The Axial Flow Threshe1

by The Internationaf Rice Research Institute

Tile widespread use of combines for harvesting and threshing crops in developed countries has ied to a decline in the production and use of stationary threshers. Yet traditional methods are no longer suitable for thrashing large quantities of rice, particularly in areas of multiple cropping. High-moisture paddy ii difficult to thresh with conventional threshers available in the less-developed countries. The threshing output of the Japanese stripping-type thresher is generally low, and such machines are difficult to manufacture in less-developed countries. The International Rice Research Institute has developed the axial Row thresher tor small- and medium-scale tropical farmers to use either through individual ownership or through contract threshing.

This machine can efficiently thresh rice, sorghum, soybeans, and other small grain crops over a wide range of grain moisture levels with low crop losses. The throw-in feed design and the axial movement of materials are distinguishing features of this machine. Separation and cleaning efficiency are excellent, and power requirements are low.

The thresher is mounted on two large wheels to provide good mobility on rough roads. It can be pulled easily with a power tiller or jeep, or it can be moved manually over shorter distances. A sell-propelled version of the thresher has a motorized third wheel mounted on the front. The same seven horsepower engine provides power for threshing and transport. The self-propelled version is designed for custom threshing operations, which often require repeated movement of the thresher. When the ground is too soft to support the wheels, skids are available to attach to the underside of the thresher so that it can be pulled by animals.

The thresher tan be powered by a seven to ten horsepower, air-cooled, gasoline engine. Power is transmitted through a series of V-belts to the five major components: the threshing cylinder, delivery auger, centrifugal blower, rotary screen, and aspirator fan. The threshing mechanism consists of a peg-tooth cylinder which rotates inside a full-circle cylindrical concave in two sections. The upper concave has spiral deflectors which move the threshing material axially between the threshing drum and the concaves.

IRRI Axial Flow Thresher Union Tractor Workshop

IRRI Axial Flow Thresher Union Tractor Workshop

Mechanism Sorghum Thresher

This machine is well accepted and is gaining popularity among farmers across the Philippines. Twelve Philippine companies now produce the thresher. It is also being produced on a limited basis in Ghana, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, South Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is being evaluated in Bangladesh. Guatemala, Peru, Korea, and Malaysia, The machine is being marketed for threshing soybeans and sorghum as well as paddy, and work is underway to adapt it for wheat threshing.

Engineering designs are available to manufacturers who are seriously interested in producing the thresher. Each request must be submitted on company letterheads with a history of the company and a list of available equipment, staff, capital structure, and product lines, along with tentative plans for production and marketing. Write to: The Agricultural Engineering Department, International Rice Research Institute, PO Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

An example of the IRRI-designed axial flow thresher is pictured here, manufactured by the Union Tractor Workshop in India.

7.5 Axial Flow Thresher

This unit was developed for small- and medium-scale farmers to use either through individual ownership or through contract threshing. This machine can efficiently thresh rice, sorghum, soybeans, and other small gTain crops over a wide range of grain moisture levels. Distinguishing features of this machine include throw-in feeding, axial movement of materials, low power requirement, and excellent separation and cleaning efficiency. Paddy output is about S ton per hour when operated with a three-man crew and a 7.5 h.p. motor.

Union Tractor Workshop

8-B, Phase II, Maya Puri Industrial Area

New Delhi 110 027, India

Portable Axial Flow Thresher

The Portable Axial Flow unit has an out-

Uss Thresher Crew Photos
IRRI Axial Flow Thresher in operation in the field. International Rice Research Institute
Drummy Type Threshing Machine

The spike-toothed tkreshing cylinder of the Axial Flow Thresher.

International Ricc Research Institute

The spike-toothed tkreshing cylinder of the Axial Flow Thresher.

International Ricc Research Institute put of 300 to (500 kilograms per hour of threshed paddy with a 5 h.p. engine. Two or three people are required to feed the machine, thresh, and bag the grain, and two men are required to move it. It has a multicrop capability for rice, sorghum, and other small grains. The unit weighs 105 kilograms with the engine, measures 96 by 76 by 138 centimeters, and uses about 1 liter of fuel per hour.

International Rice Research Institute Box 933

Manila, Philippines

POWER DRUMMY THRESHERS

Drummy threshers usually incorporate 12

beaters inside a threshing drum to separate wheat from its hull. A winnowing fan attached under the machine separates straw from the grain but does not leave a cleaned grain; an average of 3.5 percent waste is left. There is no bagging arrangement with most of these machines, though adaptations can be made. The Eumiuuuu power needed to thresh with a minimum amount of grain breakage is 470 revolutions per minute, as established by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in New Delhi. At a lower speed, more breakage takes place.

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