Family Vespidae wasps

Eyes deeply notched (Fig. 160); wings folded longitudinally when in repose; antennae usually 12- or 13-segmented; pronotum extending back to tegulae. Wasp larvae are carnivorous, but adults feed on nectar and other sugary substances. The family includes solitary and social species. Social wasps of the genus Vespula are of notched compound eye

Fig. 160 Head of a wasp - family Vespidae.

particular economic significance (primarily as important predators but also as minor pests). EXAMPLES: Vespa crabro (hornet), Vespula vulgaris (common wasp).

Superfamily APOIDEA (bees)

Medium-sized to large, usually distinctly hairy solitary or social insects. Body hairs typically branched or plumose; hind tarsi usually broad and often densely hairy; antennae 10-, 12- or 13-segmented. Adults and larvae feed on nectar (some also on honey) and pollen. Most bees, whether solitary or social, are useful pollinators of flowering plants and several species are used commercially. The following families are of greatest economic importance.

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