Series Auchenorrhyncha

Antennae very short, but with a terminal arista (Fig. 28); rostrum clearly arising from the head; tarsi 3-segmented.

Fig. 29 Hindleg of a froghopper - family Cercopidae.


Antennae arise from between the pair of compound eyes.

10. Family CERCOPIDAE (froghoppers)

Small to medium-sized, very active bugs with the hindlegs adapted for jumping; ocelli (two) present in adults; adults of some species are superficially frog-like; hind tibiae cylindrical and bearing just a few stout spines (Fig. 29) (cf. family Cicadellidae); veins 1A and 2A of forewings separate throughout their length (Fig. 30a) (cf. family Delphacidae). Nymphs develop within a protective mass of froth (often called 'cuckoo-spit'), a secretion produced from the anus and through which air bubbles are forced from a special canal by abdominal contractions.

EXAMPLES: Aphrophorinae - Philaenus spumarius (common froghopper); Cercopinae - Cercopis vulnerata (red & black froghopper).

2A 1A

1A/2A 1A/2A

Fig. 30 Forewings: (a) of a froghopper - family Cercopidae; (b) of a leafhopper - family Delphacidae.

11. Family CICADELLIDAE (leafhoppers)

Small insects, with hindlegs of the very active adults adapted for jumping; ocelli (two) present or absent; hind tibiae angular and bearing one or more rows of spines (Fig. 31) (cf. family Cercopidae); veins 1A and 2A of forewings separate (see Fig. 30a) (cf. family Delphacidae); female ovipositor adapted for lacerating plant tissue into which eggs are laid. Nymphs active and free-living.

EXAMPLES: Aphrodinae - Aphrodes bicinctus (strawberry leafhopper); Evacanthinae -Evacanthus interruptus (hop leafhopper); Typhlocybinae - Eupteryx melissae (chrysanthemum leafhopper).


Antennae arise from below the compound eyes.

Fig. 31 Hindleg of a leafhopper - family Cicadellidae.
Fig. 32 Hindleg of a leafhopper - family Delphacidae.

12. Family DELPHACIDAE (planthoppers)

Leafhoppers characterized by the large, moveable apical spur on each hind tibia (Fig. 32); veins

1A and 2A of forewings Y-shaped, being united distally (Fig. 30b).

EXAMPLE: Javesella pellucida (cereal leafhopper).

Fig. 33 Outline and venation of forewing of a psyllid: (a) family Psyllidae; (b) family Triozidae.

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