U

UBC Geophysical Inversion Facility Web site, 126 UERE. See User Equivalent Range Error (UERE) Ultrahigh frequency (UHF), 168, 182 Underground drainage tile, 51

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system, 204, 205, 341

University of Wyoming, 281

U.S. Coast Guard Maritime DGPS, 184

USDA. See U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

USDA-ARS. See U.S. Department of Agriculture-

Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) USDA Economic Research Service, 363 USDA Handbook 60 (U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff), 20, 61

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 46, 60, 256, 363-364

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research

Service (USDA-ARS), 28, 59, 214, 281 U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service-Soil Drainage Research Unit (USDA-ARS-SDRU), 294 U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), 166, 170, 175 U.S. Department of Energy, 305-306 User Equivalent Range Error (UERE), 175 User Segment, 168, 169

USGA (U.S. Golf Association) Method, 353-354, 355, 356, 359

USGA Green Section Record, 347

U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC), 274

U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO), 168

U.S. Salinity Laboratory, 59

U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff, 20, 21, 60, 61

UTM. See Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system v

van Genuchten-Mualem soil hydraulic functions, 327

van Genuchten parameter values, optimized, 332

Variance inflation factors (VIF), 219

VDB. See VHF data broadcast (VDB) transmitter

Vector, 113, 114, 133

Vector data format, 201-202

Vector line, 131

Vehicle-based monitoring, 27 Vehicle-mounted GPR, 318 Velocity, 134

dielectric constant, 6, 323-324 electromagnetic wave, 27, 323, 333, 350 GPR methods, 134, 139-142 GPS technology, 167, 184 of material, 141-142 permittivity, 132, 137 propagating wave, 130 P-wave or S-wave, 160 radar signal propagation, 348 reflection hyperbolas, 145 refraction, 131 sampling depth, 319 seismic wave, 7, 156, 157, 159 Velocity of propagation, 18, 64 Veris 3100 Soil EC Mapping System, 97 Veris Soil EC Mapping System, 62, 97, 104, 107, 242 Veris Technologies, 28-29, 62, 97, 242, 265, 270, 282, 299 Veris unit, 62-63, 282 Vertical (EMv) dipole, 24, 29 Vertical electric sounding, 100, 101 Vertical profiting, 23-24, 25 Very low frequency (VLF), 113, 182 VHF data broadcast (VDB) transmitter, 184 Virtual reference station (VRS), 188-189 Visual crop observation, 19 Visual interpretation, 124 VLF. See Very low frequency (VLF) Vollath, U., 187 Voltage (V), 21, 85, 93, 98, 155 Volume of measurement, 22-23 Volume of spatial data, 72-73 Volumetric water estimate, 48 Vortex currents, 109

VRS. See Virtual reference station (VRS)

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