Larva Chrysanthemum stool miner

This insect is associated with chrysanthemum stools and was formerly an important pest. Nowadays, however, owing to changes in cultural techniques and better hygiene procedures, infestations are infrequent. Chrysanthemum cuttings and lettuces planted in infested chrysanthemum stool beds are also attacked. Adults are normally active in May and June. Eggs are then deposited in the soil close to chrysanthemum plants. The eggs hatch about 2 weeks later. The creamish-white, shiny larvae mine within...

Otiorhynchus singularis L Claycoloured weevil

The clay-coloured weevil is an important horticultural pest. Adults remove bark from trees and shrubs sometimes, they also ring-bark shoots or stems and cause the death of plants. Attacks are often of considerable importance on young trees or new grafts. Adult weevils also attack leaves and petioles, and kill the buds of plants. The form and timing of damage vary from host to host. On currant and raspberry, for example, the petioles are partially severed the leaves then, characteristically,...

Euproctis chrysorrhoea L Browntail moth

In areas such as the coastal regions of southeastern England, infestations of this locally distributed and sporadically important species occur occasionally on fruit trees. The pest is, however, far more notorious as a public nuisance and defoliator of hedges. The urticating hairs of the larvae can cause skin rashes. Adults fly in July and August. Egg batches, covered in hairs from the female's anal tuft, are then laid on twigs of host plants, especially Crataegus monogyna and Primus spinosa....

Ovatus crataegarius Walker Mint aphid

This aphid forms small colonies in spring on young shoots of Crataegus and, sometimes, certain other Rosaceae, but does not cause damage. However, in summer, the aphids infest wild and cultivated mint, and may then be troublesome in kitchen gardens. Apterae are small (1.1-1.9mm long), oval and yellowish-green to green, with moderately long, tapered siphunculi and a pair of prominent, convergent antennal tubercles. In favourable situations, the aphids continue to breed parthenogenetically...

Amphimallon solstitialis L Summer chafer

Larvae of this polyphagous, southerly distributed species often attack beet, cereals, grasses, potato and various horticultural plants. They sever the roots or bore into tubers or tap roots and, particularly in their second summer, are capable of causing considerable damage. Attacks are most likely to occur where crops are planted in recently ploughed-up grassland. Fig. 201 Beet carrion beetle, Aclypea opaca (x6). Fig. 201 Beet carrion beetle, Aclypea opaca (x6). Fig. 202 Larva of beet carrion...

Panonychus ulmi Koch Fruit tree red spider mite

This widely distributed species is an important pest of fruit trees, especially apple, damson and plum. Infestations also occur on other hosts, including cherry, pear, various ornamentals and, occasionally, bush or cane fruits spider mite damage on these hosts, however, is usually attributable to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (p. 267). The mites feed mainly on the underside of leaves, withdrawing the cell contents to produce a fine speckling, visible from above. As pest...

Phlogophora meticulosa L Angleshades moth

Larvae of this species feed on various herbaceous plants, including lettuce, spinach, strawberry and other field crops they are, however, of Fig. 326 Clouded drab moth, Orthosia incerta (x3). Fig. 326 Clouded drab moth, Orthosia incerta (x3). greatest significance as pests of tomato and other glasshouse crops, especially those growing in structures with artificial lighting. The young larvae graze on the underside of leaves but leave the upper epidermis intact. Older larvae bite right through...

Family Tarsonemidae tarsonemid mites p 260 et seq

Small, often transparent, brownish to whitish, barrel-shaped mites chelicerae short and needle-like hindlegs of female reduced and without claws (Fig. 170) hindlegs of male 3-segmented, robust and often clasper-like, each terminating in a stout claw and often bearing a distinctive inwardly directed flange (Fig. 171). EXAMPLES Phytonemus pallidus (cyclamen mite) Polyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite). Fig. 170 A female tarsonemid mite - family Tarsonemidae (xlOO). Fig. 170 A female tarsonemid...

Hoplocampa flava L Plum sawfly

Infestation of this local species occur on damson and plum. Losses on garden and orchard trees can be considerable but attacks tend to be sporadic and unpredictable. The mainly brownish to orange-coloured adults (3.5-5.5 mm long) occur in April, and eggs are then deposited singly in the fruitlets of host plants. The creamish-white larvae feed within the fruitlets. They produce masses of wet, black frass (cf. fruitlet-mining tortrix moth, Pammene rhediella, p. 222). Fully grown larvae enter the...

Homoeosoma nebulella Denis Schiffermiiller Sunflower moth

This moth is associated with various members of the Asteraceae and, in the warmer parts of continental Europe, is a pest of sunflower. The larvae feed on the inflorescences of host plants, at first devouring pollen but later burrowing into the flowers or maturing seeds. In severe cases over a quarter of sunflower seed yields may be lost. Although present and widely distributed in England, this species is not of pest status in the British Isles. Larvae of the first generation occur on wild...

Lobesia botrana Denis Schiffermiiller European vine moth

This species is an important pest of grape vines in southern Europe. Larvae destroy flower buds and, sometimes, cause the death of complete inflorescences later in the season, larvae damage or destroy the developing grapes. Moulds often develop on the damaged tissue, which can lead to additional problems. Adults of this species emerge in late April or early May. Eggs are laid mainly on flower buds and hatch a week or so later. Larvae of the first generation feed within the flower buds and may...

Calocoris norvegicus Gmelin Potato capsid

Infestations of this widely distributed and often abundant capsid occur on various herbaceous plants, including chrysanthemum, and on field crops such as carrot, linseed and potato. The adults and nymphs produce distinctive reddish spots on the foliage these feeding punctures gradually enlarge and turn brown, eventually developing into holes. The insects damage buds, flowers, leaves and shoots, and infested plants may become distorted also, attacked tissue often withers and dies. Heaviest...

Chlorops pumilionis Bjerkander Gout fly

Although locally common, this pest is not of major significance. Barley, rye, wheat and cultivated grasses such as meadow foxtail and timothy are attacked but infestations do not occur on oats wild grasses, including Elytrigia repens, are also hosts. Larvae of the overwintering generation cause a characteristic swelling of the basal parts of infested shoots and tillers (the so-called 'gouty' symptom). Although sometimes locally extensive on barley and wheat crops sown before mid-October,...

External Features

The often tube-like body of an insect is composed of a series of segments six in the head, three in the thorax and up to 11 in the abdomen. Each segment is formed from up to four more or less horny plates called sclerites - a dorsal tergum, a ventral sternum and two lateral pleura (pleura are absent from the insect abdomen). These plates and the various adjacent body segments may be fused together rigidly or joined by soft, flexible membranes that allow for body movement. The body appendages,...

Hedya dimidioalba Retzius Marbled orchard tortrix moth

This polyphagous species attacks various trees and shrubs, especially Crataegus and other Fig. 293 Male bramble shoot moth, Epiblema uddmanniana (x6). Fig. 294 Bramble shoot webber, Epiblema uddmanniana (x5). Fig. 294 Bramble shoot webber, Epiblema uddmanniana (x5). Rosaceae. The larvae sometimes cause damage to the leaves and blossoms of orchard trees such as apple, cherry, pear and plum they may also bore into the young shoots, causing the tips to wilt and die. Adults occur in June and July....

Epitrimerus piri Nalepa Pear rust mite

Heavy infestations of this widely distributed pest sometimes develop on pear trees. The mites then cause extensive bronzing of the underside of leaves and also russeting of ripening fruits, especially around the calyx and on the cheeks. Infestations also occur on Crataegus. This mite is free-living and deuterogenous, with two adult female forms (protogynes and deutogynes) (see under apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali, p. 256). The mites occur on unfurling leaves, blossoms and developing...

Aphis pomi Degeer Green apple aphid

The green apple aphid is associated mainly with apple but will also colonize pear, quince and various other trees and shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including ornamentals. Although often common, and causing slight leaf curl, it is usually of importance only on young host plants. The winter is passed in the egg stage on the bark of the young shoots. The eggs hatch from April onwards and ant-attended colonies develop quickly, the aphids clustering tightly together on the underside of leaves and...

Malacosoma neustria L Lackey moth

Minor infestations of this polyphagous species sometimes occur on fruit trees. The gregarious larvae can cause extensive defoliation, and this can have a detrimental effect on crop yields. Adults occur from late July to September. Eggs are deposited in a batch around a twig and then coated by the female with a varnish-like secretion. The eggs hatch in the following spring and the larvae then feed within a silken web which is gradually extended as the larvae develop. When leaves in the vicinity...

Lygus rugulipennis Poppius Tarnished plant bug

Although associated mainly with weeds, especially Chenopodiaceae, this generally common bug also occurs on various crops, including brassicas, celery, legumes, potato, strawberry, sugar beet and glasshouse-grown cucumber. Fig. 182 Common green capsid, Lygocorispabulinus (x8). Fig. 182 Common green capsid, Lygocorispabulinus (x8). Most damage is caused to seedlings and to the growing points or young leaves of older hosts. Infestations are especially important on sugar beet and often result in...

Cetema elongata Meigen

This species is associated with wild and cultivated grasses, including Elytrigia repens and Poa annua. The central shoots of attacked plants turn yellow but damage caused is of little or no economic importance. Adults appear over an extended period in May and June. Eggs are then deposited singly on the leaves of host plants. Larvae feed singly within the central shoots from June or July onwards. Development is slow, and individuals do not pupate until the following spring, shortly before the...

Family Pemphigidae

Colonies of this species occur on the roots of grasses throughout the year, and are most obvious from May to October, but damage caused is of little or no significance. The aphids produce considerable quantities of whitish wax that accumulates around the aphids in cottonwool-like masses. Winged forms occur in large numbers in the summer in Mediterranean areas, these are able to locate Pistacia lentiscus, the primary host, upon which the species then overwinters. Apterae are 1-3 mm long,...

Myzus ornatus Laing Violet aphid

The violet aphid is an entirely parthenogenetic, polyphagous species, which attacks various herbaceous plants. It is often a persistent pest of house plants and of ornamentals grown in glasshouses but is rarely found on outdoor plants. Apterae are very small (1.0-1.7 mm long) and pale yellow to greenish, with the dorsal surface marked with darker green or brown the lateral tubercles on the head are well developed and strongly convergent. Although living singly, rather than in compact colonies,...

Agriotes lineatus L A common click beetle

The larvae of click beetles (commonly known as 'wireworms') are important, polyphagous pests. They attack the subterranean parts of plants, and are usually most numerous in permanent grassland, where populations may reach or exceed several million per hectare. After destruction of infested grassland (e.g. by ploughing), surviving wireworms readily transfer their attention to following crops. Damage is most severe in spring and early summer, especially on potato tubers and on vegetable crops...

Aculus schlechtendali Nalepa Apple rust mite

This mite is a widely distributed and generally common pest of apple occasionally, the mites also occur on pear (cf. pear rust mite, Epitrimeruspiri, p. 258). Although implicated in causing leaf bronzing and fruit russeting in apple orchards, large numbers of mites can be toler ated before there is any adverse effect on cropping. Apple cultivars vary in their susceptibility to this pest. In integrated pest management systems, the presence of this mite can be useful for maintaining populations...

Cenopalpus pulcher Canestrini Fanzago Flat scarlet mite

Infestations of this widespread but usually unimportant pest are sometimes noted on unsprayed fruit trees, including apple, pear and plum. Although of little or no importance, the presence of the mites on trees often causes concern. Mated females overwinter on the bark of host trees, frequently clustered together in suitable cracks and crevices. The mites become active in the spring. The first eggs are laid in April on the bark of host trees but most are deposited from May to mid-July, along...

Helophorus nubilus F Wheat shoot beetle

The wheat shoot beetle is an occasional and minor pest of wheat and, occasionally, oats attacks typically occur on crops that follow a grass ley. The larvae, which transfer from the ploughed-in grass, bite into the base of the shoots of the young cereal plants the centre shoots may then turn yellow. Damaged shoots usually have a distinct, often ragged, hole at the base they may also be severed. Unlike certain other ley pests (e.g. frit fly, Oscinella frit, p. 195 wheat flea beetle, Crepidodera...

Cacoecimorpha pronubana Hiibner Carnation tortrix moth

This species is extremely polyphagous and attacks a wide range of crops, including maize, raspberry, strawberry and many ornamentals. The larvae attack buds, leaves, flowers and fruits, and can be very damaging. The pest is of African origin and, in northern Europe, is most harmful on protected crops. All stages of this pest may be found throughout the year. However, it tends to occur in two main generations, with adults flying in sunny weather from May to June and from August to September....

Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard larva South American leaf miner

Infestations of this polyphagous leaf miner have occurred recently in various European countries, including England and the Netherlands, the pest having been introduced into glasshouses from abroad, usually on chrysanthemum plants. In parts of southern Europe, this pest is also now established on outdoor plants. The characteristic leaf mines arise from close to the mid-rib or major veins each then progresses as a tortuous gallery that often turns tightly back upon itself, and thus appears broad...

Chaetocnema concinna Marsham Mangold flea beetle

Adults of this widespread and often abundant flea beetle feed on various weeds (Polygo-naceae), including Polygonum aviculare and Rumex they also attack beet and mangold, and are sometimes noticed on unrelated crops such as rhubarb and strawberry. The adults bite out small, circular pits in the cotyledons and leaves these feeding punctures often coalesce and, later, develop into holes as the plant tissue grows. Extensive feeding leads to defoliation and to the death of growing points....

Myzus persicae Sulzer Peachpotato aphid

The peach potato aphid is a polyphagous pest of herbaceous plants, often attacking beet, cucumber (it is the main aphid pest of glasshouse-grown cucumber in northern areas of Britain), lettuce, mangold, oilseed rape, potato and vegetable brassicas various ornamentals are also affected. This species is a notorious vector of plant viruses, including beet western yellows, cabbage black ringspot, carnation latent and chrysanthemum virus B, potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y (the two most...

Larva American serpentine leaf miner

This mainly North American species is frequently introduced into Europe, especially on chrysanthemum cuttings infestations may then develop on glasshouse-grown crops such as celery, cucumber, lettuce, tomato and various ornamentals. Growth of heavily infested plants is checked, affecting both crop yields and quality host plants are also disfigured by adult feeding and egg-laying punctures. Larval mines are long, contorted and whitish, and each contains an irregular line of dark frass. Pupation...

Rhizoecus falcifer Kiinckel de Herculais Root mealybug

Colonies of root mealybugs often occur on the roots of glasshouse plants infestations are most often found on ornamentals. The foliage of attacked plants becomes dull. Also, heavily infested plants eventually wilt. The insects shelter in masses of whitish wax and breed par-thenogenetically, there being a succession of generations throughout the year. Adults are elongate, 1.0-2.3 mm long, and greenish-yellow but coated liberally in whitish wax. They are readily distinguished from root aphids by...

Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say Colorado beetle

The Colorado beetle is a notorious pest of potato. Infestations may also occur on related plants, including aubergine, tomato and common related weeds (Solanaceae) such as Solanum dulcamara and S. nigrum. The pest is of North American origin and was first noted in Europe in 1877, where it is now widely distributed although often accidentally introduced, it is not established in the British Isles. The adults attack the leaves of host plants, but most damage is caused by the larvae. They feed...

Bryobia rubrioculus Scheuten Apple pear bryobia mite

This widely distributed mite (Fig. 343) is associated with fruit trees, including apple, cherry, pear and plum infestations, which may also occur on related ornamentals, rarely occur on sprayed trees. The mites feed mainly on the upper surface of the leaves. They also congregate in masses on the bark of shoots and branches whilst moulting from one stage to the next, especially in late May and June, August and September. The greyish-white cast-off skins remain in situ and are a useful clue to...

Anthonomus rubi Herbst Strawberry blossom weevil

This mainly black (2-4 mm long) weevil is a locally important pest of strawberry. Infestations also occur on Rubus, including cultivated blackberry and raspberry. The adults, that are present in greatest numbers in late May or early June, cause minor damage by drilling small round holes through the leaves and flower petals. Eggs are deposited singly in unopened blossom buds. The egg-laying female also partially severs the blossom stalk (cf. damage caused by strawberry rhynchites, Rhynchites...

Agromyza potentillae Kaltenbach larva Strawberry leaf miner

Minor infestations of this common and widely distributed leaf miner often occur on cultivated raspberry, strawberry and other Rosaceae, including ornamentals such as cinquefoil. The leaf mines commence as linear galleries. Each then develops into an irregular, pale blotch, visible from above. The mines are relatively small and there are often several in each infested leaf or leaflet. Although usually unimportant, heavy infestations on young strawberry plants can have a detrimental effect on...

Agriotes obscurus L A sputator L Common click beetles

These two species are similar in habits to Agriotes lineatus (p. 132). Although both are also widely distributed, A. obscurus is most abundant in northerly districts, especially on lighter soils with a high organic content A. sputator has a more southerly distribution. Adults of A. obscurus are 7-10 mm long and uniformly dark brown, with a relatively large, densely punctured pronotum those of A. sputator are 6-7 mm long and mainly reddish-brown, with the pro-notum somewhat darker and relatively...

Liriomyza pisivora Hering larva A pea leaf miner

This species is very similar to Liriomyza congesta (p. 188) but adults are darker, the yellow coloration on the abdomen being far less extensive. Infestations also occur on the leaves of pea and Vicia bean but the mines are usually restricted to the lower surface, with the frass deposited in greenish-black bands. Also, the feeding galleries are relatively superficial and of little or no significance. Unlike L. congesta, with which this species was once confused, the posterior spiracles of the...

Dasineura pyri Bouche Pear leaf midge

This pest occurs on pear, especially on young trees, where the larvae cause a distinctive longitudinal curling of the young leaves. The larvae, which are whitish and up to 2 mm long, feed gregariously on the upper epidermis, within the shelter of the tightly rolled leaf margins. Infested leaves are discoloured they frequently turn red and, finally, black. There are usually three generations annually, and the pest tends to become more numerous later in the season. In dry summers, the number of...

Family Pamphilidae p 245 et seq

Robust-bodied sawflies with a short ovipositor and long, filiform antennae abdomen dorso-ventrally flattened. Larvae without abdominal prolegs but with prominent anal cerci (Fig. 145) leaf-rolling or web-forming and often gregarious. cercusA ,< ' .' ' Fig. 145 Larva of a social pear sawfly, Neurotoma saltuum - family Pamphilidae (x5). Fig. 146 Forewing of a wood-wasp - family Siricidae. Fig. 146 Forewing of a wood-wasp - family Siricidae. EXAMPLE Neurotoma saltuum (social pear sawfly).

Phalera bucephala L Bufftip moth

Minor infestations of this common, polyphagous species sometimes occur on fruit trees. The gregarious larvae cause considerable defoliation but are of greater significance on forestry and ornamental trees and shrubs. Moths are active from late May or June to July. Their eggs are laid in large batches on the underside of leaves and then covered in hairs from the female's abdomen. Larvae feed gregariously from July or August onwards but, unlike many other gregarious species, they do not form...

Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini Rosy apple aphid

This aphid (commonly known as 'blue bug') is a serious pest of apple, causing severe curling and distortion of leaves affected tissue (pseudo-galls) may also become yellowish or brown but not red (cf. Dysaphis devecta, above). Infested shoots also become distorted and stunted and fruits remain small and malformed. Heavy infestations also lead to premature leaf-fall and will reduce cropping potential for the following year. Eggs, overwintering on the bark, hatch in the early spring. Colonies...

Tetranychus urticae Koch Twospotted spider mite

Infestations of this generally abundant mite occur on a wide range of plants, including glasshouse ornamentals (e.g. carnation, chrysanthemum and rose) and vegetables (e.g. cucumber, sweet pepper and tomato), indoor and outdoor fruit crops (especially wall-trained fruit trees, bush fruits, cane fruits and strawberry) and hops. Serious attacks may also occur on hardy ornamentals and outdoor vegetable crops (including French bean and runner bean), especially in hot, dry summers occasionally,...

Vespula vulgaris L Common wasp

Wasps are generally abundant, well-known insects and are often regarded as pests. They feed avidly on ripening or over-ripe apples, grapes, pears, plums and other fruits, especially those previously damaged by birds or other agents wasps thereby become a nuisance. The presence of such insects in fruit plantations at harvest is also a potential hazard to fruit pickers, even when the insects are foraging only on fallen fruits. Wasps are sometimes also a problem in flower borders and nurseries,...

Phyllotreta nemorum L Large striped flea beetle

This flea beetle is a common pest of vegetable brassica crops, especially radish and turnip brassicaceous ornamentals, such as wallflower, are also attacked. Adults cause a pitting of cotyledons and leaves, and the larvae form small, pale, linear to blister-like leaf mines that eventually dry out. Attacks are most serious on young plants, especially in hot, dry weather when growth is retarded by lack of moisture. Larvae are unable to penetrate into heavily waxed plants such as cabbage,...

Bryobia ribis Thomas Gooseberry bryobia mite

This species was formerly an important pest of gooseberry but is now relatively uncommon. Heavy infestations have a pronounced effect on host bushes, the young foliage turning pale and then brown damaged leaves often shrivel and fall prematurely. Attacks also have a detrimental effect on cropping, reducing both fruit size and quality. The mites are similar in appearance to Fig. 343 Female apple & pear bryobia mite. Bryobia nibrioculus (x60). Fig. 343 Female apple & pear bryobia mite....

Eupteryx melissae Curtis Chrysanthemum leafhopper

Infestations of this locally abundant leafhopper occur on various cultivated plants, including chrysanthemum, garden mint and sage, individuals often inhabiting the upper surface of the leaves. Infested plants frequently become contaminated by cast-off nymphal skins leaves also become extensively speckled and such damage is often of considerable significance. Adults are c. 3 mm long and pale-coloured, with a black abdomen and the elytra extensively marked with greyish- or orange-brown (Fig....

Athalia rosae L Turnip sawfly

The turnip sawfly is a sporadically important pest of radish and turnip it also damages Chinese leaf, mustard, oilseed rape and swede crops. Larvae skeletonize the leaves of host plants, and heavy infestations can be of considerable economic importance. Populations of this pest declined throughout northwestern Europe in the late nineteenth century, and the sawny then became extinct as a breeding species in the British Isles. Since the 1940s, however, numbers have increased and the sawfly (which...

Croesus septentrionalis L Hazel sawfly

This generally common sawfly attacks a wide range of deciduous trees and shrubs (including Alnus, Betula and Corylus). The larvae often cause extensive damage to young ornamentals and can rapidly defoliate the branches they are also minor pests in cob nut, filbert and hazel plantations. Fig. 332 Adult hazel sawfly, Croesus septentrionalis (x4). Fig. 332 Adult hazel sawfly, Croesus septentrionalis (x4). over the head (a posture common to many species of sawfly larvae). Fully fed larvae enter the...

Drosophila melanogaster Meigen A small fruit fly

Moth Flies Psychoda Meigen

This generally abundant fly (best known for its universal use in cytological, genetical and other laboratory studies) is sometimes a minor problem in soft-fruit plantations, orchards and vineyards. Most frequently, the flies are merely of nuisance value, as they are often attracted in vast numbers to overripe, fermenting fruit and fruit juices, both indoors and outside. In vineyards, the larvae sometimes feed on damaged grapes and may also invade adjacent sound fruit, remov- Fig. 257 A small...

Cassida vittata de Villers

Adults or larvae of this often bivoltine species are associated with various kinds of Cheno-podiaceae and may, occasionally, cause damage to sugar beet infestations in the British Isles, however, are rare. Adults are 4.5-6.5 mm long and green with a metallic purplish to golden-green sutural band along the elytra they are readily distinguished from those of Cassida Fig. 212 Outline of the pronotum of various tortoise beetles, Cassida spp. (a) C. nobilis (b) C. nebulosa (c) C. vittata. Fig. 213 A...

Eupterycyba jucunda Herrich Schaeffer Potato leafhopper

Although associated mainly with Alnus, infestations of this generally common species often occur during the summer on potato. Infested leaves become speckled and, sometimes, yellowish or brown, but damage is usually unimportant. There are two generations annually. Adults are 4.0-4.5 mm long and mainly greenish or greenish-yellow, spotted with black, and with a mainly black abdomen there are three distinctive black spots on the pronotum and a pair of black triangles anteriorly on the scutellum....

Gastrophysa viridula Degeer Dock beetle

This generally common species occurs mainly on Rumex. The adults and larvae graze the surface and also bite out large holes in the leaves between the major veins. Infestations also occur on crops of rhubarb, and on certain other cultivated plants, the insects causing minor damage to the leaves and petioles. Adults emerge from hibernation in late March or April. They then invade host plants to feed on the leaves. After mating, impregnated females (each now with a greatly distended abdomen)...

Host Plant Index

Apple(s) 92, 97, 98, 101, 108. 112, 119. 121. 123, 131, 138, 150, 151, 153, 154. 172, 175, 203. 204. 205, 207. 211, 212. 213, 216, 218. 219, 221, 222. 231. 232, 243. 247, 250, 253, 256, 257, 266, 268 apricot 114 artichoke 238 Artemisia vulgaris 225, 226 asparagus 141, 142, 180, 191, 236 Asparagus officinalis 141 aster 260 ASTERACEAE 89, 90, 117, 122, 189, 192, 216, 217, 225, 238 Atriplex littoralis 96 Atriplex pa tula 139 aubergine 91, 104, 143, 210. 256. 261 barley 90, 92, 101, 115, 119, 120,...

Heliothis peltigera Denis Schiffermiiller Bordered straw moth

This subtropical, migratory, multivoltine species occurs occasionally in northern Europe, includ ing the British Isles, where infestations sometimes occur on pot marigold and certain other cultivated Asteraceae. In southern Europe, the larvae sometimes cause damage to field crops, including lucerne, maize, mint and tomato. The greenish, pale-marked larvae (up to 38 mm long when fully grown) are often mistaken for those of the silver y moth, Autographa gamma (p. 237) but are at once...

Hepialus humuli L Ghost swift moth

This widely distributed, polyphagous pest is associated mainly with permanent grassland and lawns but can also damage a wide range of agricultural and horticultural crops planted in recently broken-up grassland or pasture. The soil-inhabiting larvae attack the subterranean parts of plants particularly severe damage is caused in the second year of larval development. Adults are active at dusk, mainly in June and July. The females lay many hundreds of eggs, which they drop at random whilst...

Cercopis vulnerata Illiger in Rossi Red black froghopper

This widely distributed and generally common univoltine insect is a minor pest in orchards and hop gardens. The adults pierce the upper surface of the foliage to form small greenish-yellow marks that eventually turn brown. This symptom, which was once thought to be due to a fungal pathogen, is often known as 'angular leaf spot'. On pear, damage is restricted to the fruitlets and fruit stalks, these becoming marked Fig. 183 Forewing of Cercopis vulnerata (x7). Fig. 183 Forewing of Cercopis...

Mayetiola destructor Say Hessian fly

The hessian fly is associated mainly with wheat but will attack barley and rye Elytrigia repens is also a host. The larvae produce a noticeable swelling at the base of young plants later, they also cause the leaf nodes to swell. The ears of infested plants may turn whitish and the grains often shrivel infested plants may also lodge or break off in the wind, and this contributes to further yield loss. Although of relatively little importance in the British Isles, hessian fly is a major pest in...

Order Cryptostigmata Beetle Mites

Adults usually heavily sclerotized and darkly coloured, the idiosoma with wing-like or ridge-like Fig. 177 A cherry beetle mite, Humerobates rostrolamellatus - family Mycobatidae (x40). expansions (the pteromorphs) (Fig. 177) chelicerae typically chelate and prominent, sometimes with a long shaft ocelli absent. Most species are vegetarian and ground-dwelling, inhabiting the leaf-litter layer a few species occur above ground on plants. Adults 0.2-1.5 mm long.

Nematus leucotrochus Hartig Palespotted gooseberry sawfly

This species is associated with gooseberry and, occasionally, red currant and white currant. Unlike Nematus ribesii (p. 251), it is univoltine adults occur in May and the larvae feed mainly in May and June. The larvae, which usually occur in Fig. 337 Larva of pale-spotted gooseberry sawfly. Nematus leucotrochus (x4). Fig. 337 Larva of pale-spotted gooseberry sawfly. Nematus leucotrochus (x4). only small numbers, are distinguished from those of N. ribesii by their green, black-spotted head and...

Dysaphis crataegi Kaltenbach Hawthorncarrot aphid

This aphid overwinters in the egg stage on Crataegus, where spring colonies of blackish aphids, lightly dusted with wax, form conspicuous, deep-red pseudo-galls on the leaves. Winged aphids later migrate to wild and cultivated carrot, where they initiate dense, ant-attended colonies of wingless aphids on the tap root and leaf bases aphids also occur in summer on parsnip (Plate 2c), as a separate subspecies Dysaphis crataegi kunzei (Borner) hawthorn parsnip aphid. In the autumn, winged forms are...

Apamea sordens Hufnagel Rustic shoulder knot

This generally common species is a minor pest of wheat and barley the larvae also attack various grasses. The larvae feed mainly on leaves and stems but, in summer, the young larvae will also invade the ears and bore into the developing grain. The cause of the hollowed grain often goes unrecognized. Moths occur in May and June, and deposit their eggs on the leaves and developing ears of grasses and cereals. After egg hatch, the larvae feed mainly in the ears where they attack the developing...

Ceutorhynchus picitarsis Gyllenhal Rape winter stem weevil

This weevil is a local and usually uncommon pest of winter brassica crops, including oilseed rape, Fig. 231 Larva of cabbage stem weevil, Ceutorhynchuspallidactylus (x12). Fig. 231 Larva of cabbage stem weevil, Ceutorhynchuspallidactylus (x12). swede and turnip. The larvae feed gregariously within the petioles, stems and crowns, and heavy infestations result in extensive hollowing and rotting of the tissue (Plate 5d), stunting, malformation and, sometimes, death of plants. Surviving plants...

Epermenia chaerophyllella Goeze

This moth is a widespread but usually minor pest of garden-grown or allotment-grown parsnip infestations also occur on carrot. Leaves are grazed from below the upper surface remains intact but turns brown to give the appearance of an extended blotch attacks commence close to the petiole and, particularly on lower leaflets, may spread over most if not all of the lamina. Heavy infestations reduce the vigour of plants (cf. infestations of celery fly, Euleia heraclei, p. 179). Adults appear in...

Family Pyralidae p 223 et seq

Larvae Proleg

Adults with tympanal organs present at base of abdomen. Larvae with crochets on abdominal prolegs biordinal or triordinal, forming a complete circle or a mesal penellipse pre- Fig. 129 A tortricid larva - family Tortricidae (a) arrangement of crochets on an abdominal proleg Fig. 130 Head and prothorax of a tortricid larva family Tortricidae. Fig. 130 Head and prothorax of a tortricid larva family Tortricidae. spiracular plate on prothorax with two setae (Fig. 132) (three in most other...

Cetonia aurata L Rose chafer

Larvae of this minor pest feed mainly on the roots of grasses, but they will sometimes also attack those of crops planted in recently ploughed-up grassland. Individuals, which develop over 2 or 3 years, are whitish and up to 30 mm long, with the head, legs and body hairs reddish also, the body hairs are arranged in distinct, transverse rows. The adult chafers are 1420 mm long and metallic golden-green with wavy, silvery markings the underside of the body is purplish-red. Adults occur from late...

Dasineura brassicae Winnertz Brassica pod midge

Infestations of this potentially major pest occur on oilseed rape and other brassica seed crops but not on white mustard. The larvae feed within the developing pods and cause premature ripening and splitting, which may result in significant seed loss. Infested pods often swell (the so-called 'bladder pod' symptom) but this symptom is not expressed on all hosts. Midge damage is often concentrated on headlands and decreases markedly further into the crop. Adult midges emerge in May. They are weak...

Megoura viciae Buckton Vetch aphid

Minor infestations of this aphid occur on various members of the Fabaceae, including broad bean, culinary pea and vetches. Heavily infested parts of plants become discoloured, the affected tissue turning red and eventually black damage, however, is rarely important. The aphids are also vectors of several viruses, including bean enation mosaic and bean leaf roll. Eggs overwintering on host plants hatch in the spring from early April onwards. After about three generations of wingless forms,...

Acleris comariana Lienig Zeller Strawberry tortrix moth

Fig. 282 Strawberry tortrix moth, Acleris comariana (x6). Fig. 282 Strawberry tortrix moth, Acleris comariana (x6). This species is a locally common pest of strawberry, especially in fenland areas. The larvae, when numerous, cause considerable defoliation. They sometimes also attack the developing fruit, causing malformation. Unlike other strawberry-infesting tortricids, this species overwinters in the egg stage. The eggs hatch in spring and the larvae feed in folded leaves from April onwards,...

Napomyza carotae Spencer larva Carrot miner

This species is a minor pest of carrot, the larvae feeding in the leaves and the roots. Leaf mines are of little or no consequence. However, mined tap roots may become malformed attacks are of greatest importance on early crops. Although larval damage tends to be restricted to the uppermost part of the root and is relatively superficial, the overlying tissue eventually collapses to produce obvious, irregular scars which open out as the root grows (cf. carrot fly, Psila rosae, p. 181). Such...

Family Laelaptidae

A group of free-living (often predatory) or para- Fig. 167 A phytoseiid mite, Typhlodromus pyri - sitic, usually brownish mites, many of the para- family Phytoseiidae (xl50). sitic forms being highly specialized. Dorsal shield undivided and usually with more than 30 pairs of setae pedipalpal tarsus with a specialized two- EXAMPLES Androlaelaps casalis (poultry litter mite) Varroa jacobsoni, a parasite of honey bees.

Operophtera brumata L Winter moth

This species is an important orchard pest, especially of apple infestations also occur on bush Fig. 311 Male winter moth, Operophtera brumata (x3). Fig. 311 Male winter moth, Operophtera brumata (x3). fruits, including blueberry, currant and gooseberry. The larvae destroy unopened buds and also invade the leaves and blossom trusses. Later, attacks on apple fruitlets often result in the development on malformed fruit with corky scars and deep cavities extending to the core. Moths are most...

Contarinia pyrivora Riley Pear midge

This univoltine midge is a damaging pest of pear but tends to occur mainly on garden trees rather than in commercial orchards. Adult midges are active in the spring, when they deposit eggs in the open blossoms. The relatively large, up to 5 mm long, yellowish-white larvae feed gregariously within the developing fruitlets and become fully grown in about 6 weeks. They cause severe distortion affected fruitlets also turn black and, on reaching approximately 15-20 mm in diameter, usually crack open...

Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon Davidson Bulb potato aphid

This aphid is a generally common pest of glasshouse-grown bulbs or corms, and of potatoes in store or in chittting houses heavy infestations cause discoloration and death of sprouting shoots. The aphids will also damage such crops in the field, infested potato haulm turning yellow and wilting, significantly reducing yields. Heavily infested plants may be killed, especially in hot, dry summers when crops are under particular stress. Although known to transmit viruses, including potato leaf roll,...

Nematus ribesii Scopoli Common gooseberry sawfly

This generally abundant sawfly is a notorious pest of gooseberry infestations also occur on, for example, red currant and white currant, but not on black currant (cf. Nematus olfaciens, p. 252). Two- or three-year-old bushes are most likely to be attacked. Initial infestations tend to occur on the central, lower parts of bushes but they soon spread upwards and outwards. The larvae feed gregariously and rapidly defoliate the branches to leave only a skeletal framework of major veins. Heavy...

Bryobia praetiosa Koch Clover bryobia mite

This generally abundant species (along with the other species of Bryobia cited below) was once considered part of a complex of closely related biological races. Former members of this complex are structurally very similar, but there are noticeable differences in their habits and life-cycles. The clover bryobia mite infests clover (and many other legumes), grasses and various herbaceous plants in glasshouses, damage is often caused to the leaves of cucumber plants. Especially in the early...

Petrobia latens Miiller Stone mite

This widespread but minor pest is associated mainly with members of the Poaceae and, if numerous, will cause damage to various crops, including carrot, lettuce and onion. Symptoms range from a yellow speckling of leaves to a general bronzing also, the foliage often becomes shrivelled and brittle. Attacks, which tend to develop in patches, are most often noted under dry conditions the symptoms caused appear similar to the effects of drought. The mites do not produce webbing. Eggs are laid during...

Cnephasia pumicana Zeller larva Cereal leaf roller

This species is associated mainly with cereals, and is reported as a potentially important pest in parts of continental Europe, especially northern France. The larvae also feed on various other plants, although on many such 'hosts' they cannot complete their full development. Most significant damage is caused to the ears of wheat and barley. In some instances, grains are totally destroyed or their development aborted. In other cases, following damage to the stem above the top-most node, the ear...

Amphorophora idaei Borner Large raspberry aphid

Although commonly associated with wild and cultivated raspberry, and closely related plants (but not blackberry), this aphid is rarely numerous and is of significance mainly as a vector of raspberry leaf spot and raspberry mosaic viruses. This species overwinters in the egg stage. Nymphs appear from early March onwards and then feed on the tips of the developing buds. Later, they invade the underside of expanded leaves. The aphids are usually present in relatively small numbers and do not form...

Phyllobius pyri L Common leaf weevil

This weevil is a generally abundant pest, especially in grassland areas. The adults feed on the leaves of various trees, including fruit trees, making irregular holes in the leaves and flower petals. The larvae feed on the roots of various plants but are most abundant on grasses. Larval damage to the root system often loosens the turf and infested areas often develop into brownish, unthrifty patches larval damage to the roots of cereals is also reported. Adults appear in the spring, from late...

Choreutis pariana Clerck larva Apple leaf skeletonizer

This species is a potentially damaging pest of fruit trees, especially apple and pear. The larvae graze away extensive areas of leaf tissue, damaged tissue turning brown. Moths overwinter in various sheltered situations and emerge in April. Larvae feed singly on the upper surface of leaves, beneath a silken web. They also feed within folded leaves. Pupation occurs in dense, white cocoons formed on the underside of a leaf or on dead leaves on the ground. Adults emerge in July or early August. A...

Pemphigus phenax Borner Blunck Carrot root aphid

This species is a common but minor pest of carrot it also forms disfiguring galls on Populus nigra Ttalica'. Heavily infested carrots are weakened and the quality (and, hence, value) of wax-contaminated roots is reduced. Overwintered eggs on Populus hatch in the spring, and aphids move to the unfurling leaves where they induce the formation of mid-rib galls. Each gall becomes an elongate, somewhat wrinkled, reddish swelling (often tinged with yellow laterally), packed with numerous...

Napomyza cichorii Spencer

This species is restricted to parts of continental Europe, including Belgium, France, Italy and the Netherlands, where it is a locally important pest of chicory and endive. Larval mines in leaves and blanched chicory heads cause similar damage to those formed by the black chicory fly, Ophiomyia pinguis (below). In addition, mines in the roots, and within the blanched heads, lead to distortion, stunting and weakening of host plants. Heavy infestations result in considerable crop losses. Adults...

Eumerus strigatus Fallen A small narcissus fly

Infestations of this generally common species occur on narcissus and onion bulbs roots of various other crops, including cabbage, carrot, parsnip and potato, are also attacked. The larvae feed gregariously and break down the invaded tissue into a wet, greyish or blackish mass. The pest is usually of secondary importance and typically invades unhealthy or previously damaged plant material. Adult flies occur in the early spring and are attracted to rotting vegetative tissue. Eggs are then laid,...

Mycophila barnesi Edwards A mushroom midge

Larvae of this widely distributed midge are orange and occur commonly in cultivated mushroom beds, often in their thousands. Each 'mother' larva reaches about 2 mm in length and produces up to 20 'daughter' larvae in just over a week. Unlike larvae of the mushroom cecid, Heteropeza pygmaea (p. 176), the gut contents are voided at intervals throughout larval development, and breakdown of mushrooms through bacterial action does not occur also, there is no clumping behaviour and no resting stage...

Seres Aschiza

Fig. 96 Wing venation of a scuttle fly - family Phoridae. Fig. 96 Wing venation of a scuttle fly - family Phoridae. Fig. 97 Wing venation of a hover fly - family Syrphidae. Fig. 97 Wing venation of a hover fly - family Syrphidae. Fig. 98 Larva of a hover fly, Syrphus ribesii - family Syrphidae (x4). Fig. 98 Larva of a hover fly, Syrphus ribesii - family Syrphidae (x4). 12. Family PHORIDAE (scuttle flies) Small, black or brownish-black, hump-backed flies with a characteristic wing venation, just...

Penthaleus major Duges Redlegged earth mite

This mite is associated mainly with cereals and grasses but will also attack other plants, including vegetable crops. They cause a general silvering of infested foliage and, sometimes, withering of leaf tips. Damage, which may result in patches of poor growth, is most evident during the winter months. Development of the mites is favoured by cool conditions, and the life-cycle includes a period of extended summer aestivation in the egg stage. All stages of the mite occur during the autumn and...

Athous haemorrhoidalis F Garden click beetle

Adults of this generally common click beetle are reddish-brown and up to 12 mm long. They occur Fig. 205 Terminal body segment of various wireworms (a) Agriotes lineatus (b) Athous haemorrhoidalis (c) Ctenicera sp. Fig. 205 Terminal body segment of various wireworms (a) Agriotes lineatus (b) Athous haemorrhoidalis (c) Ctenicera sp. mainly from mid-May to July and, in the adult stage, are usually the most frequently encountered species. The larvae (wireworms) are slightly flatter than those of...

Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher Vine leaf blister mite

Infestations of this widely distributed pest occur on grape vines the mites sometimes induce the development of large, whitish to yellowish erinea on the underside of the leaves the upper surface of each gall becomes reddish-brown and blister-like (cf. leaf galls on vines inhabited by the grape phylloxera, Viteus vitifoliae, p. 123). Such damage often causes considerable leaf deformation and is attributable to the erineum strain of the mite. Two other strains are known a bud strain ( 'grape bud...

Nephrotoma appendiculata Pierre Spotted crane fly

This crane fly is a generally common but minor pest, and is usually of most significance in gardens and allotments. The larvae (known as 'leather-jackets') cause damage to the roots of grasses, especially in the early spring when patches of dead or dying plants may appear. The larvae also attack the roots, stolons and underground parts of stems of many other plants, including various ornamentals, soft-fruit crops and vegetables. Adults of this often abundant crane fly are most numerous in May,...

Oscinella frit L Frit fly

Frit fly is a major pest of oats but will also cause significant damage to barley, maize (including sweet corn), rye, wheat and various cultivated grasses, especially Italian and perennial rye-grass. Damage in the British Isles is most significant on grassland and oats, although economically important attacks on sweet corn are also frequent. Infestations are usually most severe on lowland pastures and on crops direct-drilled into grass swards or on crops following a grass ley, as the larvae...

Acalitus essigi Hassan Blackberry mite

This species is widely distributed and sometimes common on cultivated and wild blackberry. The mites do not damage the leaves (cf. raspberry leaf & bud mite, Phyllocoptesgracilis, p. 259) but cause a characteristic uneven ripening of infested fruits, the basal drupelets of which remain hard and greenish-red to red whilst the rest mature, a condition known as 'red-berry' disease. The incidence of 'red-berry' tends to increase as the season progresses, with late-maturing fruits the most...

Contarinia medicaginis Kieffer Lucerne flower midge

Infestations of this widely distributed midge occur on lucerne. The whitish larvae (up to 2mm long) feed gregariously within the flower buds, which become swollen basally and fail to open. Heavy infestations cause significant seed loss, damage often being of considerable importance in continental Europe but of little significance in the British Isles. The yellowish-grey adults occur from May onwards, and development from egg to adult takes approximately 5-6 weeks there are two or three...

Hepialus lupulinus L Garden swift moth

This pest is widespread and common on a wide range of crops, particularly those grown in recently ploughed grassland and those in weedy sites. The larvae attack the roots and also bore into bulbs, corms and tubers. Infestations are often noted on carrot, hop, lettuce, potato and strawberry, and on many ornamental plants bean, beet, cereals, parsnip and various other crops are also attacked. Damage occurs mainly from autumn to early spring. Adults occur mainly in May and June. They are active at...

Dasineura leguminicola Lintner Clover seed midge

This widely distributed and generally common, reddish to orange-coloured midge is associated with red clover. The larvae are capable of causing significant damage to seed crops affected plants flower irregularly, buds fail to open properly and the heads turn brown prematurely. Affected seeds are often distorted and may be invaded by secondary fungal pathogens. Eggs are deposited singly, or in small batches, in the furled heads of clover plants, usually in June. They hatch a few days later. The...

Cephus pygmeus L Wheat stem sawfly

This widely distributed sawfly is a pest of winter wheat but will also attack barley, rye, other cereals and grasses. Although of major importance in many parts of its range (notably in eastern Europe) in some areas (including the British Isles) the insect is now less important than formerly possibly, numbers declined following the adoption of post-harvest straw burning. It remains to be seen whether banning of straw burning will lead to an increase in the pest status of this insect. Plants...

Phorbia securis Tiensuu Latewheat shoot fly

This minor pest is associated mainly with spring and winter wheat, but will also breed on grasses. The larvae feed singly inside young plants, each causing yellowing, wilting and death of the centre shoot. Damage is rarely of significance and usually most evident on backward crops. In the British Isles, attacks are most often found in eastern England. Adults are active in March and April. Eggs are then deposited singly beneath the outer edges of the leaf sheaths of young wheat plants. The eggs...

Orgyia antiqua L Vapourer moth

Although mainly of significance as a defoliator of specimen trees in towns and cities, larvae of this pest also attack fruit trees. Damage on fruit crops, however, is rarely of significance. Adults occur from July to September. The flightless females are sedentary and, following their emergence, stay on the remains of the pupal cocoon. Males, however, are very active and, in sunny weather, fly rapidly in search of newly emerged females. Eggs are laid in a large batch of several hundred on the...

Order Thysanoptera Thrips

Minute or small, slender-bodied insects with a distinct head, a well-developed prothorax and a long, narrow, 11-segmented abdomen (the first segment greatly reduced and the last modified in association with the external genitalia) cerci absent wings, when present, very narrow, membranous and strap-like, with few or no veins and marginal fringes of long setae antennae short, 6-to 10-segmented tarsi 1- or 2-segmented, each with a protrusible terminal vesicle (the arolium). Mouthparts asymmetrical...

Siteroptes graminum Reuter Grass cereal mite

Infestations of this widespread but sporadic and usually minor pest are sometimes noted on cereals (including wheat and barley) and grasses. Affected plants are stunted and their infloresences fail to emerge properly, becoming distorted and silvery in appearance (a condition known as 'silver top'). Attacks are usually established in association with the fungus Fusarium poae. A similar relationship occurs on glasshouse-grown carnation this results in rotting and death of the buds (a condition...