Squamae (the calypters) poorly developed and the transverse suture (which divides the mesonotum into a prescutum and scutum) (see later in Fig. 110) poorly developed or absent; second antennal segment ungrooved.
14. Family TEPHRITIDAE (large fruit flies) (p. 179 et seq.)
Wings noticeably mottled (Fig. 99); female with a distinct oviscapt. Larvae with a pair of rounded
6 Some authorities have abandoned the various subdivisions ACALYPTRATAE, CALYPTRATAE (p. 50) and PUPIPARA (p. 52).
anal tubercles; posterior spiracles not placed on raised processes; phytophagous, including several gall-inhabiting species.
EXAMPLES: Ceratitinae - Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly); Trypetinae - Euleia heraclei (celery fly), Platyparea poeciloptera (asparagus fly), Rhagoletis cerasi (European cherry fruit fly).
Small to medium-sized flies with a distinct break in the costal vein (Fig. 100) and a distinct ocellar triangle. Larvae cylindrical, narrow-bodied and elongated; phytophagous.
EXAMPLE: Psila rosae (carrot fly).
16. Family SPHAEROCERIDAE (lesser dung flies) (p. 182)
A group of small to medium-sized, mainly black or dark brown flies; wings usually with two distinct costal breaks; oral vibrissae (see later in anierior veins convergent
Fig. 101 Wing of an opomyzid fly - family Opomyzidae.
Fig. 106) long; first tarsal segment of hindlegs short, distinctly swollen and densely setose. Larvae saprophagous, typically developing amongst decaying organic matter.
EXAMPLES: Coproica hirtula (sometimes abundant in poultry houses); Pullimosina heter-oneura (occasionally a nuisance in mushroom houses).
17. Family OPOMYZIDAE (p. 182 et seq.)
Small flies, with often mottled or spotted wings and the two anterior veins convergent (Fig. 101); no oral vibrissae. Larvae often leaf miners or stem miners; anterior and posterior spiracles prominent but body without posterior tubercles (cf. family Anthomyiidae, p. 51). EXAMPLES: Geomyza tripunctata (grass & cereal fly), Opomyza florum (yellow cereal fly).
18. Family EPHYDRIDAE (shore flies)
Small, dark-bodied flies, usually associated with damp habitats; wings with two distinct costal breaks; anal cell absent (Fig. 102). Larvae often leaf miners or stem miners; posterior spiracles anierior veins convergent
Fig. 101 Wing of an opomyzid fly - family Opomyzidae.
Fig. 103 Posterior respiratory cone of a shore fly larva - family Ephydridae.
borne on a pair of pointed, posteriorly directed cones (Fig. 103).
EXAMPLES: Notiphilinae - Hydrellia griseola (larva = a cereal leaf miner); Ephydrinae -Scatella spp. (glasshouse wing-spot flies).
19. Family DROSOPHILIDAE (small fruit flies) (p. 185 et seq.)
Very small to small flies with bright red compound eyes; arista of antenna usually plumose and with a bifid tip (Fig. 104); anal cell present. Larvae maggot-like, with elongated anterior and posterior respiratory processes and anal tubercles; anterior spiracles sometimes absent.
EXAMPLES: Drosophila spp. (small fruit flies), Scaptomyza flava.
Minute, apterous, superficially hippoboscid-like flies, adapted for life as ectoparasites of bees. Larvae plump, with distinctive anterior and posterior sensorial processes. The larvae inhabit bee colonies and feed on wax and stored pollen. EXAMPLE: Br aula coeca (bee-louse).
21. Family AGROMYZIDAE (p. 186 et seq.)
A large family of small, mainly black or grey, often yellow-marked flies with a distinct break on the costal vein (Fig. 105); oral vibrissae present (Fig. 106). Larvae with main axis of the mouth-hooks set obliquely or at right angles to the rest of the mouthparts and each usually with two or more equally sized teeth (Fig. 107); dorsal elements (dorsal cornu) of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton (mouthparts) undivided (= subfamily Phytomyzinae) (Fig. 107a) or divided into two (= subfamily Agromyzinae); anterior spiracles arising dorsally and relatively closely set; posterior spiracles prominent. The larvae usually mine within leaves or stems, often forming distinctive galleries in which two discontinuous trails of frass are visible.
EXAMPLES: Agromyzinae - Agromyza poten-tillae (larva = strawberry leaf miner),
Fig. 107 Larva of an agromyzid fly - family Agromyzidae: (a) cephalopharyngeal skeleton subfamily Phytomyzinae.
Ophiomyia simplex (larva = asparagus miner); Phytomyzinae - Cerodontha ireos (larva = iris leaf miner), Liriomyza trifolii (larva = American serpentine leaf miner), Napomyza carotae (larva = carrot miner), Phytomyza rufipes (larva = cabbage leaf miner).
22. Family CHLOROPIDAE (p. 194 et seq.)
Minute to small flies with a bare arista, brightly coloured eyes, a very large ocellar triangle (Fig. 108) and reduced wing venation (no anal cell) (Fig. 109). Some species have predacious larvae (including Chloropisca glabra which feeds on root aphids) but most are phytophagous; larvae elongate, with prominent anterior and posterior
spiracles but body without posterior tubercles (cf. family Anthomyiidae, p. 51). EXAMPLES: Chlorops pumilionis (gout fly), Oscinella frit (frit fly).
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