Many of the units described as hand-operated are also available with hitches for drawing by tractor. Larger, heavier planters, like the Brinly-Hardy (Louisville, KY 40200) and the Cole (Charlotte, NC 28200) are designed for tractor use only. The Brinly is for tractors with horsepower from 8 to 18, and the Cole for tractors on up to perhaps 15 to 25 horsepower. These seeders attach to three-point hitch arrangements or other hydraulic lift systems.
Larger and heavier commercial farm planters of great precision can now be purchased in single-row versions. The new planters, like those now available from all the large farm equipment companies like John Deere and Inter national Harvester, are called unit planters Each planting unit is powered by its own driv wheel, so many units can be used together. Yo: will have to make your own hitch arrange : u to attach one of these units to your tractor : is not made for mounting on a tool bar. the small commercial grower may find adapting a unit seeder well worth the effort, since these planters, generally do a better job of planting than the smaller garden planters.
It may be practical, with the unit planters mentioned above, to go to a two-unit planter if you are row cropping more than four or five acres. The smaller Cole is a sort of unit planter, that is, two units can be put together quite isily. Old, obsolete, two-row planters originally designed for horses or smaller farm tractors also make fine tools for homesteaders with just a few acres to plant, but they are becoming scarce. Old four-row planters are now easier to find, but they are a little large for the typical homestead. However, you can modify one to a two-row model, or if you are mechanically equipped, you can take a single unit from a four-row or two-row planter and convert it to a single-row seeder. It means, on four-row models especially, converting the presswheel that presses the dirt on top of the planted seed, into a drive wheel to turn the planting plates. Older four- and six-row planters do not have a drive wheel for each unit.
somas of tractor-drawn unit punters
Cole Number 12 Planter
Designed for the small farmer, the No. 12 is a garden planter with opening foot and three-point hitch for use with category 0 and 1 tractors.
The planter simultaneously plants seed and side-dresses fertilizer. It has a single, inclined-plate seed hopper with a set of four seed plates for planting corn, large and small squash, small limas, okra, tomatoes, peas, and snap beans in hill or drill fashion. Other seed plates are avail-
able. A set of four distance gears for changing spacing is included. Fertilizer is placed beside the seed to prevent any fertilizer damage in germination. The galvanized, fertilizer hopper has a 40-pound capacity and a rate of application adjustable from 34 to 650 pounds. It will apply any dry fertilizer. An opening shank is included (sweep is not included).
Cole also offers a variety of hitches to mount the No. 12 planter to almost any tractor. These include International Harvester Models Super A, 140, and Cub tractors, both with and without fast hitch. They also have hitches for tool bar applications and for mounting the planter to other cultivators. All units are available worldwide.
Cole's 210 Series
A lift-type, 50-inch carrier with category I three-point hitch and front and rear tool bars
allow the farmer to simultaneously plant and put out fertilizer. He has the option to use either one or two fertilizer hoppers, one of four planter chassis, and three seed hopper options. Fertilizer is placed by two disc-side placers and run by a ground-drive wheel. Seed spacing, seed depth, and seed plates may be changed without special tools. A wide variety of plates is available for all seed hoppers. Cole also offers many attachments to fit a farmer's needs, such as gauge wheels, spring shanks, furrow openers, bed levelers, cotton attachments, and depth gauge extensions. Granular chemical applicators arc also offered for both herbicides and insecticides.
Cole Mfg. Co. 1318 Central Ave. Charlotte, NC 28299
Inside its own individual mounting cradle, this seeder unit is spring-suspended. This permits each unit to follow the contour of the ground assuring uniform depth of planting. It is suspended so that down pressure or lifting action is accomplished by actuating the tractor lift device. Units may be mounted in multiple-row applications at minimum-row widths of 9 inches, and are ground driven. Shipping weight: 56 pounds.
Planet Junior Division Piper Industries P.O. Box 1188, Freeport Center Clearfield, VT 84106
ALMACO Cone-Type Nursery Seeder
This machine was developed specifically for planting small plots of corn, sorghum, soybeans, cereals, and other grain crops. These are seeder units which fit into the seed hopper box of commercial row planters like John Deere and International Harvester for planting nursery rows and space planting a large variety of seeds. This model has a cast aluminum base, 12i/2 inches in diameter.
Allan Machine Co. P.O. Box 112 Ames, IA 50010
A ground-drive unit for use in prepared soil, it is capable of planting seed as snu.ll as radish and turnip, as well as corn, beans, and peas. It opens the furrow and then drops and covers the seed at the desired spacing. It features a large-capacity seed hopper, a new float plate that allows the planter to follow ground contours, a new shovel-type opening foot, a new, larger, concave drive wheel which improves traction, reduces the possibility of skidding, and improves seed coverage. It is equipped with five quick-change seed plates, and 18 other seed plates are also available. Weight: 70 pounds.
Model KK-310 Row Marker and Model KK-320 Fertilizer Hopper (for use with the KK-305 Planter)
The KK-310 Row Marker helps maintain desired row spacing by marking next row as you plant. It is adjustable for different crop spacings. The KK-320 Fertilizer Accessory, when added to the KK-305 Planter, enables you to plant and fertilize in one operation. The rate of fertilizer flow can be regulated. Weight, Model KK-310: 10 pounds; Model KK-320: 20 pounds.
Brinly-Hardy Co., Inc. P.O. Box 1116 Louisville, KY 40201
This is a single-row planter which (its onto any tractor tool bar. The seed wheel revolves through the reservoir of seed, picks up one seed at a time, and deposits it into the planting opener. There are 12 different wheels for planting different-sized and -shaped seeds.
Ventura Mfg. & Implement Co. 1265 Commercial Ave., P.O. Box 1069 Oxnard, CA 93030
Available with semiautomatic furrowcrs, this equipment furrows, sows, antl fertilizes all in one operation at any required deptii and spacing. The units themselves or the tool bar to attach them is furnished with three-point connections adjustable to any type or make of tractor. Discs are furnished to plant corn, cotton, rice, and peanuts. Special adapters are available for planting soybeans.
Justino de Morais, lrmaos S.A.
Rua Coriolano 380, Sao Paulo S.P., Brazil
Gandy makes a number of row seeder units with gear drives from a 12- or 6-volt electric motor or hydraulic motor drive. They have seeders for every major brand of farm equipment in all sizes.
528 Gandrud Rd.
Owatonna. MN 55060
Models 202-202F, 404-404F
The 202-404 planters for sowing cotton, corn, sunflower, melon, and sorghum seeds consist of separate T-63 sowing units which are attached to a rhomboid 214 by 214-inch tool bar. The units can be adjusted to a width of 16 inches to suit the required widdi between rows. The planter is made in three variations for two, four, or six rows. It is equipped with automatic markers fixed at a certain angle to ensure the creation of a prominent furrow that will mark the rows for the next pass. The marker works simultaneously with the elevation of the planter by the tractor operator. These markers can be set to suit different distances. The planter is equipped with front shovels mounted on a special front bar, to remove dry earth before sowing. Covering discs or shovels are optional. Other models are available, including those specially designed for planting sugar beets, vegetable seeds, cnions, garlic, and peanuts, as well as multipurpose units.
Technohar Agricultural Machinery & Implements, Ltd. New Industry Region, Petakh-Tikva P.O.B. 225, Israel
The seeds are picked up by means of a vacuum and held to the small holes in the plate, which is driven by the presswheel. An easily adjustable, graduated selector avoids doubling in case two seeds are picked up by the same hole. When each seed arrives near the lowest point, the vacuum stops abruptly; the seed is released and falls. The plate operates above the furrow opener and drops the seeds approximately 3 inches apart. The absence of mechanical handling means gentle treatment of the seeds, assuring maximum germination, which is especially important in beans. Planting depth can be easily controlled by a single handle which simultaneously adjusts the level of the two wheels. The fan is mounted on the tool bar and is connected to the tractor PTO which should be operated at 540 rpm. (A 1,000 rpm conversion kit is available.) The fan provides enough vacuum for up to 12 units. The vacuum's fine adjustment is controlled by the fan shutter, and a vacuum meter is connected to the fan. The planter is suitable for all row crops: sugar beets, cotton, corn, beans, sorghum, sunflowers, melons, watermelons, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, onions, cabbage, and broccoli, as well as coated seeds such as lettuce and carrots.
Features of the 925, as described by the manufacturer, include:
1. Precision planting with exact spacing.
2. Accuracy is maintained even at high speed; up to 50 seeds per second can be planted.
3. No grading is needed even with seeds of irregular shape and size.
4. No pelleting is needed for small seeds.
5. Changing the seeds or the seed plate and cleaning are very easy. The same seed plate is used for a variety of seed sizes.
6. A higher percentage of single seeds is dropped than with any other planter.
7. A zero pressure tire prevents mud from building up.
Seed spacings from 1.25 to 20 inches are easily obtained by changing a sprocket on the drive chain or the seed plate. The 925 is made up of unit planters. Up to 12 can be mounted on the heavy-duty tool bar with row spacings easily varied. The minimum spacing is 16 inches. The furrow openers are twin offset discs with a shoe to form the furrow. The discs cut away trash while the shoe firms and packs the sides and bottom of the furrow. Positive fin-type furrow closers are used. A furrow depth adjustment can be achieved without changing the level of the planter.
Heath Farm Equipment
Fort Collins, CO 80522
The V-belt planter-applicator can be supplied as a completely assembled unit, with mounting brackets in place of adjustable handles and rubber-tired running gear. The unit can be attached to power-driven equipment such as garden and riding tractors, or mounted on tool bars for single- or multiple-row planting or application of granular materials. Mounting brackets can be furnished which automatically adjust to the contour of the soil, thus assuring uniform depth of planting.
Certain parts of the planter-applicator such as the planter frame, V-belt pulleys and shafts,
ALMACO V-Belt Planter-Applicator attached to the front end of a two-wheel tractor.
Allan Machinc Co.
ALMACO V-Belt Planter-Applicator ready for mounting on a toolbar. Allan Machinc Co.
ALMACO V-Belt Planter-Applicator ready for mounting on a toolbar. Allan Machinc Co.
slanting, metal-covered hopper sides, metal apron, sprockets and drive chain, sliding gate, and smooth or ribbed-style V-belts can be special-ordered for different applications in mounting on power-driven equipment.
Allan Machine Co. P.O. Box 112 Ames, IA 50010
Pneumatic Discharge Seeders
Dr. Giovanni Benati 37100 Verona ViaC. Battisti, Italy
Tanzania Agricultural Machinery Testing Unit P.O. Box 1389 Arusha, Tanzania
The flexible Nibex system incorporates an original cup-distribution technique which is ideal even for planting irregularly shaped vegetable seed, which formerly was difficult or impossible to sow individually. The system includes 25 types of cups for most seeds, both natural and pelleted. This wide range makes it possible to choose a suitable cup for each desired drilling method. The seeding rate can be varied from four to about 2,000 seeds per running yard— either thin-line or band-drilled over a width of 2.5 or 4 inches (65 or 105 millimeters). The cup system is largely unaffected by variations in seed size, and seed cup discs are quickly interchanged for different crops.
The furrow is formed so that the seeds are immediately covered by a thin layer of moist earth. The coulter side plates prevent dry surface soil from filling the furrow before the presswheel presses the moist earth into direct contact with the seeds. The furrow is next covered with loose earth, and conditions are now ideal for growth. The adjustable skid and the weighted presswheel allow a constant drilling depth to be maintained, even on loose and uneven surfaces.
The stainless steel coulter gives maximum wear resistance and prevents earsh from sticking to it, even in wet conditions. Wheel brackets, seeder units, and marker brackets can be positioned anywhere on the beam, making the row spacing progressively variable from 7.5 inches (20
Nibex Unit Seeder Nibe-Verken AB
centimeters) and upwards. (The rows can be brought closer together by attaching the unit sideways and driving back and forth in the same wheel tracks.)
Nibex unit seeders come in two- to twelve-row units; each unit has a 5-quart hopper capacity. Three-chain transmissions and a six-speed gearbox offer a choio; of 18 settings. Normal operating speed is 2 mph; 3 is maximum.
Depth is adjustable from 0 to 2 inches (0 to 5 centimeters). With 20-inch row spacing, a three-row machine will seed approximately 1.25 acres per hour.
Nibe-Verken AB S-285 00 Markaryd Sweden
Esmay Unit Seeder Estnay Products, Inc.
This unit was specifically designed for the truck fanner and larger home gardener. One paw opens the soil to the desired depth, seeds, fertilizes, and covers the seedbed. It attaches to standard hitching devices, category 0, three-point, drawbar, or sleeve hitches. Of corrosion-proof construction, it comes with seven seed plates which plant more than 20 common vegetable seeds.
Esmay Products, Inc. P.O. Box 547, Maple St. Bristol, IN 46507
* Reprinted in part from Small-Scale Grain Raising by G«nc Logsdon. Rodale Press, 1977.
For planting seed in solid stands rather than in rows, a drill is used. For small acreages, however, you can often use small broadcasters much more efficiently, even counting the light disking or harrowing necessary to cover the seed. Generally speaking, the drill gives more precise planting depths than broadcasting and harrow covering and will result in better germination, especially if dry weather follows planting. The drill puts seed into the ground more or less continuously rather than depositing a precise number of seeds at precise spacings the way a row seeder does. It is used for cereal grains and grasses, and sometimes for soybeans if a solid stand is desired. Essentially, the drill is a long planting box with openings every six inches or so, from which planting tubes lead to the disc openers that rim into the ground at planting depth. The discs open a shallow trench for the
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