Classification Of The Class Insecta

Various classifications have been proposed for insects and no one system has received universal acceptance. Some authorities, for example, employ the term Hexapoda, which they apply to the Diplura, Protura and CoUembola; the term Insecta is then limited to the so-called 'true insects', from which the Hexapoda are excluded because of certain primitive relationships and features - members of these groups, for example, all have endognathous mouthparts. Table 1 shows a simplified, convenient classification to include all insect orders. Features of the main groups of insects of agricultural or horticultural significance in northern Europe are summarized below.

Table 1 Classification of the class Insecta.

Order Thysanura Order Diplura Order Protura Order CoUembola

Subclass APTERYGOTA (primitive, wingless insects)

Bristletails. silverfish

Diplurans

Proturans

Subclass PTERYGOTA (more advanced, usually winged, insects)

Division EXOPTERYGOTA nymphal stages)

Order Ephemeroptera Order Odonata Order Plecoptera Order Grylloblattodea Order Saltatoria Order Phasmida Order Dermaptera Order Embioptera

Order Order Order Order Order Order Order

Dictyoptera

Isoptera

Zoraptera

Psocoptera

Phthiraptera

Hemiptera

Thysanoptera

Division ENDOPTERYGOTA metamorphosis from larva to Order Neuroptera Order Coleoptera Order Strepsiptera Order Mecoptera Order Siphonaptera Order Diptera Order Lepidoptera Order Trichoptera Order Hymenoptera

(hemimetabolous insects in which wings develop externally during several Mayflies

Damselflies. dragonfiies Stoneflies

Grylloblattodeans or rock crawlers - absent from Europe Crickets, grasshoppers, locusts (p. 15 et seq.) Stick-insects, leaf-insects Earwigs (p. 16 et seq:. p. 89 et seq.)

Embiopterans or webspinners - no British species and very few in continental Europe

Cockroaches, mantids (p. 17 et seq.) Termites or 'white ants' - no British species

Zorapterans - minute insects of uncertain relationship; absent from Europe Psocids or booklice (p. 17 et seq.) Lice (p. 18 et seq.)

True bugs (p. 19 et seq:. p. 96 et seq.) Thrips (p. 29 et seq:. p. 89 et seq.)

(holometabolous insects in which wings develop internally and complete adult occurs during a quiescent, non-feeding, pupal stage) Alder flies, ant-lions, lacewings, snake flies (p. 30 et seq.) Beetles (p. 33 et seq:. p. 126 et seq.) Stylopids Scorpion flies Fleas

Ants, bees, sawflies, wasps, etc. (p. 66 et seq.; p. 245 et seq.)

Table 1 Classification of the class Insecta.

Subclass APTERYGOTA (primitive, wingless insects)

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