Growing Mushrooms at Home

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! More here...

Mushroom Growing 4 You Summary


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Author: Jake White
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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

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Production Technology Of Edible Fungi

Production of edible fungi or mushrooms involves many steps, mainly the following (a) Raising and maintenance of mushroom culture, (b) Seed or spawn preparation, (c) Substrate preparation, (d) Growing or cropping, and (e) Postharvest handling While step (a) and (b) are more or less common and similar for most of the mushrooms, it is the substrate preparation, crop raising, and post harvest technology which vary with the type of mushroom. In this article after brief treatment of the step (a) and (b), the cultivation technology of the so-called five leaders mentioned earlier will be briefly described and reviewed. The successive steps of production of mushrooms are depicted in Figure 1.

Button Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus

Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing., popularly known as the white button mushroom, has the widest acceptability and still accounts for more than 30 of total production of all mushrooms. Limited quantities of A. bitorquis, a high temperature species, are also produced in some countries. Its cultivation technology has developed over the years from a primitive cave culture in France in the 16th century to a hightech industry in America and Europe now. Still in many parts of the world, especially in developing Asian and African countries, sizeable quantities are being produced in low-cost structures like huts under the seasonal conditions. In some parts of the Europe, seasonal growing is done with arrangement for heating during the winters. Like any such venture, the production systems differ in the infrastructure, level of technology, automation, and mechanization but the basic principles and processes remain the same. The production technology of the white button mushroom (A. bisporus) has...

A mushroom scuttle fly

Larvae of this generally abundant species tunnel within the stipe and cap of wild mushrooms during the late summer and autumn. Damage is often extensive (Plate 6e) and may be followed by bacterial breakdown of the tissue. The larvae also infest cultivated mushroom crops and, prior to the introduction of modern cultural methods, were often serious pests. The females deposit eggs on the gills of mushrooms or on the casing but, unlike the previous species, they will oviposit only in daylight attacks do not occur, therefore, in blacked-out mushroom houses or culture chambers, and this has led to a significant decline in the importance of this insect. Adults occur from June to December they are mainly black and slightly larger than those of Megaselia halterata (above).

Pleurotus spp Oyster Mushrooms

Unlike most of the cultivated mushrooms, which represent one species, a group of species of the genus Pleurotus are commercially cultivated and referred commonly as oyster mushrooms. Pleurotus ostreatus (Jack. ex.Fr.) Kummer, is best known species among oyster mushrooms and the specific epithet oyster obviously refers to its Oyster-shell like appearance of the fruitbodies. Pleurotus spp. are most versatile of all the mushrooms, representing about fifteen species capable of growing over a wide range of temperature (5 C to 30 C) and on almost all the lignocellulosic wastes P. sajor-caju, P. florida, P. ostreatus, and P. flabellatus are most popular commercial species. It is a primary rot fungi and can degrade moistened substrates directly and does not require precomposted substrates like secondary rot fungus, e.g., A. bisporus. Ease with which oyster mushrooms can be grown has manifested itself in the production statistics where the production of oyster mushroom registered 442 increase...

Volvariella spp Paddy Straw Mushroom

Volvariella Volvacea

Volvariella is a mushroom of the tropics and subtropics it grows at a relatively high temperature of around 35 C. This is a very fast growing mushroom, it takes about 10 days from spawning to first harvesting, is easiest to cultivate with a cropping cycle of 3 weeks but does not give good economic yields and its shelf-life is poorest of all mushrooms. Understandably, its production in 1997 was only 0.18 million tonnes and it contributed only 3 to the world mushroom production while its share was 4.6 in 1986. Nevertheless, its significance lies in East Asian countries where staple food is rice and paddy straw can be utilized for growing this mushroom mostly for self-consumption or trade in the domestic market. Commonly cultivated species are V. volvacea and V. bombycina. There are two commercial substrates for growing this mushroom traditional paddy straw bundles made into beds and the other involves the use of cotton waste compost after a short period of fermentation. The latter has...

Heteropeza pygmaea Winnertz Mushroom cecid

Become an important pest of cultivated mushrooms. The larvae contaminate the sporophores they also introduce a bacterium that produces brown longitudinal stripes on the stipes and tiny black globules of liquid on the gills. Crop losses, especially of the later flushes, are often heavy. Breeding populations in mushroom beds consist of paedogenetic larvae, which feed on fungal mycelium and also invade the sporophores. The larvae become fully grown in about 5 days. The larval gut then opens to expel a faecal tube about 10 mm long (cf. mushroom midge, Mycophila barnesi, p. 175), after which the larvae (known as 'mother' larvae) moult into sedentary 'hemi-pupae' within which several embryos develop new individuals emerge about 2 days later, each as a daughter' larva, about 1mm long. Under ideal conditions. 14 'daughter' larvae are produced from each 'mother' larva in just under a week, and larval populations build up extremely rapidly many thousands can occur in a mere handful of casing...

Tarsonemus myceliophagus Hussey Mushroom mite

This species is an important pest of mushrooms, the relatively sluggish, barrel-shaped mites feeding on mushroom hyphae. Mite damage appears to encourage secondary breakdown of tissue, and this results in a reddish-brown discoloration around the base of the stipes if the basal hyphae are severed, the developing stipes may also become loosened. The mites are also vectors of 'die back' virus. Development of the mite from egg to adult is favoured by spawning temperatures, requiring only 8 days at 24 C but taking about 12 days during the cooler cropping period. The mites are often particularly numerous if infestations develop during or soon after spawning. The adult mites are 0.2 mm long, pale brown, translucent and shiny the hindlegs of males are robust, terminating in a strong claw, but lack a distinctive flange (cf. cyclamen mite, Phytonemus pallidus, p. 260). Mushroom mites are often preyed upon by long-legged mushroom mites, Linopodes spp. (family Penthaleidae), especially L....

Lycoriella auripila Winnertz A mushroom sciarid fly

This species is the main sciarid pest in mushroom houses. The larvae burrow into the sporophores and sometimes cause the death of the developing buttons mushroom size is also affected. As larvae move through the mushroom compost they leave behind a characteristic slime trail. Eggs are deposited mainly in the compost, although sometimes also on the developing mushrooms, either singly or in small groups. They hatch within a few days. Larvae develop rapidly and pass through four instars before pupating, each in a flimsy cocoon consisting of fragments of compost and strands of silk. There is a succession of generations, and development from egg to adult takes from 3 to 6 weeks, depending on temperature.

Edible Fungi And Recycling Of The Wastesresidues

Mushrooms are highly perishable and have short shelf life ranging from few hours to days depending upon the species and the storage environment. Weight loss, blackening, veil-opening, and microbial spoilage are the common undesirable postharvest changes besides many physiological and biochemical changes (Bano et al. 1997 Rai and Saxena 1989a Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms require utmost postharvest care like proper handling, packaging, precooling, cool-chain transport, and storage till consumed. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), controlled atmosphere packaging (CAP), and modified humidity packaging (MHP) of the button mushroom have been described by Anantheshwaran and Ghosh (1997). Individual Quick Frozen (IQF) mushrooms are gaining popularity with other frozen vegetables in the super markets. Postharvest technology of mushrooms has been dealt in detail by many authors (Bano et al. 1997 Lal Kaushal and Sharma 1995 Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms are delicate, contain 90 water,...

Auricularia spp Wood Ear Mushroom

The species of Auricularia, commonly known as wood ear mushroom, are morphologically and, above all, texturally quite distinct from other mushrooms. With typical ear like morphology with cartilaginous texture and gelatinous surface, these are liked as well as disliked at the same time by different people. This mushroom is very popular in China and Southeast Asia but does not seem to attract western consumers. It has been reported to possess many medicinal attributes treatment of piles, sore throat, anemia and hypocholesterolemic effect (Quimio et al. 1990 Royse 1997). Out of about 10 recognized species of Auricularia two main commercially cultivated species are A. auricula and A. polytricha, the former is thin and light coloured while the latter is the thicker, longer, hairy, and darker. A. fuscosuccinea is also produced on a limited scale. Thailand and Taiwan are the main producers of this mushroom. Like shiitake (L. edodes), Auricularia are also produced on natural logs as well as...

World Production Of Mushrooms

The rapid rate of development of mushroom production technology from a primitive cave culture in France to a hightech industry during the last three centuries is a success story which has kept pace with the ever-increasing demand for this commodity and there is every reason to be optimistic about its further growth in the years to come (Rai and Verma 1997). From a meager 2 million tonnes in 1986, the world mushroom production has registered a 3-fold increase in a decade and was about six million tonnes in 1997, and five mushrooms, namely A. bisporus, Pleurotus spp., V. volvacea, L. edodes and Auricularia spp., the so-called leaders, accounted for 82 per cent of the total mushroom production (Table 1). It is clear that the button mushroom (A. bisporus) is still the leader contributing 31.8 to the total mushroom production but its share that was 56.2 in 1986 has decreased over the years. China is the biggest producer of Lentinula, Pleurotus, Auricularia, Volvariella, Flammulina, and...

Mycophila barnesi Edwards A mushroom midge

Larvae of this widely distributed midge are orange and occur commonly in cultivated mushroom beds, often in their thousands. Each 'mother' larva reaches about 2 mm in length and produces up to 20 'daughter' larvae in just over a week. Unlike larvae of the mushroom cecid, Heteropeza pygmaea (p. 176), the gut contents are voided at intervals throughout larval development, and breakdown of mushrooms through bacterial action does not occur also, there is no clumping behaviour and no resting stage in the life-cycle, individuals dying if starved of food. Attacks by this species, which has a slower rate of development than either H. pygmaea or Mycophila speyeri (below), tend to be limited to the third and later flushes of mushrooms.

Nutritional And Medicinal Values Of Mushrooms

It is primarily the flavor and texture for which the mushrooms are devoured by the mankind, and scientific appreciation of their nutritional and medicinal attributes is a recent phenomenon. Mushrooms have, from nutrition point of view, a distinct place in human diet which otherwise consists of items either of plant or animal origin. Mushrooms are perhaps the only fungi deliberately and knowingly consumed by human beings, and they complement and supplement the human diet with various ingredients not encountered or deficient in food substances of plant and animal origin. Besides the attributes understood in the terms of conventional nutrition, unique chemical composition of mushrooms makes Nutritional value of mushrooms has been reviewed by many workers (Chang and Miles 1989 Crisan and Sands 1978 Rai 1995). Only salient features will be briefly but critically described here. It is a fact that there are wide variations in the nutritional values reported for the same species by different...

Conclusion On Mushroom Cultivation

Mushroom cultivation is perhaps the most important microbial technology, after the yeast fermentation, in the economic terms. It promises to supply food with good quality protein produced from worthless lignocellulosic wastes of varied origins. In future, newer mushrooms are likely to be added to diversify the portfolio of the cultivated mushrooms and the production of the presently consumed mushrooms will increase with the genetic improvement of the strains and the advancements in the cultivation technology. Modern biotechnological tools and computer aided environmental control will break the yield barriers. Share of the specialty mushrooms including the medicinal mushrooms will rise further and mushroom cultivation is likely to spread all over the world. Newer methods of culture preservation, spawn and substrate preparation for the mushrooms are being worked upon. Modern developments in packaging, storage, transport, and processing including the value-addition of food items will be...

Mushroom Production

Several of the white rot fungi that can utilize lignocellulose are edible mushrooms. They have been successfully cultivated at a commercial level worldwide using ligno-cellulosic wastes as the main substrate (Wood and Smith 1987). Agaricus bisporus, known as the button mushroom, L. edodes known as Shiitake, and P. ostreatus, known as the oyster mushroom are just three examples of this agricultural-biotechnological crop. Bioconversion of ligno-cellulosic residues through mushroom cultivation also offers the potential for converting these residues into protein-rich palatable food, reducing the environmental impact of the wastes.

Specialty Mushrooms

Specialty mushrooms is a term given to a group of cultivated mushrooms which are less common in a particular area or country, but the term has been used to practically encompass all mushrooms other than the common button mushroom (A. bisporus). In the United States, the term specialty mushrooms is used to cover all mushrooms other than the button mushroom, which accounted for 90 of total production of 346188 MT there in 1993-1994 (Sharma 1997). In Japan, however, the situation is reverse to that in the United States where 90 of total production was of the so-called specialty mushrooms and button mushroom contributed only 10 . Therefore, from the Japanese perspective button mushroom could be termed as specialty mushroom. Be that as it may, the term specialty mushrooms is now well established by usage to represent all mushrooms other than the button mushroom. Production and consumption of the specialty mushrooms are very popular in the East Asian countries namely China, Japan, Korea,...

Mushroom Flavors

Sugihara and Humfeld (1954) who found that mushroom flavor could be produced by Lepiota rhacodes when grown under submerged conditions. Gilbert (1960) Litchfield et al. (1963) and Le Duy et al. (1974) studied the production of mushroom flavor by Morchella crassipes. Lentinus edodes produced 1-octen-3-ol, 5'-amp, an intense mushroom flavor when the medium was supplemented with ethanol (Sugimori et al. 1971). Hamid et al. (1972) investigated the production of mushroom flavor from Trichoderma nudum under submerged conditions, while Van Eybergen and Scheffers (1972) reported its production in the mycelium of Boletus edulis. Dijkstra (1976), Pyssalo and Honkanen (1976), and Card and Avisse (1977) found that the fermentation conditions as well as media constituents play a vital role in the production yield. Mushroom flavors have also been obtained from A. oryzae (Scharpf et al. 1986), Caprinus micaceus, Merulins rufus, and Poria vaillantu (Schindler and Schmid 1982).

Formative Ideas and Understandings

My attempts at drawing were laughable, which may be one of the reasons I turned to science. In any case, the three of us were quite different. Rob would eventually become a highly regarded artist, Pat a professional cartographer, I an ecologist. But for a few years we learned together, sharing formative experiences along three separate paths that converged at interesting points. For example, I was fascinated by Native American uses for wild plants and was set on learning what plants were used for which purposes. This exploration is what led to our foraging for food. Rob and Pat looked at me with skepticism as I gathered my first handful of puffball mushrooms. These plump, doughy-looking fungi seemed a little too foreign at first. But after I diced them, added garlic, and sauteed them perfectly, they looked pretty much like store-bought button mushrooms. The boys relented, tasted, and were won over. We gathered plants and small animals and learned about them in the most intimate way,...

Fungal Biotechology In Food Production

No matter how anecdotal the evidence, even the ancient societies recognized the use of fungal technology, in relationship with their agriculture and food. Knowledge of fungal diversity and distinguishing beneficial fungi for the biotransformation of food ingredients, helped to sustain and extend our food source. In spite of the powerful toxic secondary metabolites of many fungi, humanity survived these fungi and through innovative use of the beneficial micro and macro fungi found particular culinary and other uses of the mushrooms (see this volume, chapter by Rai). Aspergillus nidulans niger oryzae Mucor hiemalus miehei pusillus Penicillium album camemberti caseicolum roquefortii Rhizopus arrhizus cohnii delemar niveus oligosporus oryzae Edible mushrooms Agaricus bisporus Agaricus campus Lentinus edodes Pholiota nameke Pleurotus ostreatus Volvariella volvacea

What is soil biological activity

Soil biological activity refers to the living aspects of the soil, which includes the large, small and minute life forms in the soil. These life forms include animals such as earthworms and springtails, fungi such as the hyphae of mushrooms and toadstools, actinomycetes and mycorrhizae, and bacteria such as rhizobia.

Pullimosina heteroneura Haliday

This common fly breeds in manure and may also occur in poor mushroom-house compost where bacterial decomposition is underway. Its pres ence in mushroom houses, therefore, is an indication of unsuitable growing conditions. Although the larvae are saprophytic and entirely harmless, the adult flies may inadvertently transfer harmful organisms to healthy mushroom beds. The small, black-bodied adults are often mistaken for scuttle flies (especially as they scurry over the compost surface in a phorid-like manner, see p. 177) but are readily distinguished by the presence of cross-veins in the wings, by other details of the wing venation and by their very short, swollen hind metatarsi.

Horse waste management systems

Management of a horse operation near urban areas must include methods to keep flies and odors to a minimum. Horses are housed in confinement in paddocks or they are on pasture. Horse paddocks or stalls receive liberal amounts of bedding therefore, most horse manure is handled as a solid. It should be removed from stalls daily if possible and can be land applied, stored in solid manure storage structures, or processed by composting. Some precautions should be taken if the manure is land applied to pastures because this can result in internal parasites spreading to other horses. The manure can be used in gardens, greenhouses, nurseries, and by mushroom growers.

HttpebookAueom secnd chance

In late fall we start getting nostalgic for the flowering world, so the last blossoming gentians get our full attention. We hike the dry-ridge prairies each year to find the downy, cobalt blue flowers, intertwined with prairie roses that strut their scarlet hips to entice passing birds. As we hike through oak and black maple forests that border the prairie, we often find edible mushrooms, picking such favorites as chicken of the woods, hen of the woods, and sulfur mushrooms. The occasional inky caps and giant puffballs are big finds, but they must be fresh to harvest. If overripe, they are full of fly larvae or burrowing beetles. We soak them for a few hours in brine, then slice and dehydrate them. By the following morning, the mushrooms are dry and ready to infuse hearty winter stews and soups with their glorious flavor.

Fungal and Plant Species Richness

Unlike AM fungi, the formation of EM involves a greater diversity of fungal species ( 5400 species), exhibiting varying degrees of host specificity (Molina et al. 1992). For example, the EM fungal genera, Hydnangium, is found only on Eucalyptus and Suillis and Rhizopogon are restricted to Pinaceae, while Amanita and Laccaria associate with most EM hosts (Molina et al. 1992). Further, EM fungal diversity can be high in areas where plant community diversity is low. Early studies by Trappe (1977) estimated 2000 species of EM associated with Douglas Fir alone. In the Jarrah forest of southwestern Australia dominated by Eucalyptus marginate and E. calophylla, 90 species of EM fungi were found (Hilton et al. 1989). Over 50 species of EM fungi were identified in a Quercus agrifolia stand near Temecula in southern California. These included truffle fungi in the genera Hydnotryposis, Hydnotrya, and Tuber, as well as epigeous mushrooms such as Amanita, Boletus, Cortinarius, Laccaria, and...

Order Collembola Springtails

Collembola Infestation

The so-called gunpowder-mites, which occasionally cause damage in mushroom beds, are actually springtails. They breed continuously under favourable conditions and vast numbers sometimes aggregate on the compost in mushroom houses. The insects will then cause significant damage by feeding on the fungal mycelium and thus retarding growth. They may also attack the sporopores, to form characteristically dry pits which lead to internal channels in the stipe and cap (cf. damage caused by mould mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, p. 270) the pests are especially destructive to button mushrooms and often cause them to split open. Adults (Fig. 178) are minute (1.0-1.5mm long), bluish-black, purplish or greenish-black, with a pale underside, short, 4-segmented antennae and a short, 2-segmented saltatory appendage.

Megaselia halterata Wood Worthing phorid

This fly is often a serious pest of cultivated mushrooms, although the larvae feed only on fungal mycelium and do not tunnel into the developing mushrooms (cf. Megaselia nigra, below). Minor attacks are of little or no significance but heavy infestations can cause considerable yield loss. The adult flies are sometimes a nuisance to pickers they may also inadvertently pick up spores of Verticillium fungicola on their bodies, and then spread them from infected to previously healthy mushroom beds. Adults occur during the summer and autumn, and are sometimes very numerous in mushroom houses, especially close to doors and lights. They often gather in considerable numbers and make characteristic jerky runs over the surface of walls, trays and boxes. In mushroom houses, most eggs are deposited in the casing material, close to the tips of the rapidly developing fungal hyphae, during the short period of mycelial growth. Under normal casing conditions, the eggs hatch in about 2 days and the...

Substrate Compost Preparation

Substrate preparation technique for the button mushroom has witnessed evolutionary changes over the years, from the long-method of composting to the current environment-friendly indoor composting. However, the intermediate short-method of composting, is still the most popular method all over the world. Based upon the observations of Lambert that productive compost came from the regions of the pile having temperature between 50-60 C and adequate supply of oxygen, Sinden and Hauser (1950) developed the so-called short-method of composting mainly because it took lesser time than the long method. The concept and process was indeed a revolution in the cultivation of button mushroom. The short method of composting mainly consists of two phases outdoor-composting for 10-12 days (Phase-I) followed by pasteurization and conditioning for 6-7 days inside specialized insulated structures, called tunnels. Based upon the temperature conditions maintained inside the tunnel, Phase-II can be divided...

Pygmephorus mesembrinae Canestrini P sellnicki Krczal Red pepper mites

Red pepper mites are frequently abundant in mushroom beds but are not regarded as harmful to crops, although their presence often causes concern. The mites breed within decomposing mushroom composts, where they feed on the weed mould Trichoderma Pygmephorus sellnicki is capable of surviving on a wider range of weed moulds than P. mesembrinae, including Humicola and Monilia. Female red pepper mites deposit large numbers of eggs, and these hatch into small 6-legged larvae which develop to adults through an active 8-legged nymphal and a quiescent resting stage the whole cycle is usually completed in a matter of days. Adults are wedge-shaped, 0.25 mm long and stout-legged the legs and body bear feathery setae. Populations increase extremely rapidly under suitable conditions and, soon after casing, the mites may swarm over the beds and developing sporophores in reddish-brown masses populations then decline rapidly. The mites do not cause damage to the sporophores, or reduce cropping, even...

Environmental Requirements for Composting

The rate of composting is believed to depend on a number of rate limiting steps, which include production and release of hydrolytic enzymes needed for the breakdown of substrates diffusion of solubilized substrate molecules, and oxygen transport and availability within the composting mass (Huang, 1980). Optimisation of the composting process depends on the management of a number of variables such as (a) nutrient balance an important component of which is the carbon nitrogen balance. A ratio of 25-30 1 is believed to be optimal, in addition to the presence in adequate amounts of all other macro- and micro- nutrients needed by the vast array of micro-organisms that take part in composting (Jimenez and Perez 1991) (b) particle size the optimum particle size in compost varies with the aeration rate employed, but sizes of 12-5 0mm are considered appropriate for most processes (Biddlestone and Gray, 1985) (c) moisture content levels of 50-70 are considered optimum (Inaba et al., 1996)....

Reclamation Procedures

Steps Become Agricultural Engineer

This technique is based on the idea of using some waste products to deal with the problems caused by others 1 . As a matter of fact, there are many waste products that are good media for plant growth, such as sewage sludge, mushroom compost, farmyard manure and pig slurry, domestic refuse, fuel ash, and mining and chemical wastes. These materials, notwithstanding their different origins, are similar in the sense of being non-toxic and water-and nutrient-retaining.

Maintenance and Preservation of Fungal Cultures

Pure culture of edible fungi is prepared either by multispore culture or tissue culture the former is suitable for obtaining fruiting cultures of A. bisporus but is not a suitable technique for heterothallic species. Tissue cultures derived from the stipe or pileus of the mushrooms, both homothallic as well as heterothallic species, can be used to raise fruiting cultures. For multispore culture, a healthy and mature fruitbody of the mushroom is first washed in sterile water, surface-sterilized with alcohol, and is placed on a spiral wire loop kept in sterile petriplate covered with a beaker. Mushroom sheds spores on petriplates from which a loopful of spores is transferred on suitable growth medium, generally malt extract agar in case of A. bisporus. Spores after germination give rise to multispore culture. In case of tissue culture, a piece from a suitable place of fruitbody is cut and after surface-sterilization, the piece is transferred onto sterile growth medium slants. Different...

Woodland Ecosystems As A Global Resource

The biological diversity contained within woodland ecosystems may be exploited for practical and aesthetic gain. Traditional methods of exploitation have involved collection or cultivation of fungi for food, e.g., truffle fungi, Lentinula edodes (Shii-take), and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) as well as many other edible woodland fungi. Wood colonized by certain fungal species may be employed to generate valuable timber products. For example, Brown oak veneer timber (pourriture rouge dur) is produced by Fistulina hepatica colonizing heartwood, Chlorosplenium aeruginascens is used in the commercial production of Tunbridge ware, and wood containing interaction zone lines is turned to produce decorative artifacts. Novel methods of exploitation may involve the application of fungal decay systems to convert a range of renewable lignocellulosics into protein, fermentable sugars, and other products, or to bioremediate certain recalcitrant pollutants. Appreciation and understanding of...

Bradysia paupera Toumikoski

This species is often common in mushroom houses, and the adults are sometimes a nuisance to pickers. The larvae feed in the casing. Although implicated in the spread of diseases, they do not damage the mushrooms directly (cf. mushroom sciard fly, Lycoriella auripila, p. 168). Adults are blackish (females have a paler abdomen), with slightly smoky wings (wing length 3.0-4.5 mm) and yellow halteres.

Liriomyza bryoniae Kaltenbach larva Tomato leaf miner

Adult mainly pale yellow head, thorax and abdomen partly shiny black dorsally scutellum bright yellow antennae mainly yellow legs blackish with yellow femora wings 1.8-2.1 mm long, the costal vein extending to vein M1+2 (see Fig. 260a). Egg 0.25 x 0.15 mm, white. Larva up to 3 mm long, yellowish-white mouth-hooks with several prominent teeth posterior spiracles mushroom-like, each with an arc of 7-12 pores. Puparium 2mm long, brownish-yellow.

Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank Mould mite

This small (0.3-0.5mm long), translucent, relatively slender-bodied mite is often reported infesting mouldy plant material, including laboratory plant tissue cultures on agar plates. The mites, along with other species of Tyrophagus (and certain related genera e.g. Caloglyphus) also occur in mushroom beds. They often form pits in the mushroom stipes and caps, and may also hollow-out the tissue within the developing buttons damaged areas usually become further broken down and moist, following associated bacterial decomposition (cf. pits formed by gunpowder-mites, Hypogastrura spp., p. 87).

Fungal Diversity Environmental Change And Conservation

Despite these limitations evidence accrues, particularly from Europe and more recently the United States, suggesting that fungal biodiversity is in decline. The likely causes of decline are due to habitat loss and or pollution. Harvesting of wild edible mushrooms is believed to have little detrimental effect on fungi, except where collection has involved damaging or exhausting the mycelium, or trampling or raking the soil (Arnolds 1995). Nevertheless, the environmental impact of large-scale commercial harvesting remains a contentious issue. Fungal habitat may be lost, with implicit reduction of fungal species diversity, either by deforestation, or because of commercial forestry management practices, such as the conversion to less-mixed or monoculture plantations, stand felling of a particular age, and the removal of course woody debris (Fridman and Walheim 2000 H0iland and Bendiksen 1996 Lindblad 1998 Norden and Paltto 2001 Ohlson et al. 1997 Straatsma et al. 2001). Red-List...

Fermentation Technology and Downstream Processing

Yeasts and filamentous fungi were traditionally employed in the production of alcoholic beverages and fermented foods over centuries (Hui and Khachatourians 1995 Rajak 2000). Yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces) have been used worldwide for brewing and baking for thousands of years. Likewise, filamentous fungi have been traditionally used for preparing mold-ripened cheeses (mainly Penicillium spp.) in Europe and soybean-based fermented foods (mainly Aspergillus spp.) in the Orient. On the other hand, edible mushrooms (such as Agaricus) have been used worldwide for direct consumption since times immemorial (Hudler 1998 Pointing and Hyde 2001 Rajak 2000 Singh and Aneja 1999). With passing time, these fermentation techniques were scaled up and made more efficient with respect to engineering theories and practices. Main outcomes of the evolution of food processing and production activities, have been the introduction of interdisciplinary natural and engineering concepts, for example, better...

The Analysis of Composts

Waste, spent mushroom compost, a bracken- or seaweed-based compost, agricultural and food processing wastes etc., which might be put to agricultural use. Composts are often very heterogeneous, which makes it difficult to prepare a sufficiently homogeneous sample. The high humus content makes them similar to peat soils, where organic matter can exceed 95 , which can affect not only the analytical method, but also the interpretation of the results in making fertilizer recommendations.

Growing Food in Communities

Community gardens and urban gardening, in an experimental phase now, but growing with farmers' markets in many cities, will continue to increase. Agricultural bioshelters, which would make it possible to garden year round, could be built in vacant lots, or ringing parks. In the form of floating barges they could line harbors and sell their produce of fish, vegetables, flowers, and herbs. Old warehouses and unused factories could be converted into ecologically inspired agricultural enterprises floor by floor where fish, poultry, mushrooms, greens, vegetables, and flowers could be grown in linked, integrated cycles. Roof tops offer an unused resource for the application of bioshelter concepts or market gardens all year. Economist Paul Hawken has said that there are two fast tracks these days energy and food. In such a context city farming has potential in the fast track. General Foods has stated that such ideas are part of the foundation for their future planning and expect to...

Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome

Organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) describes a self-limiting noninfectious, febrile illness accompanied by malaise, chills, myalgia, nonproductive cough, dyspnea, headache, and nausea, which occurs approximately 4 to 12 hours after heavy exposure to organic dust with a high attack rate. Prior sensitiza-tion is not required as in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Organic dust toxic syndrome is also known as silo-filler's disease, grain fever, precipitin-negative farmer's lung, toxic alveolitis, and pulmonary mycotoxicosis. Organic dust toxic syndrome is highly prevalent in swine confinement operations, with a prevalence of approximately 30 to 35 . However, ODTS has also been observed after unloading silos, removing grain from storage bins (especially with grain sorghum), and on mushroom farms. Estimates indicate that up to one third of farmers will experience an episode of ODTS at some time in their work lives. Other surveys indicate an incidence of 6 to 36 in farmers and agricultural...


In addition to simple Mendelian genetics (Bonde et al. 1988 Burdon et al. 1986 Hellman and Christ 1991 Shattock et al. 1986a Spielman et al. 1990) and linkage analysis (May and Royse 1982b), isozymes can be used to distinguish hybrid from nonhybrid progeny in both intra- (May and Royse 1982a Shattock et al. 1986b) and inter-specific crosses (Goodwin and Fry 1994), and to infer the ploidy level of vegetative hyphae (Goodwin et al. 1994 Shattock et al. 1986b). Dimeric enzymes are ideal for this kind of analysis (Figure 3). Isozymes also can be used to analyze parasexual genetics in fungi. In addition to laboratory genetics, isozyme analysis implicated somatic hybridization as the probable origin of a new forma specialis of cereal rust in Australia (Burdon et al. 1981) and identified naturally occurring hybrids among field isolates of Phytophthora species (Man in't Veld et al. 1998). Estimates of relatedness based on isozyme analysis among strains of Agaricus brunnescens were used to aid...

The Invading Humans

As concerned as I am about invasive plants and animals, their combined impact doesn't hold a candle to the damage and disruption of the single most invasive species, Homo sapiens. Human expansion has affected the entire global ecosystem. Even in our remote rural neighborhood, its progression is relentless. Large stretches of natural habitat are decimated in mere hours to make way for the new homes that sprout like poisonous mushrooms across the woodlands each year as families relocate to our area, where the houses are cheaper and surrounded by natural beauty.

Complex Flavors

Sharpell (1985) has discussed in detail some complex mixtures of flavors and fragrances, which are associated with natural products. Microbial processes appear to be very promising for the production of complex dairy and mushroom like flavors. Screening of different organisms made it possible

Taming the Old House

There are big gray mushrooms sprouting in the shower, Steve, Noah said. It's disgusting. Everyone was excited about this improvement in our lives, but to me it seemed like an extravagant change. I foresaw ten months of construction that would disrupt everything and leave us exposed to the record-cold winter that was predicted. And how were we going to pay for all of this I would never have contemplated any of it were Susan and Noah not living there. But there I was with my new family demanding a shower stall that didn't grow mushrooms, a usable kitchen, and a way to wash clothes at home instead of driving to the laundromat in town. I soon bowed to their wishes for these improvements. What else could I do But I still wasn't convinced.

Filamentous Fungi

The development of basidiomycetous fungi (mushrooms) in submerged culture is interesting because of their probable suitability as cheap substitutes for mushroom fruiting bodies in certain kinds of food. Falanghe (1962) investigated the suitability of stillage for growing mushroom mycelia as a source of protein and fat. Among ten strains cultivated in submerged conditions, Agaricus campestris and Boletus indecisus were chosen as the two most suitable. A. campestris was more effective in producing mycelial protein content. B. indecisus, however, exhibited a greater ability for mycelial production. The dried mycelia had a pleasant slight flavor and they seemed to have adequate characteristics for improving foods their growth in pellet form enabled easy separation from the medium. In apple distillery slop, Phanerochaete chrysosporium grew successfully it reduced the amount of fiber and improved protein content in the biomass (Friedrich et al. 1986). Coriolus versicolor and P....

Seres Aschiza

Small, black or brownish-black, hump-backed flies with a characteristic wing venation, just the anterior veins being prominent and meeting the costa well before the wing tip (Fig. 96). Larvae are often associated with decaying organic matter, some feeding on fungi, including cultivated mushrooms. EXAMPLE Megaselia spp. (mushroom scuttle flies).

Spawn Production

The term spawn is used for vegetative growth of mushroom mycelium on a suitable medium, to be used as inoculum or seed for the substrate in mushroom cultivation. Right kind and quality of spawn is very important in the cultivation of edible fungi. The technique of spawn preparation witnessed many developments before Sinden developed the currently used grain spawn on hard winter rye grain after addition of calcium salts and patented the process in 1932 and 1937. However, wheat grain is now most commonly used as the basal medium for spawn production. Kumar (1995) has described other substrates used for spawn. Table 3 Essential amino acids ( crude protein) in edible mushrooms Table 3 Essential amino acids ( crude protein) in edible mushrooms Figure 1 Major steps in mushroom production. Figure 1 Major steps in mushroom production. Often, failures to get satisfactory harvest are traced to spawn. If the spawn has not been made from a genetically suitable fruiting culture, or is too old and...


Also known as farmer's lung and extrinsic allergic alveolitis , hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by exposures to specific fungi found in moldy hay, straw, and feed. In addition to moldy feed, exposure to moldy compost, wood chips, sugar cane (bagasse), composting in mushroom growing, and turkey farming can lead to HP. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is

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