Napomyza cichorii Spencer

This species is restricted to parts of continental Europe, including Belgium, France, Italy and the Netherlands, where it is a locally important pest of chicory and endive. Larval mines in leaves and blanched chicory heads cause similar damage to those formed by the black chicory fly, Ophiomyia pinguis (below). In addition, mines in the roots, and within the blanched heads, lead to distortion, stunting and weakening of host plants. Heavy infestations result in considerable crop losses.

BIOLOGY

Adults of the first generation occur in May and June. Eggs are laid in the mid-rib of chicory or endive. The larvae form mines which extend deeply into the plant tissue, including the roots. At summer temperatures, development is relatively rapid, and pupation takes place within about a month. A second generation of adults appears in August, and these produce the generation of larvae that invade winter-forced crops. Although normally bivoltine, there may be a partial third generation if conditions are favourable.

DESCRIPTION

Adult greyish to blackish, with parts of the thorax yellow; legs black with yellow knees; wings 2.7-3.5 mm long. Larva 5 mm long, whitish; posterior spiracles each with a double row of minute pores; mouth-hooks with main axis set more or less at right-angles to rest of mouthparts; posterior spiracles each with a double row of about 22 minute pores (cf. black chicory fly, Ophiomyia pinguis, below). Puparium 4-5 mm long, slender, whitish; posterior spiracles blackish-brown.

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