Ceutorhynchus picitarsis Gyllenhal Rape winter stem weevil

This weevil is a local and usually uncommon pest of winter brassica crops, including oilseed rape, Fig. 231 Larva of cabbage stem weevil, Ceutorhynchuspallidactylus (x12). Fig. 231 Larva of cabbage stem weevil, Ceutorhynchuspallidactylus (x12). swede and turnip. The larvae feed gregariously within the petioles, stems and crowns, and heavy infestations result in extensive hollowing and rotting of the tissue (Plate 5d), stunting, malformation and, sometimes, death of plants. Surviving plants...

Epermenia chaerophyllella Goeze

This moth is a widespread but usually minor pest of garden-grown or allotment-grown parsnip infestations also occur on carrot. Leaves are grazed from below the upper surface remains intact but turns brown to give the appearance of an extended blotch attacks commence close to the petiole and, particularly on lower leaflets, may spread over most if not all of the lamina. Heavy infestations reduce the vigour of plants (cf. infestations of celery fly, Euleia heraclei, p. 179). Adults appear in...

Family Pyralidae p 223 et seq

Adults with tympanal organs present at base of abdomen. Larvae with crochets on abdominal prolegs biordinal or triordinal, forming a complete circle or a mesal penellipse pre- Fig. 129 A tortricid larva - family Tortricidae (a) arrangement of crochets on an abdominal proleg Fig. 130 Head and prothorax of a tortricid larva family Tortricidae. Fig. 130 Head and prothorax of a tortricid larva family Tortricidae. spiracular plate on prothorax with two setae (Fig. 132) (three in most other...

Cetonia aurata L Rose chafer

Larvae of this minor pest feed mainly on the roots of grasses, but they will sometimes also attack those of crops planted in recently ploughed-up grassland. Individuals, which develop over 2 or 3 years, are whitish and up to 30 mm long, with the head, legs and body hairs reddish also, the body hairs are arranged in distinct, transverse rows. The adult chafers are 1420 mm long and metallic golden-green with wavy, silvery markings the underside of the body is purplish-red. Adults occur from late...

Dasineura brassicae Winnertz Brassica pod midge

Infestations of this potentially major pest occur on oilseed rape and other brassica seed crops but not on white mustard. The larvae feed within the developing pods and cause premature ripening and splitting, which may result in significant seed loss. Infested pods often swell (the so-called 'bladder pod' symptom) but this symptom is not expressed on all hosts. Midge damage is often concentrated on headlands and decreases markedly further into the crop. Adult midges emerge in May. They are weak...

Megoura viciae Buckton Vetch aphid

Minor infestations of this aphid occur on various members of the Fabaceae, including broad bean, culinary pea and vetches. Heavily infested parts of plants become discoloured, the affected tissue turning red and eventually black damage, however, is rarely important. The aphids are also vectors of several viruses, including bean enation mosaic and bean leaf roll. Eggs overwintering on host plants hatch in the spring from early April onwards. After about three generations of wingless forms,...

Acleris comariana Lienig Zeller Strawberry tortrix moth

Fig. 282 Strawberry tortrix moth, Acleris comariana (x6). Fig. 282 Strawberry tortrix moth, Acleris comariana (x6). This species is a locally common pest of strawberry, especially in fenland areas. The larvae, when numerous, cause considerable defoliation. They sometimes also attack the developing fruit, causing malformation. Unlike other strawberry-infesting tortricids, this species overwinters in the egg stage. The eggs hatch in spring and the larvae feed in folded leaves from April onwards,...

Napomyza carotae Spencer larva Carrot miner

This species is a minor pest of carrot, the larvae feeding in the leaves and the roots. Leaf mines are of little or no consequence. However, mined tap roots may become malformed attacks are of greatest importance on early crops. Although larval damage tends to be restricted to the uppermost part of the root and is relatively superficial, the overlying tissue eventually collapses to produce obvious, irregular scars which open out as the root grows (cf. carrot fly, Psila rosae, p. 181). Such...

Family Laelaptidae

A group of free-living (often predatory) or para- Fig. 167 A phytoseiid mite, Typhlodromus pyri - sitic, usually brownish mites, many of the para- family Phytoseiidae (xl50). sitic forms being highly specialized. Dorsal shield undivided and usually with more than 30 pairs of setae pedipalpal tarsus with a specialized two- EXAMPLES Androlaelaps casalis (poultry litter mite) Varroa jacobsoni, a parasite of honey bees.

Operophtera brumata L Winter moth

This species is an important orchard pest, especially of apple infestations also occur on bush Fig. 311 Male winter moth, Operophtera brumata (x3). Fig. 311 Male winter moth, Operophtera brumata (x3). fruits, including blueberry, currant and gooseberry. The larvae destroy unopened buds and also invade the leaves and blossom trusses. Later, attacks on apple fruitlets often result in the development on malformed fruit with corky scars and deep cavities extending to the core. Moths are most...

Contarinia pyrivora Riley Pear midge

This univoltine midge is a damaging pest of pear but tends to occur mainly on garden trees rather than in commercial orchards. Adult midges are active in the spring, when they deposit eggs in the open blossoms. The relatively large, up to 5 mm long, yellowish-white larvae feed gregariously within the developing fruitlets and become fully grown in about 6 weeks. They cause severe distortion affected fruitlets also turn black and, on reaching approximately 15-20 mm in diameter, usually crack open...

Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon Davidson Bulb potato aphid

This aphid is a generally common pest of glasshouse-grown bulbs or corms, and of potatoes in store or in chittting houses heavy infestations cause discoloration and death of sprouting shoots. The aphids will also damage such crops in the field, infested potato haulm turning yellow and wilting, significantly reducing yields. Heavily infested plants may be killed, especially in hot, dry summers when crops are under particular stress. Although known to transmit viruses, including potato leaf roll,...

Nematus ribesii Scopoli Common gooseberry sawfly

This generally abundant sawfly is a notorious pest of gooseberry infestations also occur on, for example, red currant and white currant, but not on black currant (cf. Nematus olfaciens, p. 252). Two- or three-year-old bushes are most likely to be attacked. Initial infestations tend to occur on the central, lower parts of bushes but they soon spread upwards and outwards. The larvae feed gregariously and rapidly defoliate the branches to leave only a skeletal framework of major veins. Heavy...

Bryobia praetiosa Koch Clover bryobia mite

This generally abundant species (along with the other species of Bryobia cited below) was once considered part of a complex of closely related biological races. Former members of this complex are structurally very similar, but there are noticeable differences in their habits and life-cycles. The clover bryobia mite infests clover (and many other legumes), grasses and various herbaceous plants in glasshouses, damage is often caused to the leaves of cucumber plants. Especially in the early...

Petrobia latens Miiller Stone mite

This widespread but minor pest is associated mainly with members of the Poaceae and, if numerous, will cause damage to various crops, including carrot, lettuce and onion. Symptoms range from a yellow speckling of leaves to a general bronzing also, the foliage often becomes shrivelled and brittle. Attacks, which tend to develop in patches, are most often noted under dry conditions the symptoms caused appear similar to the effects of drought. The mites do not produce webbing. Eggs are laid during...

Cnephasia pumicana Zeller larva Cereal leaf roller

This species is associated mainly with cereals, and is reported as a potentially important pest in parts of continental Europe, especially northern France. The larvae also feed on various other plants, although on many such 'hosts' they cannot complete their full development. Most significant damage is caused to the ears of wheat and barley. In some instances, grains are totally destroyed or their development aborted. In other cases, following damage to the stem above the top-most node, the ear...

Amphorophora idaei Borner Large raspberry aphid

Although commonly associated with wild and cultivated raspberry, and closely related plants (but not blackberry), this aphid is rarely numerous and is of significance mainly as a vector of raspberry leaf spot and raspberry mosaic viruses. This species overwinters in the egg stage. Nymphs appear from early March onwards and then feed on the tips of the developing buds. Later, they invade the underside of expanded leaves. The aphids are usually present in relatively small numbers and do not form...

Phyllobius pyri L Common leaf weevil

This weevil is a generally abundant pest, especially in grassland areas. The adults feed on the leaves of various trees, including fruit trees, making irregular holes in the leaves and flower petals. The larvae feed on the roots of various plants but are most abundant on grasses. Larval damage to the root system often loosens the turf and infested areas often develop into brownish, unthrifty patches larval damage to the roots of cereals is also reported. Adults appear in the spring, from late...

Choreutis pariana Clerck larva Apple leaf skeletonizer

This species is a potentially damaging pest of fruit trees, especially apple and pear. The larvae graze away extensive areas of leaf tissue, damaged tissue turning brown. Moths overwinter in various sheltered situations and emerge in April. Larvae feed singly on the upper surface of leaves, beneath a silken web. They also feed within folded leaves. Pupation occurs in dense, white cocoons formed on the underside of a leaf or on dead leaves on the ground. Adults emerge in July or early August. A...

Pemphigus phenax Borner Blunck Carrot root aphid

This species is a common but minor pest of carrot it also forms disfiguring galls on Populus nigra Ttalica'. Heavily infested carrots are weakened and the quality (and, hence, value) of wax-contaminated roots is reduced. Overwintered eggs on Populus hatch in the spring, and aphids move to the unfurling leaves where they induce the formation of mid-rib galls. Each gall becomes an elongate, somewhat wrinkled, reddish swelling (often tinged with yellow laterally), packed with numerous...

Napomyza cichorii Spencer

This species is restricted to parts of continental Europe, including Belgium, France, Italy and the Netherlands, where it is a locally important pest of chicory and endive. Larval mines in leaves and blanched chicory heads cause similar damage to those formed by the black chicory fly, Ophiomyia pinguis (below). In addition, mines in the roots, and within the blanched heads, lead to distortion, stunting and weakening of host plants. Heavy infestations result in considerable crop losses. Adults...

Eumerus strigatus Fallen A small narcissus fly

Infestations of this generally common species occur on narcissus and onion bulbs roots of various other crops, including cabbage, carrot, parsnip and potato, are also attacked. The larvae feed gregariously and break down the invaded tissue into a wet, greyish or blackish mass. The pest is usually of secondary importance and typically invades unhealthy or previously damaged plant material. Adult flies occur in the early spring and are attracted to rotting vegetative tissue. Eggs are then laid,...

Mycophila barnesi Edwards A mushroom midge

Larvae of this widely distributed midge are orange and occur commonly in cultivated mushroom beds, often in their thousands. Each 'mother' larva reaches about 2 mm in length and produces up to 20 'daughter' larvae in just over a week. Unlike larvae of the mushroom cecid, Heteropeza pygmaea (p. 176), the gut contents are voided at intervals throughout larval development, and breakdown of mushrooms through bacterial action does not occur also, there is no clumping behaviour and no resting stage...

Seres Aschiza

Fig. 96 Wing venation of a scuttle fly - family Phoridae. Fig. 96 Wing venation of a scuttle fly - family Phoridae. Fig. 97 Wing venation of a hover fly - family Syrphidae. Fig. 97 Wing venation of a hover fly - family Syrphidae. Fig. 98 Larva of a hover fly, Syrphus ribesii - family Syrphidae (x4). Fig. 98 Larva of a hover fly, Syrphus ribesii - family Syrphidae (x4). 12. Family PHORIDAE (scuttle flies) Small, black or brownish-black, hump-backed flies with a characteristic wing venation, just...

Penthaleus major Duges Redlegged earth mite

This mite is associated mainly with cereals and grasses but will also attack other plants, including vegetable crops. They cause a general silvering of infested foliage and, sometimes, withering of leaf tips. Damage, which may result in patches of poor growth, is most evident during the winter months. Development of the mites is favoured by cool conditions, and the life-cycle includes a period of extended summer aestivation in the egg stage. All stages of the mite occur during the autumn and...

Athous haemorrhoidalis F Garden click beetle

Adults of this generally common click beetle are reddish-brown and up to 12 mm long. They occur Fig. 205 Terminal body segment of various wireworms (a) Agriotes lineatus (b) Athous haemorrhoidalis (c) Ctenicera sp. Fig. 205 Terminal body segment of various wireworms (a) Agriotes lineatus (b) Athous haemorrhoidalis (c) Ctenicera sp. mainly from mid-May to July and, in the adult stage, are usually the most frequently encountered species. The larvae (wireworms) are slightly flatter than those of...

Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher Vine leaf blister mite

Infestations of this widely distributed pest occur on grape vines the mites sometimes induce the development of large, whitish to yellowish erinea on the underside of the leaves the upper surface of each gall becomes reddish-brown and blister-like (cf. leaf galls on vines inhabited by the grape phylloxera, Viteus vitifoliae, p. 123). Such damage often causes considerable leaf deformation and is attributable to the erineum strain of the mite. Two other strains are known a bud strain ( 'grape bud...

Nephrotoma appendiculata Pierre Spotted crane fly

This crane fly is a generally common but minor pest, and is usually of most significance in gardens and allotments. The larvae (known as 'leather-jackets') cause damage to the roots of grasses, especially in the early spring when patches of dead or dying plants may appear. The larvae also attack the roots, stolons and underground parts of stems of many other plants, including various ornamentals, soft-fruit crops and vegetables. Adults of this often abundant crane fly are most numerous in May,...

Oscinella frit L Frit fly

Frit fly is a major pest of oats but will also cause significant damage to barley, maize (including sweet corn), rye, wheat and various cultivated grasses, especially Italian and perennial rye-grass. Damage in the British Isles is most significant on grassland and oats, although economically important attacks on sweet corn are also frequent. Infestations are usually most severe on lowland pastures and on crops direct-drilled into grass swards or on crops following a grass ley, as the larvae...

Acalitus essigi Hassan Blackberry mite

This species is widely distributed and sometimes common on cultivated and wild blackberry. The mites do not damage the leaves (cf. raspberry leaf & bud mite, Phyllocoptesgracilis, p. 259) but cause a characteristic uneven ripening of infested fruits, the basal drupelets of which remain hard and greenish-red to red whilst the rest mature, a condition known as 'red-berry' disease. The incidence of 'red-berry' tends to increase as the season progresses, with late-maturing fruits the most...

Contarinia medicaginis Kieffer Lucerne flower midge

Infestations of this widely distributed midge occur on lucerne. The whitish larvae (up to 2mm long) feed gregariously within the flower buds, which become swollen basally and fail to open. Heavy infestations cause significant seed loss, damage often being of considerable importance in continental Europe but of little significance in the British Isles. The yellowish-grey adults occur from May onwards, and development from egg to adult takes approximately 5-6 weeks there are two or three...

Hepialus lupulinus L Garden swift moth

This pest is widespread and common on a wide range of crops, particularly those grown in recently ploughed grassland and those in weedy sites. The larvae attack the roots and also bore into bulbs, corms and tubers. Infestations are often noted on carrot, hop, lettuce, potato and strawberry, and on many ornamental plants bean, beet, cereals, parsnip and various other crops are also attacked. Damage occurs mainly from autumn to early spring. Adults occur mainly in May and June. They are active at...

Dasineura leguminicola Lintner Clover seed midge

This widely distributed and generally common, reddish to orange-coloured midge is associated with red clover. The larvae are capable of causing significant damage to seed crops affected plants flower irregularly, buds fail to open properly and the heads turn brown prematurely. Affected seeds are often distorted and may be invaded by secondary fungal pathogens. Eggs are deposited singly, or in small batches, in the furled heads of clover plants, usually in June. They hatch a few days later. The...

Cephus pygmeus L Wheat stem sawfly

This widely distributed sawfly is a pest of winter wheat but will also attack barley, rye, other cereals and grasses. Although of major importance in many parts of its range (notably in eastern Europe) in some areas (including the British Isles) the insect is now less important than formerly possibly, numbers declined following the adoption of post-harvest straw burning. It remains to be seen whether banning of straw burning will lead to an increase in the pest status of this insect. Plants...

Phorbia securis Tiensuu Latewheat shoot fly

This minor pest is associated mainly with spring and winter wheat, but will also breed on grasses. The larvae feed singly inside young plants, each causing yellowing, wilting and death of the centre shoot. Damage is rarely of significance and usually most evident on backward crops. In the British Isles, attacks are most often found in eastern England. Adults are active in March and April. Eggs are then deposited singly beneath the outer edges of the leaf sheaths of young wheat plants. The eggs...

Orgyia antiqua L Vapourer moth

Although mainly of significance as a defoliator of specimen trees in towns and cities, larvae of this pest also attack fruit trees. Damage on fruit crops, however, is rarely of significance. Adults occur from July to September. The flightless females are sedentary and, following their emergence, stay on the remains of the pupal cocoon. Males, however, are very active and, in sunny weather, fly rapidly in search of newly emerged females. Eggs are laid in a large batch of several hundred on the...

Order Thysanoptera Thrips

Minute or small, slender-bodied insects with a distinct head, a well-developed prothorax and a long, narrow, 11-segmented abdomen (the first segment greatly reduced and the last modified in association with the external genitalia) cerci absent wings, when present, very narrow, membranous and strap-like, with few or no veins and marginal fringes of long setae antennae short, 6-to 10-segmented tarsi 1- or 2-segmented, each with a protrusible terminal vesicle (the arolium). Mouthparts asymmetrical...

Siteroptes graminum Reuter Grass cereal mite

Infestations of this widespread but sporadic and usually minor pest are sometimes noted on cereals (including wheat and barley) and grasses. Affected plants are stunted and their infloresences fail to emerge properly, becoming distorted and silvery in appearance (a condition known as 'silver top'). Attacks are usually established in association with the fungus Fusarium poae. A similar relationship occurs on glasshouse-grown carnation this results in rotting and death of the buds (a condition...

Order Derma Era Earwigs

Elongate, omnivorous insects with mouthparts prognathous, adapted for biting and chewing forewings modified into very short, leathery elytra hindwings semi-circular and membranous, with a radial venation legs short, tarsi 3-segmented anal cerci usually modified into a pair of forceps-like pincers (Fig. 18) ovipositor reduced or absent. Metamorphosis incomplete development includes egg and nymphal stages, the latter being similar in appearance to adults but smaller and less strongly sclerotized....

Helicoverpa armigera Hiibner Scarce bordered straw moth

In parts of southern Europe, this notorious tropical and subtropical pest is considered a significant pest of vegetable crops such as artichoke, bean, cucumber and tomato in some areas, infestations also occur regularly on glasshouse-grown ornamentals such as carnation and chrysanthemum. The moths sometimes migrate northwards (but they very rarely reach the British Isles) where, if conditions are favourable, they may breed the pest may also, occasionally, be introduced accidentally into such...

Chrysoteuchia culmella L Garden grass veneer moth

This generally abundant species sometimes causes severe damage in permanent grassland. Attacked plants are severed at or below ground level, damage being caused both to the leaves and the root system. Large patches of dead grass occur in heavily infested sites, and damage may extend over several hectares. Adults occur in June and July. They fly mainly at dusk but, if disturbed during the daytime, they fly away erratically to settle again a short distance ,away, typically head downwards on grass...

Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank Mould mite

This small (0.3-0.5mm long), translucent, relatively slender-bodied mite is often reported infesting mouldy plant material, including laboratory plant tissue cultures on agar plates. The mites, along with other species of Tyrophagus (and certain related genera e.g. Caloglyphus) also occur in mushroom beds. They often form pits in the mushroom stipes and caps, and may also hollow-out the tissue within the developing buttons damaged areas usually become further broken down and moist, following...

Delia florilega Zetterstedt A bean seed fly

This pest attacks French bean, runner bean, bulb and salad onions, and causes the same kind of damage as Delia platura (q.v.). The larvae are relatively slender-bodied, with a thin, semitransparent body wall, through which the pinkish gut contents are clearly visible the mouthparts (cephalopharyngeal skeleton) are prominent and the head only partly retracted into the prothorax (cf. onion fly, D. antiqua, p. 197) the posterior papillae are also particularly prominent (cf. D. platura, p. 199).

Aphis nasturtii Kaltenbach Buckthornpotato aphid

This generally common species is a minor pest of certain vegetable crops, especially potato and watercress. The aphids cause little direct damage and tend to be of greater significance as vectors of viruses, including potato virus A, potato virus Y and turnip mosaic. This aphid overwinters in the egg stage on Rhamnus. Colonies develop during the spring from April onwards and, in June, winged forms migrate to a wide variety of summer hosts, including potato, tomato and watercress. Breeding...

Hauptidia maroccana Melichar Glasshouse leafhopper

This polyphagous leafhopper is well established in glasshouses in northern Europe. It feeds on the underside of the leaves of cucumber, melon, tomato and various ornamentals, especially chrysanthemum and primrose if conditions are favourable, infestations may also occur on outdoor plants, including various weeds. The insects cause a pale speckling or mottling of infested leaves (Plate le). Attacked plants may be weakened, and seedlings can be killed, but infestations are rarely of significance....

Phyllotreta nigripes F

This flea beetle is more abundant in southerly areas and appears somewhat earlier in the spring than other related species. Adults are 2.0-2.5 mm long, and black with a metallic blue or metallic green sheen and very finely punctured elytra (cf. Phyllotreta consobrina, above) the antennae are entirely black the legs are black with brownish tibiae. Larvae are mainly white with reduced thoracic and abdominal plates. Adults feed on various members of the Brassicaceae, and larvae attack the roots of...

Phyllotreta undulata Kutschera Small striped flea beetle

The small striped flea beetle is often an abundant pest of Brassicaceae, including watercress and various other vegetable crops. Adults and larvae cause typical flea beetle damage (see Phyllotreta cruciferae, p. 146) the adults are also vectors of turnip yellow mosaic virus. The biology is essentially similar to that of P. nemorum (p. 147). Adults are 2.0-2.3 mm long and black with a pair of centrally narrowed yellow bands on the elytra, the black area between them narrowing noticeably both...

Phyllotreta vittula Redtenbacher Barley flea beetle

Minor infestations of this flea beetle occur on grasses and cereals, including sweet corn. Adults graze the upper surface of the leaves, removing narrow strips of tissue between the veins damaged areas appear whitish. Leaf symptoms are similar to those produced by cereal leaf beetles, Oulema spp. (p. 144 et seq.) but the stripes are much narrower and usually far less extensive. Barley flea beetles also feed on beet and brassica crops, such as cabbage, radish and turnip they cause typical...

Phytomyza hordeola Goureau larva A chrysanthemum leaf miner

Adults of this widely distributed and generally common leaf miner (Fig. 262) are similar in appearance to those of Phytomyza syngenesiae (p. 192) and, mistakenly, both species have been referred to in older literature as P. atricornis The larvae are very polyphagous and form whitish mines in the leaves of various weeds and ornamental plants, and in certain field crops such as flax, linseed and pea (Plate 8e) mines may occur on either the upper or the lower side of leaves. In common with P....

Phytomyza nigra Meigen

This widespread and generally common leaf miner is a minor pest of barley, oats, rye and wheat it is also associated with various grasses. Damage is usually insignificant and restricted to the loss of photosynthetic tissue. Larvae feed within the leaves of various cereals and grasses to form long, narrow, whitish mines. Pupation occurs in the mine, with the anterior spiracles of the puparium protruding through the upper epidermis. There are several generations annually, and larvae occur from...

Phytomyza ramosa Hendel Teasel fly9

This widespread, relatively large species is associated with Dipsacus and, less frequently, other members of the Dipsacaceae. The white larva forms an elongate mine confined mainly to the mid-rib of a leaf, but (at least on small leaves) with short lateral galleries extending into the leaf lamina mines may also extend into the main stem. Pupation occurs within the main gallery in a whitish puparium (3.5 mm long). Adults are mainly black (wing length 2.2-3.2mm). Al- 9 The name teasel fly' is...

Phytomyza rufipes Meigen larva Cabbage leaf miner

This generally abundant species is a minor pest of brassica crops, including broccoli, cauliflower, mustard and oilseed rape. Attacked seedlings may become malformed, especially if the larval mines extend into the stems, but damage caused to established plants is usually of little or no significance. Infestations on autumn-sprouting broccoli ( calabrese) can be troublesome, and the presence of larvae in crops sent for processing sometimes leads to the rejection of consignments. In the autumn,...

Pieris napi L Greenveined white butterfly

Although larvae of this widely distributed species often feed on cultivated brassica plants, they are rarely numerous and occur mainly on wild plants such as Sisymbrium officinale. This species is, therefore, of little economic importance. Adults occur in May and June, and in late July and August. Eggs are laid singly on the leaves of host plants and the larvae feed in summer and autumn. Adult 40-44 mm wingspan forewings of male mainly white, more or less suffused with black both apically and...

Piesma maculatum Laporte de Castelnau Spinach beet bug

This bug is distinguished from the previous species by the presence of just two longitudinal ridges on the pronotum adults are also slightly smaller (up to 2.8mm long). Eggs are laid in the spring on both sides of expanded leaves and also on the petioles. The nymphs develop rapidly, producing pale feeding marks on infested tissue and causing noticeable leaf curling. There is one main generation each year but, in favourable areas, at least a partial second. Although associated with beet crops in...

Piesma quadratum Fieber Beet leaf bug

This locally distributed species is a potentially important pest of sugar beet in parts of continental Europe where, in addition to causing a pale mottling of infested foliage, it is also a vector of beet leaf crinkle virus (a disease not found in the British Isles). In the British Isles, this insect is associated mainly with wild Chenopodiaceae, e.g. Atrlplex littoralis, Beta vulgaris and Halimione portulacoides, growing along the coast of East Anglia. Adults overwinter in sheltered field...

Platyparea poeciloptera Schrank Asparagus fly

This insect is an important pest in the main asparagus-growing areas of continental Europe. Heavy infestations weaken the crowns of plants and reduce crop yields. Larval damage in early summer causes asparagus heads to become dwarfed and distorted. Later in the season, infested shoots are girdled. This leads to the premature death of foliage and stems. Although formerly recorded in the British Isles as a minor pest, this insect is probably now extinct in these islands. Eggs are laid in young...

Plesiocoris rugicollis Fallen Apple capsid

Nowadays, this locally distributed capsid is a relatively minor pest of apple. Leaves and shoots are punctured, and tissue becomes distorted and marked with necrotic spots. Attacked fruitlets develop corky scars and may drop prematurely. Apple capsid will also damage the foliage of currant and gooseberry bushes. Adults are active in late June and July, when eggs are laid in the bark of apple trees. The eggs hatch in the following spring. The very active nymphs then attack the foliage and...

Plinthus caliginosus F Hop root weevil

This generally uncommon weevil is most often found in hop gardens and vineyards but will also attack crops such as raspberry and strawberry. Most damage is done by the larvae these attack the roots and are especially damaging to newly planted stock and in young plantations. The adult weevils may be found throughout the year but are most common in the late summer and autumn. They are rather inactive and usually shelter during the daytime beneath moss, stones or pieces of wood. Eggs are laid...

Pseudonapomyza atra Meigen larva A cereal leaf miner

This widely distributed but local leaf miner is a minor pest of barley it is also associated with oats, wheat and various grasses. The tips of infested leaves become discoloured by the relatively narrow, pale yellow leaf mines. Damage sometimes attracts attention, but infestations are rarely, if ever, of economic significance. Adults appear in May, and those of a partial second generation emerge in the summer. From one to five eggs are deposited about 10 cm from the tip of a leaf, each...

Psylla pyricola Forster Pear sucker

This psyllid is an important pest of pear, and heavy infestations often result in fruit distortion and premature leaf-fall summer infestations may have a deleterious effect on fruit-bud development and can check tree growth. Nymphs of the first generation can also cause direct damage to blossoms, the petals turning brown. Foliage and fruits are contaminated by honeydew, excreted in profusion by the nymphs, and by sooty moulds that subsequently develop on the honey-dew affected fruits may be...

Psylliodes attenuata Koch Hop flea beetle

This uncommon pest is associated with hop. It occasionally causes damage to young growth but Fig. 223 Larva of cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (a) head and thorax (xlO). Fig. 223 Larva of cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (a) head and thorax (xlO). attacks are rarely important and usually of most significance in nursery beds. Adults hibernate throughout the winter. They emerge in the spring and eventually deposit eggs in the soil around the base of host...

Pulvinaria regalis Canard Horsechestnut scale

This American species is associated with various ornamental trees and is nowadays a common sight on roadside trees in towns and cities in southern England it is also now present in conti nental Europe (e.g. in parts of northern France). Prior to 1960, it was unknown in Europe. Although attacked trees are often heavily infested, effects on growth appear to be minimal. This pest overwinters as first-instar nymphs, which continue feeding but grow only slowly. In the spring, following bud-burst,...

Pyrausta aurata Scopoli

In parts of continental Europe, this moth is considered a significant pest of cultivated mint. The larvae web the leaves together with silk and also cause defoliation. In the British Isles, larvae sometimes infest mint growing in gardens and allotments, especially in chalkland areas, but attacks are not of commercial importance. Adults fly in sunshine, and those of the first generation are active in May and June. Firstgeneration larvae feed in June and July on wild and cultivated mint (and...

Resseliella sp Bean stem midge

This undescribed species of Reselliella is a minor pest of field bean and was first reported, in the early 1980s, in eastern England. First-generation adults appear in late May and June. Eggs are then laid in stem lesions, especially on winter-sown beans. The larvae, which gradually change in appearance from translucent whitish to deep orange-red, feed gregariously in rows immediately below the epidermis they occur mainly from mid-June to mid-July, and their feeding sites typically appear as...

Resseliella theobaldi Barnes Raspberry cane midge

The raspberry cane midge is a widespread and locally important pest of raspberry, particularly in the main raspberry-growing areas of England and Scotland. Occasionally, attacks also occur on loganberry. The larvae may be found beneath the rind of the new canes, immediately adjacent to growth splits. The feeding sites eventually turn brown or black but direct damage is usually of only minor importance. More significantly, midge-damaged canes are often infected by fungal pathogens this results...

Rhagoletis cerasi L European cherry fruit fly

In continental Europe, this insect is a potentially important pest of cherry a distinct race is associated with Lonicera. Larvae feed on the flesh of maturing fruits, and losses of cherries at harvest are sometimes of considerable significance. The pest does not occur in the British Isles, although the larvae are often found in imported cherries. Fig. 251 Wing of celery fly, Euleia heraclei (x 2). Fig. 251 Wing of celery fly, Euleia heraclei (x 2). Adults occur from late May to early July and...

Rhopalosiphum insertum Walker Applegrass aphid

The apple grass aphid overwinters as eggs on apple, pear and certain other Rosaceae. During the summer, the aphids occur on cereals and grasses, their secondary hosts. Heavy populations on primary hosts in early spring can be damaging but usually occur only if the previous summer was wet and, therefore, conducive to the growth of grasses. Summer populations on cereals and grasses are of little or no importance, although the aphids are capable of transmitting barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)....

Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch Cerealleaf aphid

This entirely viviparous, anholocyclic species occurs only on members of the Poaceae, especially wild grasses. During the summer, it will also infest cereal crops, especially barley, maize and sweet corn. Apterae are c. 1.0-2.5 mm long, and pale bluish-green and velvet-like, with a small purplish patch at the base of each siphunculus the antennae are short and dusky, and the legs and siphunculi black and relatively short. The abdomen of alatae is uniformly yellowish-green or dark green....

Rhopalosiphum padi L Birdcherry aphid

The bird-cherry aphid is an often common pest of cereals, including barley, oats and wheat. In mild regions (including southwest England), where populations survive the winter on these secondary hosts, the aphids are particularly important as vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). Early-sown winter cereals are most at risk from aphids migrating into them in September and October from grasses and cereal stubble. Direct damage to crops in summer is rarely of significance, although the...

Rhynchites germanicus Herbst Strawberry rhynchites

This weevil is a local pest of strawberry attacks also occur on cane fruits. Adults become active in the early spring. They then feed on the young Fig. 224 Apple fruit rhynchites weevil, Rhynchites aequatus (x20). Fig. 224 Apple fruit rhynchites weevil, Rhynchites aequatus (x20). foliage of strawberry and various Rubus hosts. They also damage the blossoms and other vegetative tissue. On strawberry, eggs are deposited in holes made in the petioles, in the stalks of the blossom trusses and in the...

Scaptomyza flava Fallen

Whitish, usually blotch-like, leaf mines formed by larvae of this often abundant species occur on various members of the Brassicaceae, including oilseed rape and vegetable crops such as broccoli, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and radish. In severe cases, infested leaves are killed but any effect on plant growth is usually of little or no significance. Adults occur from April onwards and there are several overlapping generations each year. The larvae feed within the lamina of expanded leaves to...

Serica brunnea L Brown chafer

Minor infestations of this locally common chafer sometimes occur on crops, such as potato, growing in fields adjacent to forests or woodlands. Root damage is also reported in wooded areas on young spruces grown as Christmas trees. Adults are 7-11 mm long and mainly reddish-brown they occur throughout the summer months. The larvae, which usually take 2 years to complete their development, reach 18mm in length and are creamish-white with a pale yellowish-brown head the body bears reddish-brown...

Series Auchenorrhyncha

Antennae very short, but with a terminal arista (Fig. 28) rostrum clearly arising from the head tarsi 3-segmented. Fig. 29 Hindleg of a froghopper - family Cercopidae. Fig. 29 Hindleg of a froghopper - family Cercopidae. Antennae arise from between the pair of compound eyes. Small to medium-sized, very active bugs with the hindlegs adapted for jumping ocelli (two) present in adults adults of some species are superficially frog-like hind tibiae cylindrical and bearing just a few stout spines...

Sitobion avenae F Grain aphid

The grain aphid is an important pest of winter wheat infestations also occur on other cereals, including barley, oats, rye and sweet corn, and various grasses. Infested young plants may lack vigour. However, more important damage is caused later in host-plant development when aphids feed on the developing grain. Yield losses are especially severe if heavy attacks develop before the milky-ripe stage the quality of infested grain is also affected. Once the developing grains harden, infestations...

Sitobion fragariae Walker Blackberrycereal aphid

This species overwinters in the egg stage on blackberry, where heavy infestations in spring cause significant leaf damage and also depress fruit yields. In summer, colonies develop on various cereals and grasses, which act as secondary hosts. Although often invading the ears of wheat and other members of the Poaceae, the aphids are rarely numerous and, although capable of transmitting viruses (e.g. BYDV), are of only minor importance. Apterae on blackberry are broadly spindle-shaped, 2-3 mm...

Sitodiplosis mosellana Gehin Orange wheat blossom midge

This widespread and sporadically important pest occurs on barley, rye and wheat second and subsequent winter wheat crops growing in sheltered sites are particularly liable to be attacked. The larvae feed deeply within the florets and 'attack' the developing grain (seed) producing tissue-dissolving enzymes. The larvae usually occur singly or in small numbers (cf. yellow wheat blossom midge, Contarinia tritici, p. 169). Affected grains are misshapen and discoloured also, they do not enlarge fully...

Sitona lineatus L Pea bean weevil

This generally abundant weevil is a pest of various members of the Fabaceae, including broad bean, field bean and pea. Adults form character- Fig. 236 Hop root weevil, Plinthus caliginosus (xlO). Fig. 236 Hop root weevil, Plinthus caliginosus (xlO). Fig. 237 Head of larva of hop root weevil, Plinthus caliginosus. Fig. 237 Head of larva of hop root weevil, Plinthus caliginosus. istic U-shaped notches in the leaf margins young adults in autumn can also attack a wide variety of other plants,...

Small white butterfly

Larvae of this generally common pest often cause damage to broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, horseradish and other vegetable brassica crops. They devour the leaves and also contaminate plants with frass. During the daytime, the cryptically coloured larvae often lie stretched out along the veins of the leaves and, although often on the upper surface, are easily overlooked. Adults of the spring generation occur mainly in March and April, and are very active in sunny weather. They...

Spilonota ocellana Denis Schiffermiiller Bud moth

This pest is of local importance on fruit trees and, less often, cane' fruits. The larvae bore into the Fig. 297 Fruitlet-mining tortrix moth, Pammene rhediella (x6). Fig. 297 Fruitlet-mining tortrix moth, Pammene rhediella (x6). Fig. 298 Bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (x6). Fig. 298 Bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (x6). buds and destroy them they also feed on the blossoms and leaves. Adults are active from June to August. Eggs are laid on the leaves of host plants and hatch 1-2 weeks later. The...

Spuleria atra Haworth Pith moth

This local pest is occasionally troublesome on young, unsprayed apple trees. The larvae bore within the new shoots and cause the leaves to wilt and die. Damage is of greatest significance on young trees. The moths fly in July and August, and deposit their eggs singly close to the buds or leaf bases. The eggs hatch in about 2 weeks, and the larvae enter the bark to burrow inside a shoot or spur throughout the autumn and winter. In spring, frass deposits are expelled from the feeding galleries...

Steneotarsonemus laticeps Halbert Bulb scale mite

Bulb scale mite is an important pest of forced narcissus it is also associated with certain other members of the Amaryllidaceae, including amaryllis and eucharis. Stored infested bulbs dry out and, if cut across, show evidence of dead, dark brown tissue between the scales such symptoms are particularly noticeable in the upper part of the neck. Heavy infestations in stored bulbs may be responsible for considerable losses. Leaves emerging from mite-infested narcissus bulbs are weak and often...

Stigmella malella Stainton Apple pygmy moth

This leaf miner attacks apple and, although usually of no importance in orchards, can be a problem on nursery trees (including ornamental crab apple). This pest is of greater significance in continental Europe, where significant damage in established orchards can occur. Adults are active in two main generations, flying in May and in August. Eggs are laid on the underside of apple leaves. However, the larvae mine just below the upper surface, each forming sinuous galleries within which a dark...

Strawberry mite

This subspecies is a serious pest of outdoor strawberries. The mites cause discoloration and distortion of foliage and severe stunting of plants fruits are also affected, those on badly infested plants remaining small and becoming leathery and dull in colour. Damage is most evident from July onwards and tends to be most significant on older plants, especially those grown in perennial matted rows. Heavy infestations in 1 year will also lead to a significant reduction in cropping in the following...

Subcoccinella vigintiquattuorpunctata L Twentyfourspot ladybird

This widely distributed species is associated mainly with clover and lucerne. Both adults and larvae scarify leaves and remove the surface tissue to form a series of parallel grooves. Affected parts of the foliage appear whitish. In addition to members of the Fabaceae, damage may also occur on the foliage of other crops, including potato and tomato. Adults hibernate in various sheltered situations. They become active in the following May, and eggs are then laid in batches on the leaves of host...

Suborder Adephaga

A large group of mainly predacious beetles. Adults with the hind coxae fused rigidly to the metasternum (i.e. immovable) and extending posteriorly to the hind margin of the first visible abdominal sternite antennae 11-segmented and usually filiform or moniliform. Larvae usually with claw-bearing tarsi. 1. Family CARABIDAE (ground beetles) A large family of fast-moving, mainly nocturnal beetles with a characteristic body shape (Fig. 57), most ground beetles being readily recognized as such on...

Suborder Apocrita

Ichneumonidae Venation

Abdomen typically with a deep constriction between the first (propodeum) and second abdominal segments (the part of the abdomen behind Fig. 154 Venation of the forewings of parasitoid wasps (a) family Ichneumonidae (b) family Braconidae. Fig. 154 Venation of the forewings of parasitoid wasps (a) family Ichneumonidae (b) family Braconidae. this constriction being termed the 'gaster') cenchri absent fore tibiae usually with one spur. Larvae apodous head often well developed but greatly reduced in...

Suborder Cyclorrhapha

Adults usually with 3-segmented antennae, the third segment enlarged and bearing a simple or plumose bristle (arista) dorsally (Fig. 94) palps 1-segmented. Larvae are typical maggots, with a vestigial head and the body distinctly tapered anteriorly. The head and mouthparts are retracted into the thorax and form a usually pigmented cephalopharyngeal skeleton (Fig. 95) this structure includes a pair of black, shiny articulating mouth-hooks and is often of charac teristic appearance for the...

Suborder Megaloptera alder flies and snake flies

Medium-sized, lacewing-like, predatory insects, with branches of wing veins usually not bifur 4 Students and other readers should note there is no such word as 'thrip'. cated near the wing margins (but if so then prothorax exceptionally long and slender). Larvae elongate, with biting mouthparts head and prothorax large, both strongly sclerotized. Pupae naked, i.e. pupation occurs without forming a cocoon. Includes ant-lions (family Raphidiidae) but no economically important predators of...

Suborder Planipennia

Small to large predatory insects with branches of wing veins usually clearly bifurcated near the wing margins. Larvae with suctorial mouthparts Fig. 50 Forewing venation of a powdery lacewing -family Coniopterygidae. Fig. 50 Forewing venation of a powdery lacewing -family Coniopterygidae. Fig. 51 Larva of a powdery lacewing, Conwentzia psociformis - family Coniopterygidae (xl5). Fig. 51 Larva of a powdery lacewing, Conwentzia psociformis - family Coniopterygidae (xl5). and large, toothed...

Suborder Tubulifera

Forewings without longitudinal veins and female without an ovipositor tenth abdominal segment tubular in both sexes (Fig. 47b). Development includes an egg, two nymphal, one propupal and two pupal stages. Eggs elongate-oval, hard-shelled and often sculptured. A mainly tropical family, associated primarily with dead wood or leaf litter (but including some predatory and leaf-feeding species), the insects feeding on fungal hyphae, fungal spores or the breakdown products of fungal decay. Some...

Superfamily Chalcidoidea chalcids

Antennae geniculate, with one to three annuli (cf. superfamily Proctotrupoidea) and fewer than 14 segments wings, when present, without a pterostigma and the venation much reduced pronotum not extending back to the tegulae (cf. superfamily Proctotrupoidea). This superfamily contains the largest number of species, most of small size, and includes the smallest of all insects most are parasitoids or hyperparasitoids, the former attacking mainly Hemiptera (notably scale insects), Diptera and...

Superfamily Gelechioidea 17 Family Coleophoridae casebearer moths p 209

Small moths with narrow, pointed wings (Fig. 119) antennae directed forwards when in repose. Young larvae are leaf miners but later instars inhabit portable cases, formed from silk and leaf fragments cases often cigar-shaped or pistol-shaped (Fig. 120) crochets on the abdominal prolegs often scattered and much reduced in number but, typically, at least those on each anal clasper arranged in a uniserial transverse band. EXAMPLES Coleophora anatipennella (cherry pistol casebearer moth),...

Superfamily Notodontoidea 29 Family Notodontidae

Medium-sized to large, stout-bodied moths with relatively long forewings tympanal organs located in the metathorax. Larvae with crochets on abdominal prolegs uniordinal, forming a mesoseries body hairs never arising in tufts secondary setae present anal claspers sometimes modified into filamentous processes body form extremely variable. EXAMPLES Cerura vinula (puss moth), Phalera bucephala (buff-tip moth). Fig. 136 Twig-like larva of a geometrid moth, Ourapteryx sambucaria - family Geometridae...

Superfamily Papilionoidea butterflies

Typically day-flying, colourful, broad-winged insects with slender antennae which, unlike those of other Lepidoptera, terminate in a distinct club (Fig. 133) labial palps long and often prominent Fig. l33 Antenna of a butterfly - family Pieridae. Fig. 134 Arrangement of crochets on a pair of abdominal prolegs of a pierid larva - family Pieridae. Fig. 134 Arrangement of crochets on a pair of abdominal prolegs of a pierid larva - family Pieridae. frenulum absent forelegs often reduced or...

Superfamily Proctotrupoidea

A very large group of minute or small, black and slender-bodied parasitoids, with a much reduced wing venation a pterostigma sometimes present apterous forms common antennae without annuli (cf. superfamily Chalcidoidea), usually 10- to 12-segmented, the apical four or five segments often forming a slight club pronotum reaching back to the tegulae (cf. superfamily Chalcidoidea) and the ovipositor arising from the extreme tip of the gaster, features shared by certain members of the Aculeata (e.g....

Superfamily Tetranychoidea 10 Family Tetranychidae spider mites p 265 et seq

Spider-like (Fig. 172), often reddish or greenish mites pedipalps robust, 5-segmented and with both a tibial claw and a spinneret (therefore, capable of producing silken webbing) chelicerae Fig. 172 A spider mite, Tetranychidae (x75). Fig. 172 A spider mite, Tetranychidae (x75). Fig. 173 A false spider mite, Cenopalpuspulcher -family Tenuipalpidae (xlOO). Fig. 173 A false spider mite, Cenopalpuspulcher -family Tenuipalpidae (xlOO). fused, each with the moveable digit forming a long, piercing...

Superorder Actinotrichida Acariformes

Mites with body setae and leg setae birefringent under polarized light idiosoma usually with a sejugal furrow between legs II and III, separating the propodosoma from the hysterosoma coxae of legs fused to the idiosoma. Usually weakly sclerotized mites (except for most oribatids). Order PROSTIGMATA ( Actinedida + Tarsonemida Trombidiformes) (p. 79 et seq. p. 225 et seq.) Order ASTIGMATA ( Acarida Sarcoptiformes in part) (p. 83 et seq. p. 269 et seq.) Order CRYPTOSTIGMATA ( Oribatida...

Superorder Anactinotrichida Parasitiformes

Small to large, usually heavily sclerotized mites with body setae and leg setae non-birefringent under polarized light idiosoma with a suture (i.e. no sejugal furrow) between legs II and III coxae of legs not fused to the idiosoma. Order NOTOSTIGMATA ( Opilioacarida) - a small group of uncertain relationship, not found in northern Europe. Order HOLOTHYRIDA ( Holothyroidea Tetrastigmata) - a small group of possibly predatory mites, not found in Europe. Order MESOSTIGMATA ( Gamasida) (p. 77 et...

Synanthedon myopaeformis Borkhausen Apple clearwing moth

This species is a pest of fruit trees, especially apple. The larvae tunnel within the bark and are usually to be found on already debilitated or dying trees. Adults (20-25 mm wingspan) are mainly black with a conspicuous red band on the abdomen. They occur in July and are sometimes observed flying during sunshine, when they also visit flowers to imbibe nectar. Larvae (up to 17 mm long) are mainly creamish-white, with a brown head they feed for almost 2 years before eventually pupating.

Synanthedon tipuliformis Clerck Currant clearwing moth

Infestations of this pest occur mainly on black currant other closely related hosts, including gooseberry, are also attacked. The larvae bore within the pith of branches. Damaged branches often break off, especially in strong winds and if weighed down with ice (e.g. that formed on bushes during early-spring frost protection measures) or with maturing fruit. Moths are active in sunny weather in June and July. They fly rapidly within black currant plantations and often visit nearby flowers to...