Antennae very short, but with a terminal arista (Fig. 28); rostrum clearly arising from the head; tarsi 3-segmented.
Antennae arise from between the pair of compound eyes.
10. Family CERCOPIDAE (froghoppers)
Small to medium-sized, very active bugs with the hindlegs adapted for jumping; ocelli (two) present in adults; adults of some species are superficially frog-like; hind tibiae cylindrical and bearing just a few stout spines (Fig. 29) (cf. family Cicadellidae); veins 1A and 2A of forewings separate throughout their length (Fig. 30a) (cf. family Delphacidae). Nymphs develop within a protective mass of froth (often called 'cuckoo-spit'), a secretion produced from the anus and through which air bubbles are forced from a special canal by abdominal contractions.
EXAMPLES: Aphrophorinae - Philaenus spumarius (common froghopper); Cercopinae - Cercopis vulnerata (red & black froghopper).
Fig. 30 Forewings: (a) of a froghopper - family Cercopidae; (b) of a leafhopper - family Delphacidae.
11. Family CICADELLIDAE (leafhoppers)
Small insects, with hindlegs of the very active adults adapted for jumping; ocelli (two) present or absent; hind tibiae angular and bearing one or more rows of spines (Fig. 31) (cf. family Cercopidae); veins 1A and 2A of forewings separate (see Fig. 30a) (cf. family Delphacidae); female ovipositor adapted for lacerating plant tissue into which eggs are laid. Nymphs active and free-living.
EXAMPLES: Aphrodinae - Aphrodes bicinctus (strawberry leafhopper); Evacanthinae -Evacanthus interruptus (hop leafhopper); Typhlocybinae - Eupteryx melissae (chrysanthemum leafhopper).
Antennae arise from below the compound eyes.
12. Family DELPHACIDAE (planthoppers)
Leafhoppers characterized by the large, moveable apical spur on each hind tibia (Fig. 32); veins
1A and 2A of forewings Y-shaped, being united distally (Fig. 30b).
EXAMPLE: Javesella pellucida (cereal leafhopper).
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