Pseudonapomyza atra Meigen larva A cereal leaf miner

This widely distributed but local leaf miner is a minor pest of barley; it is also associated with oats, wheat and various grasses. The tips of infested leaves become discoloured by the relatively narrow, pale yellow leaf mines. Damage sometimes attracts attention, but infestations are rarely, if ever, of economic significance.

BIOLOGY

Adults appear in May, and those of a partial second generation emerge in the summer. From one to five eggs are deposited about 10 cm from the tip of a leaf, each separately within the tissue between two of the leaf veins. On hatching, each larva forms a narrow but gradually widening gallery, directed towards the leaf tip; the mine eventually turns abruptly towards the leaf base to form an elongated, linear blotch within which larval development is completed. Fully fed firstgeneration larvae emerge in June and pupate in the soil.

DESCRIPTION

Adult minute (c. 2 mm long) and mainly black; wings 1.3-1.7mm long. Larva up to 4mm long, whitish-yellow and plump, with segmentally arranged rows of minute papillae; anterior spiracles prominent, each with about 11 lobes and borne on a relatively long stalk; posterior spiracles 7-pored, each borne on a short stalk. Puparium reddish-brown, with distinct horn-like anterior and posterior respiratory processes.

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