.

Banton, O., M. K. Seguin, and M. A. Cimon. 1997. Mapping field-scale physical properties of soil with electrical resistivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 61, pp. 1010-1017.

Boniak, R., Chong, S.K., Indorante, S.J., and J.A. Doolittle. 2002. Mapping golf course green drainage systems and subsurface features using ground penetrating radar. In Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4758, Ninth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar. pp. 477-481. S. K. Koppenjan and H. Lee, editors. April 29-May 2, 2002. Santa Barbara, CA. SPIE. Bellingham, WA.

Butnor, J. R., J. A. Doolittle, K. H. Johnson, L. Samuelson, T. Stokes, and L. Kress. 2003. Utility of ground-penetrating radar as a root biomass survey tool in forest systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 67, pp. 1607-1615.

Carroll, Z. L., and M. A. Oliver. 2005. Exploring the spatial relations between soil physical properties and apparent electrical conductivity. Geoderma. v. 128, pp. 354-374.

Chow, T. L., and H. W. Rees. 1989. Identification of subsurface drain locations with ground-penetrating radar. Can. J. Soil Sci. v. 69, pp. 223-234.

Collins, M. E., and J. A. Doolittle. 1987. Using ground-penetrating radar to study soil microvariability. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 51, pp. 491-493.

Collins, M. E., J. A. Doolittle, and R. V. Rourke. 1989. Mapping depth to bedrock on a glaciated landscape with ground-penetrating radar. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 53, pp. 1806-1812.

Dobrin, M. B., and C. H. Savit. 1988. Introduction of Geophysical Prospecting, 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill. New York.

Doolittle, J. A. 1987. Using ground-penetrating radar to increase the quality and efficiency of soil surveys. In Soil Survey Techniques. pp. 11-32. W. U. Reybold and G. W. Petersen, editors. SSSA Special Publication Number 20. Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI.

Doolittle, J. A., K. A. Sudduth, N. R. Kitchen, and S. J. Indorante. 1994. Estimating depths to claypans using electromagnetic induction methods. J. Soil and Water Cons. v. 49, pp. 572-575.

Doolittle, J., M. Petersen, and T. Wheeler. 2001. Comparison of two electromagnetic induction tools in salinity appraisals. J. Soil and Water Cons. v. 56, pp. 257-262.

Edlefsen, N. E., and A. B. C. Anderson. 1941. The four-electrode resistance method for measuring soil-moisture content under field conditions. Soil Sci. v. 51, pp. 367-376.

Eigenberg, R. A., and J. A. Nienaber. 1998. Electromagnetic survey of cornfield with repeated manure applications. J. Environ. Qual. v. 27, pp. 1511-1515.

Freeland, R. S., L. O. Odhiambo, J. S. Tyner, J. T. Ammons, and W. C. Wright. 2006. Nonintrusive mapping of near-surface preferential flow. Appl. Eng. Agric. v. 22, pp. 315-319.

Gish, T. J., W. P. Dulaney, K.-J. S. Kung, C. S. T. Daughtry, J. A. Doolittle, and P. T. Miller. 2002. Evaluating use of ground-penetrating radar for identifying subsurface flow pathways. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 66, pp. 1620-1629.

Grote, K., S. Hubbard, and Y. Rubin. 2003. Field-scale estimation of volumetric water content using ground-penetrating radar ground wave techniques. Water Resour. Res. v. 39, pp. 1321-1333.

Halvorson, A. D., and J. D. Rhoades. 1974. Assessing soil salinity and identifying potential saline-seep areas with field soil resistance measurements. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. v. 38, pp. 576-581.

Hendrickx, J. M. H., B. Baerends, Z. I. Rasa, M. Sadig, and M. A. Chaudhry. 1992. Soil salinity assessment by electromagnetic induction of irrigated land. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 56, pp. 1933-1941.

Huisman, J. A., S. S. Hubbard, J. D. Redman, and A. P. Annan. 2003. Measuring soil water content with ground penetrating radar: A review. Vadose Zone J. v. 2, pp. 476-490.

Jaynes, D. B., J. M. Novak, T. B. Moorman, and C. A. Cambardella. 1995a. Estimating herbicide partition coefficients from electromagnetic induction measurements. J. Environ. Qual. v. 24, pp. 36-41.

Jaynes, D. B., T. S. Colvin, and J. Ambuel. 1995b. Yield mapping by electromagnetic induction. In Proceedings of Site-Specific Management for Agricultural Systems: Second International Conference. pp. 383-394. P. C. Robert, R. H. Rust, and W. E. Larson, editors. March 27-30, 1994. St. Paul, MN. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA. Madison, WI.

Johnson, C. K., J. W. Doran, H. R. Duke, B. J. Wienhold, K. M. Eskridge, and J. F. Shanahan. 2001. Field-scale electrical conductivity mapping for delineating soil condition. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 65, pp. 1829-1837.

Kirkham, D., and G. S. Taylor. 1949. Some tests of a four-electrode probe for soil moisture measurement. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. v. 14, pp. 42-46.

Kitchen, N. R., K. A. Sudduth, and S. T. Drummond. 1996. Mapping of sand deposition from 1993 Midwest floods with electromagnetic induction measurements. J. Soil and Water Cons. v. 51, pp. 336-340.

Konstantinovic, M., S. Wockel, P. Schulze Lammers, J. Sachs, and M. Martinov. 2007. Detection of root biomass using ultra wideband radar—An approach to potato nest positioning. Agr. Eng. Intl. v. 9, Manuscript IT 06 003.

Kravchenko, A. N., G. A. Bollero, R. A. Omonode, and D. G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 66, pp. 235-243.

Lawyer, L. C., C. C. Bates, and R. B. Rice. 2001. Geophysics in the Affairs of Mankind, A Personalized History of Exploration Geophysics, 2nd Edition. Society of Exploration Geophysics. Tulsa, OK.

Lund, E. D., P. E. Colin, D. Christy, and P. E. Drummond. 1999. Applying soil electrical conductivity technology to precision agriculture. In Proceedings 4th Int. Conf. Precision Agric. pp. 1089-1100. P. C. Robert, R. H. Rust, and W. E. Larson, editors. July 19-22, 1998. St. Paul, MN. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA. Madison, WI.

Lunt, I. A., S. S. Hubbard, and Y. Rubin. 2005. Soil moisture content estimation using ground-penetrating radar reflection data. J. Hydrology. v. 307, pp. 254-269.

McCorkle, W. H. 1931. Determination of Soil Moisture by the Method of Multiple Electrodes. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 426. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX.

Morgan, M., and D. Ess. 1997. The Precision-Farming Guide for Agriculturists. John Deere Publishing. Moline, IL.

National Research Council. 1997. Precision Agriculture in the 21st Century. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.

Needham, J. 1959. Science and Civilization in China, Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and Earth. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

Reynolds, J. M. 1997. An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics. John Wiley & Sons. Chich-ester, UK.

Rhoades, J. D., and R. D. Ingvalson. 1971. Determining salinity in field soils with soil resistance measurements. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. v. 35, pp. 54-60.

Rhoades, J. D., P. A. C. Raats, and R. J. Prather. 1976. Effects of liquid-phase electrical conductivity, water content, and surface conductivity on bulk soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 40, pp. 651-655.

Rhoades, J. D., N. A. Manteghi, P. J. Shouse, and W. J. Alves. 1989. Soil electrical conductivity and soil salinity: New formulations and calibrations. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 53, pp. 433-439.

Rhoades, J. D., P. J. Shouse, W. J. Alves, N. A. Manteghi, and S. M. Lesch. 1990. Determining soil salinity from soil electrical conductivity using different models and estimates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 54, pp. 46-54.

Rogers, M. B., J. R. Cassidy, and M. I. Dragila. 2005. Ground-based magnetic surveys as a new technique to locate subsurface drainage pipes: A case study. Appl. Eng. in Agric. v. 21, pp. 421-426.

Rogers, M. B., J. E. Baham, and M. I. Dragila. 2006. Soil iron content effects on the ability of magnetometer surveying to locate buried agricultural drainage pipes. Appl. Eng. in Agric. v. 22, pp. 701-704.

Schellentrager, G. W., J. A. Doolittle, T. E. Calhoun, and C. A. Wettstein. 1988. Using ground-penetrating radar to update soil survey information. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. v. 52, pp. 746-752.

Shea, P. F. and J. N. Luthin. 1961. An investigation of the use of the four-electrode probe for measuring soil salinity in situ. Soil Sci. v. 92, pp. 331-339.

Sheets, K. R., and J. M. H. Hendrickx. 1995. Noninvasive soil water content measurement using electromagnetic induction. Water Resour. Res. v. 31, pp. 2401-2409.

Sheriff, R. E. 2002. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, 4th Edition. Society of Exploration Geophysics. Tulsa, OK.

Smedema, L. K., W. F. Vlotman, and D. W. Rycroft. 2004. Modern Land Drainage: Planning, Design and Management of Agricultural Drainage Systems. A.A. Balkema. Leiden, Netherlands

Telford, W. M., L. P. Geldart, R. E. Sheriff, and D. A. Keys. 1976. Applied Geophysics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

Topp G. C., J. L. Davis, and A. P. Annan. 1980. Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: Measurements in coaxial transmission lines. Water Resour. Res. v. 16, pp. 574-582.

Wockel, S., M. Konstantantinovic, J. Sachs, P. Schulze Lammers, and M. Kmec. 2006. Application of ultrawideband M-sequence-radar to detect sugar beets in agricultural soils. In Proceeedings of the 11th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar. June 19-22, 2006. Columbus, OH.

Past, Present, and Future Trends of Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurement Using Geophysical Methods

Dennis L. Corwin CONTENTS

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Historical Perspective of Apparent Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC.,) Techniques in Agriculture—The Past 18

2.2.1 Measurement of Soil Salinity with ECa 19 Electrical Resistivity 21 Electromagnetic Induction 23

2.2.2 Measurement of Water Content with ECa 24 Time Domain Reflectometry 26

2.2.3 From Observed Associations to ECa-Directed Soil Sampling 27

2.3 Current State-of-the-Science of ECa Applications in Agriculture—The Present 28

2.3.1 Factors Driving ECa-Directed Soil Sampling 28

2.3.2 Characterization of Soil Spatial Variability with ECa 30

2.3.3 Agricultural Applications of ECa-Directed Soil Sampling 32

2.4 Prognosis of Geophysical Techniques in Agriculture—Future Trends and Needs 34

References 36

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Taming Taxes

Taming Taxes

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Permanently Get A Handle On Your Taxes. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To A Guide To Home Business Taxes.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment