Phytomyza ramosa Hendel Teasel fly9

This widespread, relatively large species is associated with Dipsacus and, less frequently, other members of the Dipsacaceae. The white larva forms an elongate mine confined mainly to the mid-rib of a leaf, but (at least on small leaves) with short lateral galleries extending into the leaf lamina; mines may also extend into the main stem. Pupation occurs within the main gallery in a whitish puparium (3.5 mm long). Adults are mainly black (wing length: 2.2-3.2mm). Al-

9 The name "teasel fly' is most frequently applied by commercial teasel growers to the pest Endothenia gentianaeana, a small moth (family Tortricidae) whose larvae damage the seed heads of teasel and cause them to disintegrate (see p. 220).

though attacks occur on cultivated teasel plants, grown commercially to produce seed heads suitable for teasing fine cloth (such as that used as billiard-table baize), they are not of significance and generally pass unnoticed.

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