Growing Need For Ground Penetrating Systems

physical properties Responded to by Geophysical Methods

Geophysical Method physical property

Resistivity

Electromagnetic induction

Ground-penetrating radar

Magnetometry

Self-potential

Seismic

Electrical resistivity (or electrical conductivity) Electrical conductivity (or electrical resistivity) Dielectric constant and electrical conductivity

Magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetism Electric potential gradient

Density and elastic moduli (bulk modulus, shear modulus, etc.)

multiple geophysical and nongeophysical spatial data sets. Consequently, GIS will play a greater role in the analysis of geophysical data collected in agricultural settings. Furthermore, as the practice of precision agriculture continues to grow, there is expected to be an increasing need to input geophysical data into the GIS used to make proper management decisions in regard to different areas of a farm field.

6. Expert system computer software and learning-capable computer software incorporating neural networks will be developed for specific agricultural applications to automatically analyze and interpret geophysical data.

7. Tomographic procedures will be employed to obtain geophysical data in agricultural settings when the situation is warranted. It is usually not possible to conduct geophysical surveys in an agricultural field during the growing season, once the crop emerges and begins to develop. Tomographic data collection and analysis procedures are a potential solution to this field access problem, allowing the within field horizontal spatial pattern of a physical property to be determined without actually having to obtain geophysical measurements inside the field. Tomographic data collection and analysis procedures can also provide valuable geophysical information even for circumstances when field access is not a problem. For the geophysical field measurement tomographic approach, geophysical energy source and sensor locations are moved along the perimeter of the field. They will typically involve multiple source and sensor positionings in which the geophysical sensor locations are always on opposite or adjacent sides of the field with respect to the side of the field where the geophysical energy source is located. A map of the horizontal spatial pattern for some physical property within an agricultural field is then generated with measurement data from a sufficient number of geophysical source and sensor positionings used as input for image reconstruction computer software employing inversion techniques.

8. The application of geophysical methods to agriculture will eventually become a well-recognized subdiscipline of geophysics, at which time it may become appropriate to use the contracted term "agrigeophysics" instead of the longer term "agricultural geophysics."

Allred, B. J., J. J. Daniels, N. R. Fausey, C. Chen, L. Peters, Jr., and H. Youn. 2005a. Important considerations for locating buried agricultural drainage pipe using ground penetrating radar. Appl. Eng. Agric. v. 21, pp. 71-87.

Allred, B. J., M. R. Ehsani, and D. Saraswat. 2005b. The impact of temperature and shallow hydrologic conditions on the magnitude and spatial pattern consistency of electromagnetic induction measured soil electrical conductivity. Trans. ASAE. v. 48, pp. 2123-2135.

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Past, Present, and Future Trends of Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurement Using Geophysical Methods

Dennis L. Corwin CONTENTS

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Historical Perspective of Apparent Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC.,) Techniques in Agriculture—The Past 18

2.2.1 Measurement of Soil Salinity with ECa 19

2.2.1.1 Electrical Resistivity 21

2.2.1.2 Electromagnetic Induction 23

2.2.2 Measurement of Water Content with ECa 24

2.2.2.1 Time Domain Reflectometry 26

2.2.3 From Observed Associations to ECa-Directed Soil Sampling 27

2.3 Current State-of-the-Science of ECa Applications in Agriculture—The Present 28

2.3.1 Factors Driving ECa-Directed Soil Sampling 28

2.3.2 Characterization of Soil Spatial Variability with ECa 30

2.3.3 Agricultural Applications of ECa-Directed Soil Sampling 32

2.4 Prognosis of Geophysical Techniques in Agriculture—Future Trends and Needs 34

References 36

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