Wetland Puddler

It it designed for quick and efficient preparation of fields for paddy after first plowing. The three angular cast-iron hubs with four blades on each hub churn up the soil and leave the fine particles of it on the top surface. Weight: 39.5 kilograms.

Cossul & Co. Pvt., Ltd. Industrial Area, Fazalgunj Kanpur, India

GmsoI Bullock-Driven Green Manure Trampler Growing a green manure crop and burying it is a way of adding to the organic matter con-

Puddler Implement
Cossul Green Manure Trampler Cossul & Co.

tent of the soil. This implement is useful for trampling green leaves and stalks. It consists of four 250-millimeter (10 inches) diameter steel discs with cast-iron hubs mounted on a horizontal shaft. Blades mounted on the shaft help to cut the green material. Weight: 39 kilograms.

Cossul & Co. Pvt., Ltd. Industrial Area, Fazalgunj Kanpur, India

I.T.D.G. Clod Crushers Plans

These are two simple and cheaply constructed implements which are used for reducing the size of clods in cultivated land prior to ridging up the soil. They are made principally of gum (eucalyptus) poles. Type 1 has roller gangs which are built from short pieces of pole

Plans Soil Crusher
Clod Crusher, type 1
Wetland Puddler

and rest at an angle of approximately 60 degrees to each other. The poles are mounted to provide a self-cleaning effect. Type 2 consists of short pole pegs attached in a staggered formation around the circumference of a single heavy log roller. Sharpened steel bolts are driven into the center of each end of the roller to which the draft chains are attached. A singletree is fitted to the roller chains.

I.T.D.G. Granule Applicator Plana

The granule applicator was developed as pan of the Intermediate Technology Farm Equipment Development Project work program attached to the Institute of Agricultural Research of Ahmadu Bello University. A Planet Junior-

Hand Push Seeder

based, hand-pushed seeder was fitted to an ariana toolbar and a simple direct-drive from a spiked wheel was used to replace the original bevel gears and shaft drive to the metering mechanism. Standard ariana soil-moving components were added to enable a ridge to be built and granules to be applied, either on the surface or incorporated into the soil, simultaneously.

Intermediate Technology Publications, Ltd. 9 King St.

London WC2E 8HN, England

TWO-WHEEL TRACTORS

"Different levels of farm mechanization exist side by side in China," observes Ian Barwell in his report on the Chinese Two-Wheeled Tractor.* Barwell serves as a transport project officer with the Intermediate Technology Development Group based in London. He explains the different mechanization levels in terms of varying commune size (from 500 to 50,000 people), development, and farm machinery requirements. "At one and the same time, there is an increasing demand for conventional four-wheeled tractors, for two-wheeled tractors, and for draft animals such as horses and oxen for use in agricultural work."

Thousands of miles away, Gene Logsdon, an editor for Organic Gardening and New Farm in the United States, shows that a need for diversified, well-developed equipment is equally sig-

* Material excerpted with permission from Ian J. Barwell. "The Chinese Two-Wheeled Tractor." World Crops and Livestock, July-August 1977.

nificant—even on a single, small farm such as his.

"When I figure my needs, I do not automatically figure that I have 20 acres to cultivate or even six, which is all the land I actually have in animal crops. Instead I look closely at that six-acre figure and ask myself: Of that total, how big an area will 1 ever have to plow (or disk, or weed, or plant, or harvest) in one day? The answer is usually one-quarter acre or less. That being the case, a quarter-acre is the size my tools need to be geared to."

"Actually, I'm overpowered with my ancient WD Allis-Chalmers tractor which has a horsepower rating of around 35. That's enough for quite a sizable little farm. My biggest plowing job takes me less than two hours. I only use my tractor's capability fully when I mow hay and pasturelands. My tractor would be just about right on an 80-acre farm if the 80 acres were devoted to the wide variety of food and fiber production typical of the self-sustaining homestead. Even on an 80, you should rarely have to work more than five acres a day. If, however, the entire 80 were given over to commercial fruit

Wetland Puddler

and vegetable production or any single specialty crop, you would usually need quite larger machinery to handle it."

Just as Gene Logsdon in North America is firmly convinced that many growers should look at single-axle tractors and tillers, so, too, are the Chinese. The two-wheeled or single-axle tractor has played a vital rote in the mechanization of Chinese agriculture, reports Ian Barwell. Since much of the cultivated land is divided into very small plots for irrigation, the two-wheeled tractor works well in such small land segments. Besides, the two-wheeled tractor is a much cheaper unit to buy and run than a conventional four-wheeled tractor, and it also lends itself to production by a number of small- and medium-scale factories throughout the country.

Writes Barwell, "Ease of maintenance and durability are major considerations in the design of the tractor which can be used for plowing or

Barwell Machine
A single-axle tractor hitched to a two-wheeled trailer for transport. Ian Barwell

rotary cultivation, and as a power source to drive other items of machinery. Attached to a trailer, it forms a simple means of transport and is extensively used in this role, both in rural situations and to cany goods and people from the countryside to the town and back again. Current jnnua! production of the tractor runs into hundreds o! thousands of units, and they are now being exported to certain other developing countries; both India and the Philippines are now producing similar machines. However, the tractor is not suitable for use in the very dry conditions prevalent in parts of Africa, because it does not have the tractive power required for cultivation in such circumstances."

The tractor engine, he reports, has a power output of ten horsepower. The heart of the two-wheeled tractor is its rugged and durable single-cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine. Barwell continues:

"The engine, whose main block and crank-case are a single iron casting, has two other in teresting features which simplify maintenance. It is water-cooled by means of an evaporative tank system mounted above the block. It is this feature which is responsible for the characteristic wisp of steam rising from the tractor when it is in use. Direct visual indication of the water level is achieved by means of a red button mounted on the end of a rod protruding from the tank and attached inside to a float. As the water evaporates, the rod falls until the danger level is reached, and the button drop out of sight of the tractor operator. A forced-circulation, oil lubrication system is used, and the oil is passed through a sight glass visible to the operator so that he has a continuous check on the Sow of lubricant."

The Chinese have many uses for the two-wheeled tractor. It can be fitted with either a single- or a two-furrow plow which attaches to a bracket at the rear of the gearbox. The setting of the plow can be adjusted for height, for angle relative to the direction of travel, and for orien tation of the blades themselves. The tractor can plow to a depth of 180 to 200 millimeters.

Using the power take-off at the rear of the gearbox, a rotary cultivator fitted with up to 16 blades can be attached. The rotor is shrouded by a canopy which helps to break up the lumps of earth» and the depth of cultivation is controlled by either a skid or a small-diameter wheel mounted behind the cultivator.

When plowing or cultivating, the operator may either walk along behind the tractor or sit on a seat mounted at the very rear of the machine. Steering is effected by control of the dutches engaging the drive to each of the wheels. The tractor is reportedly capable of working G.I-to 0,15 hectares per hour.

Two Wheel Tractor For Mounted The Ridge
The array of controls on a two. wheel tractor include two independent clutches for power steering, throttle, and gearshift lever.

The tractor can be driven to and from the fields if a small castor wheel is fitted at the rear. However, when it is used for cargo or passenger transport the tractor is hitched to a ewo-wheeled trailer, and the driver hoirmalty sits on a seat at the front of the trailer. He can then steer the vehicle by means of the handlebar, and this obviates the need for the castor wheel. Maximum payload in the transport mode averages 1,200 kilograms.

Mounted on the end of the crankshaft alongside the grooved pulley described earlier is a large flywheel which doubles as a flat-topped pulley. Using this feature, the tractor may be used as a source of power to drive a range of items of agricultural and crop-processing equipment, through a flat-belt drive system. It could, for example, be used to power a water pump, an electricity generator, a flour mill, or a rice thresher.

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Responses

  • ariosto costa
    What is wetland puddler?
    7 years ago
  • Karys
    What are the usesof wetland puddler?
    6 years ago
  • Levi Macleod
    What is a wet land puddler?
    6 years ago
  • mosco
    What is meant by a wetland puddler?
    6 years ago
  • berilac
    How many hectares can a 7hp hand tractor plow in one day?
    5 years ago

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