Order Hemiptera True Bugs1

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Minute to large insects, usually with two pairs of wings and piercing, suctorial, needle-like mouthparts; forewings frequently partly or entirely hardened (leathery). Metamorphosis usually gradual and incomplete.


Adults usually with two pairs of wings; forewings (hemelytra) with a leathery basal area and a membranous tip, the former often divided into a clavus, corium, cuneus and embolium (Fig. 20); hindwings membranous; forewings, when in repose, overlapping and held flat over the body; head porrect; rostrum (= beak) arising from front of head and flexibly attached; body usually flattened dorsoventrally; pronotum large; tarsi usually 3-segmented. Eggs usually rounded or flask-shaped, and often with a distinct operculum (see Fig. 9). Includes phytophagous and predacious species.


Truly aquatic bugs, with antennae concealed in depressions under the head. Includes back-swimmers (family Notonectidae), water boatmen (family Corixidae) and water scorpions (family Nepidae), but no members of agricultural significance.


Bugs with conspicuous, freely moveable antennae. Includes a wide range of phytophagous and blood-sucking species, many of considerable economic importance.


Entirely predatory bugs, adapted to life on the surface of water; body with a ventral coating of water-repellent hairs. Includes pond skaters (family Gerridae) and various other families, but no members of agricultural significance.

Series GYMNOCERATA -GEOCORISAE (terrestrial bugs)

Predatory and phytophagous bugs, adapted to a variety of terrestrial habitats; body without a


Fig. 20 Generalized structure of the forewing (hemelytron) of a bug - suborder Heteroptera.

Fig. 20 Generalized structure of the forewing (hemelytron) of a bug - suborder Heteroptera.

clavus clavus

1 The suborders HETEROPTERA and HOMOPTERA are often regarded as orders and the term Hemiptera abandoned.

ventral coating of water-repellent hairs. Includes many pests and predators of agricultural significance.

Superfamily PENTATOMOIDEA (shield bugs)

Medium-sized to large insects, with lateral margins of head concealing the antennal bases; antennae usually 5-segmented; ocelli usually present; rostrum 4-segmented; scutellum large (often huge), U-shaped or triangular; tarsi 2- or 3-segmented; pulvilli present. Includes both phytophagous and predacious species.


Shield bugs with 2-segmented tarsi.

EXAMPLE: Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale

(hawthorn shield bug).

2. Family PENTATOMIDAE (shield bugs)

Tarsi 3-segmented and usually without strong spines; scutellum usually not reaching to tip of abdomen.

EXAMPLES: Nezara viridula (green stink bug), Pentatoma rufipes (forest bug).

Superfamily COREOIDEA

3. Family LYGAEIDAE (ground bugs)

Small, phytophagous, mainly brownish bugs, although sometimes marked with bright red; ocelli

Fig. 21 Forewing (hemelytron) of a ground bug -family Lygaeidae.

present; rostrum 4-segmented; scutellum triangular; forewings without a cuneus, the membrane with several long veins (Fig. 21). EXAMPLE: Gastrodes abietum (spruce bug).

4. Family PIESMATIDAE (p. 96)

Small, flattened, elongate-oval insects, with ocelli present in macropterous forms; median part of head distinctly bifid anteriorly (Fig. 22): rostrum 4-segmented; pronotum and corium of forewing reticulate; membrane of forewing distinct and with several more or less parallel veins (Fig. 23); scutellum exposed (i.e. not covered by the pronotum); tarsi 2-segmented; pulvilli present. Entirely phytophagous and associated mainly with Chenopodiaceae (beet, etc.). EXAMPLE: Piesma quadratum (beet leaf bug).

Superfamily TINGOIDEA

5. Family TINGIDAE (lace bugs)

Flattened, phytophagous bugs without ocelli, the pronotum and wings with a reticulate, lace-like pattern (Fig. 24); membrane of forewing indistinct; scutellum usually completely covered by the pronotum; tarsi 2-segmented; body often

Fig. 22 Head of a leaf bug - family Piesmatidae.

Fig. 23 Forewing (hemelytron) of a leaf bug - family Piesmatidae.

ornamented either with spines or distinctive fiat outgrowths.

EXAMPLES: Corythucha ciliata (sycamore lace bug), Stephanitis rhododendri (rhododendron bug).

Superfamily CIMICOIDEA

6. Family NABIDAE (damsel bugs)

Slender-bodied, relatively long-legged, predatory bugs, with a curved, 4-segmented rostrum; antennae thin, 4- or 5-segmented; ocelli present; forewings without a cuneus; forelegs more or less raptorial; tarsi 3-segmented.

EXAMPLES: Aptus mirmicoides (ant damsel bug), Himacerus apterus (tree damsel bug).


Small, elongate-oval, flattened, predatory bugs; rostrum straight, 3-segmented and held against body when in repose; ocelli present; forewings with both a cuneus and an embolium (Fig. 25); tarsi 3-segmented.

EXAMPLES: Anthocoris nemorum (common flower bug), Orius vicinus (raspberry bug).

Fig. 24 Forewing (hemelytron) of a lace bug family Tingidae.

Fig. 25 Forewing (hemelytron) of a predatory bug family Anthocoridae (genus Orius).


Similar to anthocorids but rostrum 4-segmented and tarsi 2-segmented; females usually brachy-pterous; abdomen swollen (Fig. 26); ocelli absent.

EXAMPLE: Loricula elegantula.

9. Family MIRIDAE (capsid bugs)

A very large group of small to medium-sized, usually delicate, soft-bodied, very active bugs; ocelli absent; rostrum 4-segmented; cuneus usually present and embolium indistinct (Fig. 27); tarsi usually 3-segmented. Includes phytophagous and predatory species.

EXAMPLES: Mirinae - Lygus rugulipennis (tarnished plant bug), Lygocoris pabulinus capsid); Orthotylinae -angulatus (black-kneed Psallus ambiguus (red ap-

(common green Blepharidopterus capsid); Phylinae ple capsid).


Adults with forewings either hardened (leathery) or membranous throughout; hindwings membranous; wings, when in repose, usually held over the body in a sloping, roof-like posture;

Fig. 26 A predatory bug, Loricula elegantula family Microphysidae (x25).

Fig. 25 Forewing (hemelytron) of a predatory bug family Anthocoridae (genus Orius).

Fig. 26 A predatory bug, Loricula elegantula family Microphysidae (x25).

Mirid Bug Pencil Diagram
Fig. 27 A capsid (mirid) bug, Malacocoris chlorizans - family Miridae (xlO).

Fig. 28 Antenna of a leafhopper - family Cicadellidae.

Fig. 28 Antenna of a leafhopper - family Cicadellidae.

pronotum usually small; rostrum (beak) arising from posterior part of head. Eggs usually sausage-shaped, and often white, yellowish or black. All members are phytophagous.

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