Family Geometridae geometer moths p 228 et seq

A very large family of mainly weak-flying moths, usually with both a frenulum and a proboscis; tympanal organs located at base of abdomen; relative to body, wings often large and, sometimes, butterfly-like but antennae either threadlike (Fig. 135a) or feathery (Fig. 135b), never clubbed; females sometimes wingless or with vestigial wings. Larvae typically long, thin and often twig-like (Fig. 136), progressing with a looping gait; most have just two pairs of functional abdominal prolegs (located on the sixth and tenth abdominal segments) (Fig. 137a) but rudimentary prolegs are sometimes present on the third, fourth and/or fifth abdominal segments (e.g. Fig. 137b). EXAMPLES: Ennominae - Abraxas grossu-lariata (magpie moth), Biston betularia (peppered moth); Larentiinae - Chloroclystis rectangulata (green pug moth), Operophtera brumata (winter moth); Oenochrominae -Alsophila aescularia (March moth).

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