Amphorophora rubi Kaltenbach Bramble aphid

This medium-sized to large (2.5-4.0 mm long), shiny green to yellowish-green species is generally common on Rubus fruticosus, including cultivated blackberry. It is very similar in appearance to Amphorophora idaei (above), with which it was once confused, but does not infest raspberry and is not an important pest. This species sometimes overwinters anholocyclically.

Fig. 189 Outline of front of head of various species of aphid: (a) pea aphid, Acyrthosiphonpisum; (b) black bean aphid, Aphis fabae: (c) glasshouse & potato aphid, Aulacorthum solani; (d) strawberrv aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii: (e) rose/grain aphid. Metopolophium dirhodum; (f) peach/potato aphid. Myzuspersicae; (g) damson/hop aphid, Phorodon humuli; (h) bird-cherry aphid, Rhopalosiphumpadi.

Fig. 189 Outline of front of head of various species of aphid: (a) pea aphid, Acyrthosiphonpisum; (b) black bean aphid, Aphis fabae: (c) glasshouse & potato aphid, Aulacorthum solani; (d) strawberrv aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii: (e) rose/grain aphid. Metopolophium dirhodum; (f) peach/potato aphid. Myzuspersicae; (g) damson/hop aphid, Phorodon humuli; (h) bird-cherry aphid, Rhopalosiphumpadi.

Aphis fabae Scopoli Black bean aphid a vector of persistent and non-persistent viruses, including bean yellow mosaic, bean leaf roll, beet yellow net, pea enation mosaic and potato leaf roll.

BIOLOGY

The winter is usually passed in the egg stage on Euonymus europaeus although, in favourable situations, colonies may also survive the winter on herbaceous hosts. Eggs hatch in the early spring and colonies of aphids soon develop on the young leaves and shoots. Winged forms appear in May or June and these disperse to various herbaceous plants, colonies on the primary host then dying out. Breeding on herbaceous plants continues throughout the summer, with the frequent production of winged forms and further spread to other secondary hosts. Colonies are often ant-attended, and are most populous in July and August. There is a return migration to primary hosts in the autumn where winter eggs are laid.

DESCRIPTION

Aptera 1.5-3.0 mm long; body oval, usually dull black (in older colonies, with conspicuous patches of white wax on the abdomen); antennae much shorter than the body; siphunculi black and tapered, and distinctly longer than the cauda; cauda bluntly finger-shaped (Fig. 188b); head with lateral tubercles no higher than the median bulge (Fig. 189b).

This well-known aphid is a major pest of field bean, sugar beet and various other plants, including vegetable crops such as broad bean, French bean, red beet, runner bean and spinach; infestations also occur on minor field crops (including quinoa) and on ornamental plants, some of which are primary and others secondary hosts. Heavy infestations on field and vegetable crops can reduce yields significantly; leaves and shoots may become malformed and plants noticeably stunted. The aphids also contaminate host plants with honeydew, upon which sooty moulds develop; on field bean, chocolate spot disease can also develop on excreted honeydew. The aphid is

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