Oils fats and waxes

All substances in feedstuffs logically belong to one of the six components or groups of a 'proximate analysis'. This concept goes back nearly 150 years to the first state agricultural research stations in Germany, and is also known as the Weende methods (Henneberg, 1864). They give crude, but useful, measurements of the components of feedstuffs, and adaptations of the original methods are used today. The components are as follows:

water (from dry matter determination)

protein (from nitrogen determination)

fat/oil (also known as ether extract)

fibre (also called crude fibre)

ash (mineral content)

nitrogen-free extract (subtract sum of above from 100%; it is mainly carbohydrate/starch)

Fat includes triglycerides, sterols, lecithins (phospholipids), essential oils, fat-soluble pigments such as chlorophyll, and similar substances. The AOAC recommends that anhydrous diethyl ether kept over freshly cut sodium pieces is used for the extractant (Padmore, 1990, p. 79), but we prefer to use petroleum spirit, also called light petroleum and petroleum ether, with a boiling range of 40-60°C, as it is a less hazardous solvent.

The sample should not be oven dried before analysis as this could oxidize or degrade the oil and result in too low a value. A separate sample should be taken for a dry matter determination allowing the result to be corrected to percentage fat in dry matter. The ground sample is placed in a cellulose extraction thimble of the correct size for the Soxhlet extraction glassware. The Whatman extraction thimbles are available in two thicknesses, and it is the more robust double thickness that is preferred. The size of Soxhlet flask should match that of the heating mantle recess. The 250-ml capacity recess is most appropriate, and heating units are available with three or six recesses, with the six-recess model being more economical per recess, and more suited to handle multiple samples. The heating units are specially designed to be spark free in normal operation.

The flask is pre-dried and weighed, so a flat-bottomed flask is easier to handle. After extraction, the remaining solvent is evaporated off on a boiling water bath. When there is no longer any smell of solvent, the flask is again dried in an oven (102°C), cooled and weighed. The weight of oil remaining in the flask is found by difference.

For multiple samples (c. 5 g) of seeds such as oilseed rape, another approach is to crush them and enclose them in small packets of pre-dried Whatman No. 4 filter circles, which are then stapled, labelled with a pencil and weighed. From 10 to 16 of these packets may be extracted in one large

600 ml Soxhlet with a 2-litre flask. In this case, the packets are reweighed, and the weight loss gives the crude oil content (Hughes, 1969).

Oil in compound feeds and feeding stuffs

This method published by MAFF (1993a) is not applicable to oilseeds or compound feeds containing milk powder. The sample is extracted with light petroleum and the residue then heated with 3 M HCl. This is filtered, washed, dried and re-extracted with light petroleum.

There are several producers of automatically controlled Soxhlet extractors, which require their proprietary glassware. Some examples are: Buchi Labortechnik AG: http://www.buchi.com/ Foss: http://www.foss.dk/foss.asp Gerhardt: http://www.gerhardt.de/gb/soxt.htm Soxhlet heating mantles are produced by: Electrothermal Engineering Ltd: http://www.electrothermaluk.com/files/prodcore.htm

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