Order Derma Era Earwigs

Elongate, omnivorous insects with mouthparts prognathous, adapted for biting and chewing; forewings modified into very short, leathery elytra; hindwings semi-circular and membranous, with a radial venation; legs short, tarsi 3-segmented; anal cerci usually modified into a pair of forceps-like pincers (Fig. 18); ovipositor reduced or absent. Metamorphosis incomplete; development includes egg and nymphal stages, the latter being similar in appearance to adults but smaller and less strongly sclerotized.


Earwigs with well-developed eyes.

Fig. 17 Ovipositor of a bush-cricket - family Tettigoniidae.

1. Family FORFICULIDAE (p. 89)

Second tarsal segment expanded (heart-shaped) - cylindrical in the other European families: Labiduridae and Labiidae.

EXAMPLE: Forficula auricularia (common earwig).

Fig. 18 Anal cerci of an earwig: (a) female; male - left cercus.

Fig. 17 Ovipositor of a bush-cricket - family Tettigoniidae.

Fig. 18 Anal cerci of an earwig: (a) female; male - left cercus.


Small to large, stout-bodied but rather flattened insects with a large pronotum and two pairs of wings, the thickened (leathery) forewings called tegmina; hindwings large and folded longitudinally (fan-like), and hidden beneath the tegmina when in repose; chewing (mandibulate) mouth-parts; antennae very long and thread-like (filiform); legs robust and spinose, the front pair sometimes raptorial (suborder Mantodea = mantids); tarsi usually 3- or 4-segmented; cerci usually many segmented. Metamorphosis incomplete; development includes egg and nymphal stages, the former laid in a capsule-like ootheca.

Suborder BLATTODEA (cockroaches)

Head hypognathous and more or less covered by the broad, shield-like pronotum; coxae large and abutting; forelegs not raptorial.


Middle and hind femora armed with numerous strong spines that form a similar arrangement on both the anterior and posterior ventral margins.

EXAMPLES: Blatta orientalis (common cockroach), Periplaneta americana (American cockroach).


Mainly small-bodied species (but some exceptionally large); middle and hind femora armed with numerous strong spines which form a similar arrangement on both the anterior and posterior ventral margins.

EXAMPLe: Blattella germanica (German cockroach).


Mainly large-bodied species, with a variable arrangement of femoral spines; viviparous or ovoviviparous.

EXAMPLE: Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Surinam cockroach).


Minute or small, soft-bodied insects with long, filiform antennae; wings, when present, membranous with relatively few cross-veins and often with a pigmented pterostigma (Fig. 19); wings held in a sloping roof-like posture when in repose; head relatively large, often with protruding compound eyes; ocelli present or absent: tarsi 2- or 3-segmented; cerci absent; body and appendages sometimes clothed in scales. Metamorphosis incomplete; nymphs similar in appearance to adults but smaller.


Antennae 11- to 17-segmented, the flagellum annulated; tarsi 3-segmented.



Fig. 19 Wing venation of an alate psocid - order Psocoptera.


Flattened dorsoventrally, minute, oval-bodied and usually apterous; hind femora broad.

EXAMPLE: Liposcelis bostrychophilus (stored product psocid).


Minute or small, flat-bodied, apterous ectoparasites of warm-blooded vertebrates, especially birds; head large and broad; eyes reduced or absent, ocelli absent; mouthparts mandibulate, large and prominent; antennae 3- to 5-segmented; thorax with a distinct pro thorax; legs stout, tarsi 1- or 2-segmented, with one or two claws; cerci absent. Metamorphosis slight.

Suborder MALLOPHAGA (biting and chewing lice)

Superfamily AMBLYCERA

Antennae short, 4- or 5-segmented (the third segment pedunculate), each concealed in a groove at the side of the head; maxillary palps 2- to 5-segmented; labial palps 1-segmented or absent.


Antennae 4- or 5-segmented; maxillary palps 4-segmented; labial palps present. Associated with birds, including poultry.

EXAMPLES: Menacanthus spp. (lesser chicken body lice), Menopon gallinae (chicken shaft louse).

Superfamily ISCHNOCERA

Antennae 3- to 5-segmented, relatively long (the third segment filiform) and not con cealed; maxillary palps absent; labial palps present.


Legs with two tarsal claws. Associated with birds, including poultry.

EXAMPLES: Chelopistes meleagridis (large turkey louse), Cuclotogaster heterographus (chicken head louse), Goniodes gigas (large chicken louse).


Legs with just one tarsal claw; body of female cylindrical; body of male short and broad. Associated with mammals.

EXAMPLES: Bovicola bovis (cattle biting louse), Werneckiella equi (horse biting louse).

Suborder ANOPLURA (sucking lice)

Minute or small, apterous ectoparasites of mammals; body flattened dorsoventrally; head conical and relatively narrow; antennae filiform, 3- to 5-segmented; eyes reduced and sometimes absent; mouthparts beak-like, adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood, and retractable into head when not in use; thoracic segments fused, with no obvious prothorax; legs robust; tarsi 1-segmented, each with a large claw. Metamorphosis slight.

4. Family HAEMATOPINIDAE (wrinkled sucking lice)

Surface of abdomen distinctly wrinkled; para-tergal plates present.

EXAMPLES: Haematopinus eurysternus (short-nose cattle louse), Haematopinus suis (pig louse).

5. Family LINOGNATHIDAE (smooth sucking lice)

Abdomen membranous, without paratergal plates.

EXAMPLES: Linognathus ovillus (sheep sucking louse), Solenopotes capillatus (blue cattle louse).

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