Order Lepidoptera Butterflies And Moths

Minute to large insects with two pairs of membranous wings; cross-veins few in number; body, wings and appendages usually covered with flat scales; mouthparts suctorial, with mandibles vestigial or absent, and often forming a long, coiled proboscis. Metamorphosis complete. Eggs extremely variable in form and colour; and often sculptured with longitudinal ridges and adorned with a raised, reticulated pattern. Larvae eruciform, most often with three pairs of thoracic legs and five pairs of abdominal prolegs, the latter usually armed with crochets - prolegs usually present on abdominal segments 3-6 and 10 (Fig.

114) (cf. larvae of sawflies: Hymenoptera, suborder Symphyta) ; the prolegs on the anal segment are sometimes called anal claspers (descriptions of the arrangement of crochets on the prolegs of lepidopterous larvae usually do not apply to the anal claspers); head usually strongly chitinized, with several ocelli and with a pair of silk glands (modified salivary glands); body often with setae or longer hairs arising from distinctive plates, pinacula or verrucae, and sometimes marked with more or less complete longitudinal stripes or lines (see Fig 114); larvae typically phytophagous, often leaf-mining, rarely carnivorous.

abdominal segment 3

abdominal segment 3

Dectious Pupa

subdorsal line antenna subdorsal line

i ' !

T^ T——

f '

dorsal line dorsal line

Fig. 114 Larva of a moth - order Lepidoptera: (a) lateral view; (b) dorsal view. Suborder ZEUGLOPTERA

Adults with functional mandibles but no proboscis; venation of forewings and hindwings similar; forewings with a fibula; hindwings with costal spines but no frenulum. Larvae with eight pairs of abdominal prolegs, each proleg bearing a single terminal hook. Pupae exarate and dectious.

Superfamily MICROPTERIGOIDEA 1. Family MICROPTERIGIDAE

A small group of minute, day-flying moths with narrow, pointed wings; wings with a metallic sheen. Although at least one species (Micropterix calthella) is often abundant in grass meadows on flowers of Ranunculus, the insects are not of pest status; adults feed on pollen and the larvae on mosses and liverworts.

Suborder DACNONYPHA

Adults without functional mandibles; wings aculeate; forewings with a fibula; hindwings with costal spines. Larvae apodous. Pupae exarate, with large, curved mandibles.

Superfamily ERIOCRANIOIDEA 2. Family ERIOCRANIIDAE

A small group of minute, day-flying moths, with narrow, pointed wings; wings with a metallic sheen. Larvae are apodous leaf miners; most European species are associated with Betula, especially young trees.

EXAMPLE: Eriocrania semipurpurella (a minor pest on Betula).

Suborder MONOTRYSIA

Adults without functional mandibles; wings aculeate; females with one or two genital openings on the last (ninth) abdominal segment; venation of forewings and hindwings similar; forewings each with a long jugum; alternatively, minute moths with reduced hindwing venation and no jugum but, at least in males, a frenulum.

Crochets Uniordinal

Fig. 115 Examples of the arrangement of crochets on the abdominal prolegs of lepidopterous larvae: (a) a multiserial circle - family Hepialidae; (b) a penellipse surrounding a transverse band - family Gracillariidae; (c) two transverse bands - family Sesiidae; (d) a uniordinal circle surrounding a penellipse of larger crochets subfamily Plutellinae; (e) a simple penellipse - family Gelechiidae; (f) a mesoseries - subfamily Arctiinae.

Fig. 115 Examples of the arrangement of crochets on the abdominal prolegs of lepidopterous larvae: (a) a multiserial circle - family Hepialidae; (b) a penellipse surrounding a transverse band - family Gracillariidae; (c) two transverse bands - family Sesiidae; (d) a uniordinal circle surrounding a penellipse of larger crochets subfamily Plutellinae; (e) a simple penellipse - family Gelechiidae; (f) a mesoseries - subfamily Arctiinae.

Larvae usually with several pairs of crochet-bearing abdominal prolegs but sometimes apodous. Pupae obtect, with rudimentary mandibles.

Superfamily HEPIAL OIDEA 3. Family HEPIALIDAE (swift moths)

A small group of primitive, medium-sized to large moths with forewing and hindwing venation similar; forewings with a jugum; antennae very short; females with two genital openings. Larvae elongate, with five pairs of crochet-bearing abdominal prolegs; crochets of different sizes (multiordinal), arranged in a multiserial circle (Fig. 115a). Larvae subterranean, feeding mainly on plant roots and pupating in earthen cells. Pupae spinose; although without free ap-

Fig. 116 Head of a nepticulid moth - family Nepticulidae.

Fig. 116 Head of a nepticulid moth - family Nepticulidae.

pendages (i.e. obtect), able to wriggle to the soil surface prior to emergence of the adult.

EXAMPLE: Hepialus hamuli (ghost swift moth).

Superfamily NEPTICULOIDEA 4. Family NEPTICULIDAE (p. 203)

Minute to small moths with a metallic sheen and distinctive 'eye-caps' formed by the basal segment of each antenna (Fig. 116); wing vena tion reduced, especially on hindwings; wings with long hair fringes; female ovipositor short and fleshy. Larvae wedge-shaped and virtually apodous (vestigial legs present on meso- and metathorax, abdominal prolegs small and without crochets); usually leaf miners, pupating externally in small, parchment-like cocoons.

EXAMPLE: Stigmella malella (apple pygmy moth).

5. Family TISCHERIIDAE

A small group of very small moths with narrow, pointed wings. Larvae flat-bodied with reduced thoracic legs and vestigial abdominal prolegs. Individuals feed in blotch-like, silk-lined leaf mines; pupation occurs within the mine, from which the pupa protrudes following emergence of the adult.

EXAMPLE: Tischeria margined (a leaf miner on raspberry).

Superfamily INCURVARIOIDEA

6. Family INCURVARIIDAE (p. 203)

A diverse group of often day-flying, metallic-looking moths, including several with particularly well-developed (often very long) antennae, especially in males. Larvae, when young, are often leaf miners; later, those of many species inhabit portable cases made of leaf fragments; crochets rudimentary and arranged in a single transverse band.

EXAMPLE: Lampronia rubiella (raspberry moth).

Suborder DITRYSIA

Adults without functional mandibles; venation of forewings and hindwings different; forewings without a fibula or a jugum; hindwings usually with a frenulum; females with one genital opening on the eighth and one on the ninth abdominal segments. Larval form extremely variable, usu ally with up to five pairs of crochet-bearing abdominal prolegs. Pupae obtect, without functional mandibles.

Superfamily COSSOIDEA

A relatively primitive group of large moths. Adults with no proboscis; frenulum usually well developed. Larvae stout-bodied, with large mandibles and a well-developed prothoracic plate; crochets biordinal or triordinal, arranged in a complete circle. Larvae are wood-borers in tree trunks, stems or branches.

EXAMPLES: Cossinae - Cossus cossus (goat moth); Zeuzerinae - Zeuzera pyrina (leopard moth).

Superfamily TINEOIDEA

An extremely large and varied group of small to medium-sized moths, including clothes moths (family Tineidae), various leaf miners and stem miners; wings typically elongate, with long hair fringes.

8. Family TINEIDAE

A large group of small moths, associated mainly with dried animal or plant material. Proboscis of adult short or absent; head rough-haired; maxillary palps often very long.

EXAMPLES: Tineola biselliella (common clothes moth), Nemapogon granella (corn moth).

9. Family LYONETIIDAE (p. 204)

A small group of leaf miners; adults usually with mainly white forewings, the wings with long hair fringes. Larvae are leaf miners and more or less moniliform, with a complete circle of crochets on each abdominal proleg.

EXAMPLES: Cemiostominae - Leucoptera malifoliella (pear leaf blister moth);

Lyonetiinae - Lyonetia clerkella {larva = apple leaf miner).

Building Your Own Greenhouse

Building Your Own Greenhouse

You Might Just End Up Spending More Time In Planning Your Greenhouse Than Your Home Don’t Blame Us If Your Wife Gets Mad. Don't Be A Conventional Greenhouse Dreamer! Come Out Of The Mould, Build Your Own And Let Your Greenhouse Give A Better Yield Than Any Other In Town! Discover How You Can Start Your Own Greenhouse With Healthier Plants… Anytime Of The Year!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment