Router Planes

Coming in various sizes, the router plane is designed specifically to smooth the bottom of channels and grooves, such as stopped housings and reccssess for locks and hinges. To use a router plane, first define the width of the channel with saw cuts and set the foot-like cranked cutter to make the shallowest possible cut. Next, make decisions as to whether or not you want to have the mouth open or closed and set the depth gauge. Finally, take the tool in both hands and work with an even, pushing...

Cutting Spurs

Once the lead screw starts to drag the bit into the wood, the next part of the head to come into contact is the cutting spur or fluke. Auger bit types have all manner of spur configurations, bur the function of the spur remains the same to define and score the circumference of the hole. above The lead screw drags the body of the bit into the wood above The lead screw drags the body of the bit into the wood

Strength And Qualities Of Wood

Woodworkers must take a natural material and cut and shape it to best effect. To this end, the woodworker must appreciate that woodworking is an equal partnership, a coming together of tools, techniques and wood. Its no good trying to work wood with a dull tool, or to plane against the grain, or to run a chisel into end grain or in any way bully the wood into shape. The success of each and every procedure and technique hinges on the woodworker's understanding of how the inherent natural...

Introduction

Wood is a uniquely beautiful material - the stuff that dreams are made of. Of all the gifts of nature, trees are the most wondrous. The air we breathy our homes, ourfurniture, our medicines, just about everything about us, is made possible by trees. Sometimes when Vm alone in my workshop, I run my hands over a piece of wood - one of my carvings, or maybe a surface that has jus been planed, or perhaps one of those pieces ofplum that I've been saving for I don't know what. It's an incredible...

The Coping

Right Traditional wooden-handle coping saw. The coping saw is designed for quick right curves in wood up to about' .- inch thick. If you want to cut out an intricate shape or mavbe an enclosed window then this is the tool for the job. The thin flexible blades can be replaced quickly, simply by unscrewing the handle to release the tension. The whole idea is that you use the blades until they become dull or slack and then throw them away. If you plan to make small fancy items like toys, then this...

Panel Raising Plane

Though a panel-raising plane is not strictly a molding plane, it is very often used in conjunction with molding planes and, of course, it is much the same in structure. A raised panel is an area in high relief- like a plateau - surrounded by a wide lowered area - like a wide rabbet. The panel-raising plane is the tool that is used to create the step. These planes have an adjustable depth stop, a fixed or adjustable fence and a skewed cutting iron. If the plane is designed to cut a sloping step...

The Hand Vise

Though the all-metal hand vise - also called a drill press vise or a machinist s vise - is bv rights a metal working tool, many woodworkers consider them a usehil addition to their woodshop. The hand vise has a heavy metal base plate, a pair of grooved and notched jaws that arc set in a track and a handscrcw. The workpiece is either set horizontally or vertically in the jaws, ind then the screw is tightened. The hand vise is an essential tool tor drilling large-diameter holes on the bench drill...

Woodturners Center Finder

This little tool is designed to find the center of a round blank. Simply set the tool on the end of the blank and draw a line, turn the tool slightly and draw another line and so on three or four times. The intersection of the lines pinpoints the center. If you enjoy woodturning, then this is a handv tool. left In use. the step between the blade and the stock ensures accurate marking. left The miter trimmer is the perfect tool for cutting crisp, smooth-faced miters. left The miter trimmer is...

Auger Twist Bits

A80ve Jennings pattern screw bit (top). Center pattern screw bit (middle) and Solid-center bit (bottom) can all be used in a traditional brace. a80ve Jennings pattern screw bit (top). Center pattern screw bit (middle) and Solid-center bit (bottom) can all be used in a traditional brace. Known variously as an auger screw hit, an auger twist bit, a twist auger bit, a spiral auger bit and one or two other names besides, the auger bit is a really good option for boring deep holes. The lead screw...

Wheel Brace

The wheel brace, also known as the hand drill and the single-pinion drill, is perhaps the most familiar of all the drill types - the one that gets to be most used and abused. It is sometimes called an egg-beater drill because of its resemblance to the common vitchcn tool. In form, it usually has two wooden handles, a single pinion, a large open geared wheel and a three-jaw hand-tight chuck. I bis is the perfect tool for small holes up to about Vw. inch. To install the bit, the chuck is opened...

The Bench Rabbet Plane

The first thing to get sorted is the name. Rabbet is the ancient term that is dominant in America and some parts ofthe UK, while rebate is the term that is currently coming into more favor in Britain. A bench rabbet plane is designed specifically to cut a step or rabbet along the edge of a board. The feature that enables it to do what it docs is the open throat, allowing the cutter iron to extend to the outside face or cheeks of the plane body. This feature allows the plane to make a...

Combination Square

* '-' * < ****' ' Square head irxorporatmg a spirit k el and scriber Square head irxorporatmg a spirit k el and scriber above The square head is used to mark right angles and miters. above The square head is used to mark right angles and miters. The all-metal combination square with its rule and three measuring heads is a beautiful rhrn'-in-one fool. Its great tor all manner of marking and layout tasks. The center head allows you to establish the center point of round sections such as dowels...

Laying out a Hexagon

Dividers are used primarily for reading measurements off a rule, for transferring measurements and for scribing out circles and arcs. If you are thinking of getting a pair of* dividers, get the type that have a screw-thread adjustment and a locking nut. Set the legs or points of the dividers to the desired radius measurement. Spike the dividers down on the workpiece and scribe out the circle. 3 Spike the dividers down on the scribed circle, then step the radius off around the circumference to...

B

Using 44-5 basswood 12, 141 batten and wedge 33 bead plane 90 bead saw 47 beading planes 91 beading tool 111 beech 137 bench drill press 97 bench holdfast 35 bench hook, using back saw with 45 bench plane 76 adjusting 77 using 77 bench rabbet plane 84 bench stops dogs 32 - 3 bending 16 bevel-gauge (T-bevel) 23 beveled edge chisels 58 - 9 birch 135 bits auger twist 98-9 brad point 103 expanding 104. 133 hollow-taper 104 reamer 104 rimmer 104 ri rider 104 spoon 105 twist 102-3 block plane 82...

Drawing a Hexagon

Let s say you want to draw a hexagon that fits in a 24-inch-diameter circle, perhaps for a tabic top. First fix the trammel points - the steel point and the pencil - to a radius of 12 inches. Then scribe the circle. Next, with the points still fixed to the same radius, spike the steel point on the circumference of the circle and travel round striking off arcs. You should finish up with six stcp-offs. Lastly, use a pencil and straightedge to link neighboring intersections. above Spike one...

Jointing a Pair of Boards

To joint a pair of boards First set the boards down on the bench and decide how you want them to be arranged. Set the mating edges together and pencil mark the best face. Next, fold the two boards back-to-back so that the best faces arc looking outwards like the cover of a book and so that the mating edges arc together and uppermost, then secure them in the vise. Now run the jointer along the paired boards and plane the edges square and true. Finally, open out the book so that the planed edges...

Milling Wood

Right Four different methods of quartering timber. The size, shape and the grain pattern of the wood that the woodworker gets to use in his workshop is, to a great extent, determined by the way the tree is sliced up or milled. There are many traditional ways of milling lumber The log can he plain sawn to make a stack of planks, or it can be cut radially into quarters, and so on. Sometimes a single large-diameter log is first quartered, and then each quarter is sawn in a different way. The...

The Edge Trimmer Plane

LEfT The edge trimmer plane is used for making controlled cuts on the edge of boards to ensure that the edge is at right angles to the face. The classic all-metal edge trimmer plane is the perfect follow-up tool to be used after the jointer plane. The board is set flat-down on the bench so that the edge to be worked is overhanging the top. The plane is set down on the board so that the vertical part of the sole is bearing hard up against the edge to be worked and then the stroke is made. As...

Woodcarving Gouges

Above Shallow sweep front bent gouge above Shallow sweep front bent gouge The straight gouge is like a straight firmer chisel except that the gouge blade is hollowed in cross section along its length, while the chisel is flat. All gouges are designed to make a curved cut. Put another way, if you set the cutting edge of a chisel down on the wood and give it a tap, it makes a straight, dash-shaped cut, whereas if you repeat the procedure with a gouge, you get a curvcd cut like a C or WU. When...

Shaping A Chair

First, make sure that the blade is razor sharp. Spend some time adjusting the setting until the blade edge is parallel with the body of the stock or the throat. With the workpiecc secured in the vise so that the edge to be worked is uppermost, take the spokeshave firmlv in both hands, and brace your thumbs in the little depressions or curves in the frame at each side of the blade. Stand to one end of the workpiecc so that the tool bridges the wood, and then set the tool down on the wood and...

The Compass Plane

0*-p e< e sole nude from spring steel The compass plane - also known variously as the circular plane and the wheelwright's plane - is designed to plane concave and convex curves. Traditionally, the compass plane was made of wood, with separate concave and convex planes in a great range of sizes. So for example, a ninctccnth-ccntury furniture maker producing round-top tables or the carpenter making bow windows and curve-top doors would have had whole sets of compass planes - one plane for each...

Wany Edge

An edge of plank that shows Kirk is soft and generally unusable. Be mindful that when you buy board widths that show bark on a wany edge, the bark will need to be cut away, resulting in narrower boards. Usually the result of rushed seasoning and consequent rapid shrinking, star-cheek wood is best avoided if for no other reason than the end that shows the checking has to be sawn off and wasted. A& Ovfc Movement in planks of wood, from left to right springing, bowing, winding and cupping.

The Threeinone Shoulder Plane

The 3-in-l, sometimes also called a chisel bulJnose, is a beautiful little plane of the shoulder plane type. It is a cross between a shoulder, a bullnose and a chisel plane. With open checks - the same as the rabbet plane and the bullnose - it is special in that bits and parts can be removed and reset so that it can be used to perform various specific tasks. Certainly, there is no doubt that it takes some fiddling to set up and adjust this plane, with its ingenious interchange of screws and...

Steel

Hii-bouomtd so (lamp wstl sit on bench without support Hii-bouomtd so (lamp wstl sit on bench without support Although steel bar clamps come in all shapes and sizes, they arc all similar in structure. There is usually a long round or rectangular section bar, a fixed screw head and clamp at one end of the bar, a fixed stop-pin at the other end and a sliding tail stop or jaw in between. In use, the head clamp is unscrcwcd, the workpiece is set in place, the tail stop slides up to the workpiece...

Compass Plane Technique

Before using a compass plane, first rough-out the profile with a how saw. Then secure the workpiece curve-sidc-up in the jaws of the vise. Take the plane and start by winding the cutter back out of harms way. Set the plane down on or in the curve and adjust the large screw until the sole of the plane achieves a comfortable mating fit on the surface to be worked. When working concave curves, some woodworkers prefer to have the adjustment set slightly acute so that the sole is fractionally...

Calipers

Precision calipers are needed for reliable laving out and for accurate measuring. There are three main types outside calipers, which are used to measure the diameter of solid objects the inside calipers that arc used to measure the diameters inside holes and the double-sided calipers that are used by woodturners to pinch the wall thickness of a bowl and to transfer measurements from one rip to the other. above External bow above External firm left To measure the outside diameter, hook the arms...

Renovating Woodcarving Gouges

While a quick flick through a current tool catalog will show you that woodcarving gouges arc very expensive, a visit to the average flea market will show you that gouges can be had for pennies. Now, the second-hand gouge might well be in a mess, but no matter, it can be brought back to life. Start by wiping the blade with beeswax polish and rubbing it down with the finest grade wire wool. Do both the inside and outside curves. Square the end of the blade off on an oilstone - not too much, just...

The Workbench And Vise

With a tail vise and a vise screw - a bench designed for home woodworking. with a tail vise and a vise screw - a bench designed for home woodworking. The workbench is the focal point of the workshop. The bench is where it all happens the measuring, the planing, the joinery and just about all the other activities. And of course, each and every woodworker has his or her own views as to the perfect bench. Some prefer a small, neat bench with a tool well running down the center. Others like a huge...

Cutting a Lap End Joint

I Having marked out the lines that go to make up the joint, set the wood in the vise at an angle of about 45 degrees and saw down to the shoulder mark. Turn the workpiece around in the vise and repeat the procedure for the other side of the joint. 2 When you have run a 45-degree angle kerf down to the shoulder line on both sides of the joint, then reposition the workpiece so that it is upright in the vise, and complete the cut. 3 Finally butt the workpiece hard up against a bench stop and make...

The Nailer Plane

The nailer plane very nicely solves the problem of how to use nails without the heads and holes showing. The traditional solution is to use a chisel to pare up a shaving, 10 locate the nail or pin in the resultant recess and then to glue the little curl of wood back in place. A simple enough technique you might think, but what often happens is that the chisci slips or the shaving gets lost. The invisible nailer - more or less a copy of the old gauge chisci tool - solves the whole problem by...

Adjusting the Depth of

With the irons in place and set square to the mouth, slide the lever cap on its screw and secure the whole works with the cap lock. It needs to be tight, bur not so tight that you can't make adjustments with the lateral lever and the depth wheel. The depth of cut is adjusted simply by turning the large brass wheel - clockwise for a deeper, heavier cut, and counter-clockwise for a shallow, skimming cut. above Adjust the depth of the cut by advancing or retracting the blade.

Jigs

A jig is a simple device designed to hold and position a component while it is being worked. A jig also can be a device used to facilitate a procedure that needs to be repeated The whole idea of a jig is that it speeds up work by allowing you to swiftly grip and position the workpiecc while you perform a repetitious task. a80ve Chair leg jig. Sec the leg in the jig. press them together so that the nail points mark the position of the stretcher holes. a80ve Chair leg jig. Sec the leg in the jig....

Maintaining and Sharpening a Twist Auger

The twist -auger bit is easy to use, lasts a lifetime and is altogether great for boring deep holes, but only if it has been well maintained and sharpened. Just like any other cutting tool, the twist auger bit needs to be kept in good order. Its no good dropping your bits all jumbled in a box and allowing them to become rusty and dull -edged and then expecting them to do a good job - they won't Let's say you have inherited some auger bits and they need some reconditioning. The following...

Crooked Knife

The crooked or hooked knife, as used traditionally by the Northwest Coast Native Americans, is the choice tool for carving and whittling hollows in bowls and dishes. It is a long hook-bladed knife with a curved handle. It is gripped like a dagger so that the thumb is looking towards the end of the handle and then it is rocked and levered by the action of the thumb, so that it removes waste with a scooping and hooking action. The sheath or hunting knife with its long-single-edged blade, is in...

Sharpening Saws

C aw sharpening is always done in three sequential stages jointing, fitting and setting. I Jointing ensures that the teeth are the same height. Sandwich the saw between two pieces of wood held in the vise, then use a flat file to cut all the teeth down to the same level. The jointing procedure usually takes no more than a few strokes of the file. 2 Kitting makes sure that all teeth are at the correct angle. Use a triangular-section, 60-dcgrce file to cut the leading edge of each tooth to the...

Overhand Ripping on the Bench

Overhand ripping is a technique that traditional woodworkers claim is easy on the back. The wood is first clamped flat-sidc-down to the bench so that the end to be cut is looking towards you. A few low-angle starter cuts arc made with the toe of the saw pointing away, the saw is reversed so that the teeth arc pointing away from your body, and then both hands are clenched around the handle to supply the thrust. above Ripping in a vise - let the weight of the saw do the work. a80ve Overhand...

Smoothing

Certainly power thicknessers are truly wonderful for all manner of tasks, but only the biggest industrial models can handle smoothing wide glued-up panels like table tops. If you want to save money by gluing up narrow sections and then smoothing -rather than buying expensive wide boards -or you simplv want to master an age-old technique, then the following project will show you how. I Spend time tuning and setting up the plane. Make sure that the cutting edge of the blade is parallel to the...

Stilson Pattern Wrench

A good quality adjustable wrench is the perfect tool for the woodworker who needs to deal with the occasional large nut and bolt, and yet doesn't want to go to the expense of purchasing a whole set ol large-size open-ended wrenches. For example, a large wrench is needed on older style lathes to grip the drive shaft when the four-jaw chuck is unscrewed. And then again, it is Nail extractors come in many shapes and sizes - some with wooden handles that look a bit like a screwdriver, and others...

Cutting a Panel with a Skewed

J Many traditional woodworkers favor the use of a skewed panel saw. The term skewed refers to the buck edge of the blade being dipped or curved along its length. The combined characteristics of a 7 point cut and a skewed back add up to an exceptionally easy-to-maneuver tool. Generally, a skewed panel saw is lighter in weight than a straight-back. J The skewed feature of the panel saw reduces the stiffness of the blade so that it can be used to cut relatively full curves. The wood is supported...

Jointing Mallet

Handle tapered to wedge-lit into the head mortise a& Ove A traditional mallet for general joinery work. Though there are many techniques for cutting a mortise, the one constant i> that you stay away from the ends of the mortise until the final stage, at which time you use paring cuts to clean up the damage caused by the levering action. Remember, most beginners make the mistake of cutting the mortise too large.

Cleaning and Lapping a Metal Plane

You have purchased a second-hand plane, taken it apart and checked the frog, the cutting iron and all the moving parts, and they all look fine. The only thing is, the sole and sides are scratched and scruffy. I Icrc's what you do Disassemble the plane, unscrew the wooden knob and the tote or handle so that you are left with the cast body. Clean off the resin and sawdust with mineral spirits. If it is slightly rusty or maybe paint-splattered, dip a wad of fine grade steel wool in some light oil...

Cornering Tool

T F The cornering tool is designed to cut a fixed radius on the arris of the wood. The cornering tool is designed to shave the arris down to a radius section. In function, it is very much like a small hollow plane, or you might say a molding plane. Made offlat steel and about 6 inches long and ' . inch wide, there arc several sizes, each designed to cut a specific radius - 'V inch,' inch, ' > inch and ' inch. The tool is laid on the arris of the wood -meaning on the sharp corner - and then it...

Expanding Bits

Of all the old tools that can be found in junk shops and flea markets, the best bargain-buys of all time have surely got to be expanding bits. For example, while a new 3-inch expanding bit is one of the most expensive items in the hand tool catalog, old expanding bits of the same size can easily be had for a handful of loose change. Thar said, just make sure when you arc checking over second-hand expanding bits that the lead screw, the cutting spur and lip, and the sliding track arc intact....

Ogee Plane

The ogee molding, sometimes called a Grecian or Greek ogee, was a very popular type of decoration in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. In form it is much the same as a bead, but the convex and concave profiles run together to make a flat S shape. There were many ogee forms. The deep grooves cut by these planes were called quirks, and the best quality planes have the quirk-cutting part of the sole made from an inset slip of boxwood. above A matching pair of hollow and round...

Shearing

This technique is perfect for planing tough end-grain wood. The plane is held firmly in one hand so that you can put all the power of your shoulder behind the stroke. Then you run the plane with a sideways sliding or shearing cut. If the cutter is well honed and you catch the grain right, you will achieve a silky smooth surface that won't need sanding. above Low-angle block plane for use on laminates and end grain. above Cross-section showing he bevel and mouth. I Set the workpiece in the vise...

The Compound Miter

Known variously as a compound miter saw, a compound miter box, a saw miter-box and an adjustable miter box, this is the best tool for woodworkers who are involved in cutting miters. It is perfect for making picture frames and for cutting moldings for panel, door and window surrounds. In essence, it is simply a miter box with a built-in saw or at least a track for a saw. There arc any number of slightly different designs, but with most the procedure is the same. The workpicce is set against a...

The Carvers Bench Screw

The carvers bench screw, also known simply as a carver's screw, is designed for clamping bulky lumps or blocks of wood to the bench.To use the traditional iron bench screw, first a pilot hole is drilled into the underside of the workpiccc. The screw is then screwed into the hole until it is good and tight. Next the screw is passed down through a hole in the bench. Finally, the large wing nut is threaded onto the screw and tightened up until the whole works is held secure. With the traditional...

Jack Knife

If you are one ot those woodworkers who is always on the lookout for drift wood, special sticks in the hedgerow, little sticks or crutches from the mountains and woods, then you may be looking for a good traditional fold-up pocket knife, a knife that can be used for a wide range of tasks. This is the one. of the blade is struck with a hammer. The Sloyd Knife 4 Butt the business end of the slice hard up against the bench hook stop and use the sharpened knife of your choice to cut tlic bevel. 5...

Cutting Out A Chair Seat

I Twist the toggle-stick to tension the bow saw blade. Continue until the blade pint . 2 1 Iold the saw upright so that it is at right angles to the face of the wood. Run a starter cut straight in towards the drawn line. 3 1 Iold and maneuver the saw with both hands, all the while bracing your body against the workpiccc and turning the frame of the saw around so that it is out to the waste side of the drawn line. 4 Since the drawn line necessarily runs both with and across the grain, be ready...

Good Finish

F you ask a hundred woodworkers to define the term good finish, you will get a hundred different definitions. And then if you ask the furniture-buying public to define good finish, you will likely get even more definitions. Some may have to do with such notions and terms as smoothness, gloss and French polish perfection. It doesn't help too much either to l< x)k to the past for guidance, because whims and fashions then and now tend to be so contrary. For example, if you look at early American...

Reamers Rimmers Rinders And Hollowtaper Bits

Reamer, rimmer, rinder and hollow-taper bits arc all used with a brace or at least alongside a brace to clean out, deburr, enlarge or reshape a hole that has already been bored. In many ways, a reamer might best be considered as a long-nosed countersink. The various types are each designed for a specific task. For example, in guitar and violin making when you need small tapered holes for friction pegs, and in Windsor chair making when you need tapered holes for the chair legs, the best approach...

Combination And Multi Planes

Stanley Multiplane

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, there was a huge push to develop multipurpose iron planes. Remember, that at that time, the skilled woodworker had to have all manner of dedicated single-task wooden planes - a set of grooving planes, a set of hollows and rounds, and so on - for all the many grooving and shaping tasks. Manufacturers came up with the brilliant idea of making one plane that could do it all. Through an evolutionary process they developed several do-it-all planes that came...

Swan Neck Mortise Chisel

With a thick, socketed blade, a hooked swan neck and a wooden handle, this chisel is designed for chopping lock mortises in the edge of heavy security doors, cutting a deep hole into which the lin k is fitted. The swan neck is designed to cut and scoop out the end grain of the cross rail tenon. Workjxece clamped to nop w d splitting Workjxece clamped to nop w d splitting above Always make sure that the workpiece is well secured. above Always make sure that the workpiece is well secured.

The Drawerlock Chisel

Left The drawer-lock chisel in action. The drawer-lock chisel is specifically designed to cut lock recesses in drawer fronts where the drawer is so shallow that the length of a regular chisel would bump into the back of the drawer. The cranked shape of the chisel enables the user to chop in the recess by tapping the back of the chisci with a hammer. It may not be a very exciting little tool, but it gets the job done. above Traditional drawer-lock chisel with ends 90 degrees to the handle, with...