Sources Of Drummy Threshers

Union Tractor Drummy Thresher

This is a very simple machine, particularly suitable for areas where farmers are being introduced for the first time to mechanical threshing. The threshing cylinder is the same as that on a complete thresher-winnower, but the threshed material falls directly onto the ground. A fan blows most of the chaff away from the grain, but some hand winnowing is still necessary.

Two sizes of threshers are available. The 75 centimeter size uses a 5 h.p. motor to produce 150 kilograms per hour and the 90 centimeter size uses a 10 h.p. motor for 250 kilograms per hour.

Union Tractor also has a full range of

Hand Crank Grain Thresher
Union Tractor Drummy Thresher for the paddy. Union Tractor Workshop
Union Tractor Wheat Thresher. Union Tractor Workshop

larger threshers and winnowers available, as well as the Pusa-40 Spike-Tooth Thresher, designed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, and the 4T-90 wheat thresher.

Union Tractor Workshop is interested in establishing manufacturing facilities in other countries. Interested parties should contact Mr. Jagdish Chander.

Union Tractor Workshop

8-B Phase 11, Mayapuri Industrial Area

New Delhi 110 027, India

Power Threshers

U.P. State Agro Industrial Corp., Ltd, Agricultural Workshop, Talkatora Road Lucknow, U.P. India

Allied Drummy Thresher

Drum width on these units comes in five sizes ranging from Zy4 to Si/2 feet, for an output of anywhere from 100 to 275 kilograms per hour. There are three 5 h.p. units, one 10, and one 15.

Allied Trading Co. Railway Road Ambala City 134 002 Maryana, India

Cepco Drummy Threshers

Gepco makes drummy threshers in three sizes. The 5 h.p. unit has a 76-centimeter drum and threshes at a rate of 180 kilogiams per hour.

The 7i/2 h.p. unit has a 90-centimeter drum and a capacity of 300 kilograms per hour, and the 10 h.p. machine has a 105-centimeter drum and produces 450 kilograms per hour. Other units are also available.

Gepco Industries Industrial Estate Sonepat, Haryana, India

Drummy Thresher

Mohinder & Co. Allied Industries Kurali, Distt. Ropar Punjab, India

This machine is capable of tiireshing, winnowing, sieving, and bagging a variety of crops. Four people are required to operate this 3 h.p. unit to obtain a capacity of 300 to 500 kilograms per hour.

Jyoti, Ltd. Baroda 390 003 India

Power Wheat Threshers

This Indian company manufactures threshers in a range of sizes, with or without winnowing mechanisms.

Khalsa Iron Works 2015 Railway Road Narela, Delhi, India

Wheat Thresher

This small thresher is not fitted with a bagging mechanism and requires a power input of 5 to 7 h.p. Larger models and complete thresher-winnowers are also available.

New Bharat Industries Industrial Area, Moga Punjab, India

Saeco Power Wheat Threshers

The 90-centimeter (214-foot) size has an output of 200 kilograms of clean grain per hour and requires 5 h.p. to run. Larger sues are also available-

Standard Agricultural Engineering Co. 824/825 Industrial Area B Ludhiana 141 003, Punjab, India

Hira Drummy Thresher

Four large drummy threshers are available from International Manufacturing. The drum sizes range in width from 24 to 42 inches. Power requirements vary from 3 to 10 h.p, for outputs of from 1,500 to 4,000 kilograms per hour. Complete combination thresher-winnowers are also available.

International Mfg. Co. Hospital Road, Jagraon Ludhiana, Punjab, India

WINNOWERS

The practice of winnowing consists of using air moving in a horizontal direction to separate grain from chaff or dust by allowing the mixture to fall vertically in a thin stream across the path of the airflow. The lighter chaff is carried fc jther by the moving air while the heavier grain falls nearer to vertical, with the material in between these grades occupying intermediate points according to their weight. This principle has been implemented by farmers for centuries in, its simplest form, where the natural breezes in the open-air threshing yard are used. A fan can also be used, since it gives a steadier and more reliable air flow.

In a well-designed winnowing machine, the blast of air is produced by a fan rotating inside a suitable casing, while the material to be cleaned and graded falls vertically from a hopper held immediately above the fan outlet spout. In a combined winnowing and grading machine, after passing through the airstream the partially cleaned grain passes through a perforated shaker screen which retains the larger waste but allows the product to fall onto a second perforated shaker screen where small waste and dirt fall out. Finally, the product passes to the discharge chute. To achieve the maximum extraction of waste, the velocity of the airflow in the separation chamber can be adjusted over a wide range. The perforated shaker screens are usually se

With the help of a fan or a good strong breeze, chaff is blown away as the heavier grain falls straight into the bucket.

This hand-operated thresher was manufactured in this Egyptian village with locally available materials and craftsmen.

This hand-operated thresher was manufactured in this Egyptian village with locally available materials and craftsmen.

Homesteaders

cured by spring clips which are manually released so that the screens can be easily removed for changing or cleaning. A range of screen sizes are available to deal effectively with almost all kinds of seed. The cleaned grain can also be delivered to bagging spouts by using a bucket eievator.

The quality of work done by a winnower is limited, and it also suffers from the disadvantage of the dust nuisance, not only in the simplest machines but also in the more complex units. The remedy lies in making proper arrangements at die time of installation for the collection and disposal "f dust in an effective manner. The usual method is to blow the dust and chaff into a large settling box provided with a wire-covered outlet.

Since much of the threshing in developing countries is carried out by hand or by using simple machinery as described previously, winnowing frequently has £o be conducted as a separate operation and is often done by hand. The output of hand winnowing is approximately 45 kilograms of grain per hour. A hand-driven mechanical winnower can achieve outputs of between 200 and 1,200 kilograms of grain per hour and produce a very clean sample s'titable for seed.

The simplest winnowers consist of hand- or pedal-driven fans without any sieves or separation devices. The other winnowers described in this section can be adjusted for different crops and can also be fitted with a range of metal sieves. For example, a special hand-powered rotating screen device is available for separating groundnuts from husk and dirt.

In developed countries, the winnowing process is usually incorporated into the function of the thresher. Hence, sources of winnowers alone are scarce in North America.

Prototype Pedal-Power Winnower

Most commercially available winnowing machines employ an electric motor or an internal combustion engine to drive the fan. These machines are too expensive for the small-scale farmer, and their capacities usually exceed his requirements. To meet the needs of the peasant

Dr. Ghosh's prototype pedal-powered winnower. Dr. B. N. Ghosh

A demonstration of the pedal winnower in action. Notice that the larger, heavier matter falls first and that the lighter chaff is blown far away as the grain mixture falls from a hopper above. Dr. B. N. Ghosh

Dr. Ghosh's prototype pedal-powered winnower. Dr. B. N. Ghosh

farmer in India, an inexpensive winnowing machine which can be easily attached to and operated by a pedal bicycle (a vehicle which some peasant farmers already possess) is being developed by Dr. Biswa Ghosh.

An Old-Fashioned Winnower

This simple type of winnower predates hand-operated grain cleaners by a few hundred years. About the only improvement that has been made over traditional basket models is the addition of a screen to allow the fines, dust and dirt, to fall through. In use, the threshed grain is tossed into the air on a windy day—the wind blows away the chaff, dust, and the lighter seeds, the sand and smaller particles fall through the screen—and with any luck, what is left is cleaned grain. The sides are made of galvanized sheet metal, 8 inches high. The screen is galvanized and is riveted to the sides. Its size is 24 inches wide, and 24 inches deep (from front to back).

American Village Institute

440 Meyers St.

Kettle Falls, WA 99141

Agrima Winnowers

Two models are available from this company, one made of metal and the other of wooden construction. Both can be operated by hand or with a small motor.

China Agricultural Machinery Co., Ltd. 17 Nanking Road, East, 1st Sec. Taipei, Taiwan

Winnower

This firm offers a hand-driven winnower made of wood.

Self-Sufficiency & Small-Holding Supplies The Old Palace, Priory Road, Wells Somerset BAS 1SY England

CeCoCo Hand Grain Winnower Type A-I

This model is designed for cleaning paddy, hulled rice, wheat, barley, hulled sunflower seed, and any other grains or seeds.

With an output capacity of approximately 650 kilograms of hulled rice per hour, this unit separates cleaned grain from immature dead grain and chaff, husk, and dust. It is of all-steel construction. Weight: 300 kilograms.

CeCoCo

P.O. Box 8, Ibaraki City Osaka Pref. 567 Japan

Hindson Seed Grader

This model comes equipped with an adjustable blower and two replaceable sieves. It has a capacity of 600 to 1,100 kilograms per hour with a i/2 h.p. motor. Four sieve sizes are available.

Hindsons Pvt. Ltd. The Lower Mall Patiala, Punjab, India

Number 8 Winnower

This is a hand-powered machine constructed mainly of wood, but with metal moving parts and an oscillating bottom screen. It can be fitted with any of five 40- by 40-centimeter metal sieves for efficient screening of all kinds of grain, including wheat, barley, and maize.

R. Hunt & Co., Ltd., Atlas Works Earls Colne, Colchester Essex COfi 2EP U.K.

Images Drummy Thresher
Hunt No. 8 Winnower E.. Hunt

An Indian Winnower

The air draft on this model is controllable, and you can replace the sieves as necessary. It runs on four ball bearings and is operated by hand.

Rajasthan State Agrc Industrial Corp., Ltd. Virat Bhawan, C-Scheme Jaipur 302 006, Rajasthan, India

A British Winnower

This unit consists of a hopper, feed control slide, oscillating sieve assembly, and fan. It is available in two models with approximate capacities of 800 kilograms per hour and 1,000 kilograms per hour. Both models can be hand-or power-operated.

The Alvan Blanch Development Co., Ltd. Chelworth, Malmesbury Wiltshire SN16 9SG U.K.

Cycle Winnower

With a capacity of 1,500 to 2,000 kilograms per hour, this simple pedal-driven fan aids the farmer when natural breezes fail to blow. The blades have a span of 1,200 millimeters (48 inches) and are fitted onto a shaft running on two bail bearings. There are two freewheels in the gear train along with a flywheel. A seat is provided on this all-steel, 80,000-kilogram, framed unit. Enough air current is provided to keep four people winnowing at one time.

Images Drummy Thresher

Cossul

Cycle Winnower Cossul and Co.

Cossul Hand Winnower

This hand-driven model has a capacity of 500 to 800 kilograms per hour, and will keep two people busy winnowing at a time. The blades are fitted to a post, and the unit weighs 25,000 kilograms.

Cossul Co. Pvt. Ltd. Industrial Area Fazalgnni, Kanpur, India

Cossul Hand Winnower Cossul and Co.

The Winnower Kit

A winnower has been developed by the Overseas Liaison Department of the National Institute of Agricultural Engineering in England to meet the need for a hand-driven device for separating grain from chaff and groundnut kernels from their shells. The design is simple, and manufacture should be well within the capability of village craftsmen using normal hand tools.

The winnower consists of a frame supporting a feed hopper, separating duct, fan, and drive mechanism. The frame is made of ten wooden pieces bolted together. The hopper is formed by the two upper frame members, the top of the fan casing, and one side of the separating duct, which has a shuttered feed aperture level with the hopper floor.

The duct is of rectangular cross-section, roughly S-shaped, with a long vertical center part. The shaped sides are cut from thick ply wood and the sheet metal front ana back are screwed to the edges of the plywood. The fan ?"s a plain paddle blade unit. The casing is constructed in the same way as the duct to which it is attached by a bolted, flanged joint. A six-blade wooden rotor is carried on a steel shaft running in plain wooden bearings bolted to the frame.

The drive is transmitted by bicycle chain from a crank and chain wheel to a small sprocket on the fan shaft. All the components are standard bicycle parts. The pedal crank and chain wheel are soldered to a steel shaft which runs in bearings bolted below the hopper. The small sprocket on the fan shaft is made from the ring of teeth from a bicycle freewheel pressed onto a wooden boss which is pinned to the shaft.

The following table summarizes the performance results of a prototype at an N.I.A.E. trial. Measurements of output were taken during shoi runs without stops for refilling the hopper. The rate of work over several hours may be lower, depending on the number of operators and their efficiency.

Crank

Average

Speed,

Output

Revo

Kilo

%of

lutions

grams

Chaff or

per

per

Shell

Crop

Minute

Hour

Removed

Rice

70-90

400

75-95

(long grain)

Groundnuts

84-94

250

83-99

(North African)

Groundnuts

90

180

98

(Gambian)

When the trial was conducted, researchers found that some of the rice samples contained short straw which could not be blown out. In the North Africa groundnut trial, the winnower's high crank speed gave a very clean result, but the Gambian groundnut trial yielded a poor sample, with 40 percent of the nuts left un-shelled.

Overseas Department

National Institute of Agricuitura! Engineering Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HS England

Cossul Hand Winnower Cossul and Co.

A Dutch Winnower Kit

This kit offers the option of assembling the winnower after completing construction of the individual parts or assembling from a pre-assembled kit. This winnower is made of wood with metal working parts. Only the simplest shop tools are necessary for its construction.

Tool

Postbox 525

Eindhoven, Netherlands

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  • Jasmine
    What is drummy threshing?
    6 years ago

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