Squamae (the calypters) and a transverse suture (Fig. 110) usually well developed; second antennal segment distinctly grooved
23. Family OESTRIDAE
Stout-bodied flies clothed in soft hair; hypopleural bristles present; postscutellum well developed; females with an extensile oviscapt. Larvae are internal parasites of mammals and some are of considerable economic importance.
EXAMPLES: Hypoderma spp. (warble flies), Oestrus ovis (sheep nostril fly).
grooved second segment
Fig. 111 Antenna of a calyptrate fly - series Schizophora, Calyptratae.
24. Family GASTEROPHILIDAE
Large, relatively hairy flies with vestigial mouthparts, sharing similar features to members of the family Oestridae (q.v.) but squamae very small. Larvae are internal parasites of horses and certain other large-bodied mammals.
EXAMPLE: Gasterophilus intestinalis (horse bot fly).
25. Family TACHINIDAE (parasitic flies)
Adults with large squamae and resembling house flies (family Muscidae), but with a strongly developed postscutellum and with hypopleural bristles (Fig. 112) (cf. family Anthomyiidae); arista usually bare. Larvae maggot-like but with indistinct segmentation and tapered only slightly anteriorly; anterior spiracles small; posterior spiracles conspicuous and often distinctly scle-rotized; endoparasitoids, most species attacking lepidopterous larvae and pupae.
EXAMPLES: Compsilura spp., Nemorilla spp., Pales spp., Phryxe spp.
26. Family CALLIPHORIDAE (bluebottles, greenbottles, flesh flies, etc.)
A very large group of flies, including parasitic, predatory and saprophytic species; hypopleural bristles present; postscutellum indistinct or absent (cf. family Tachinidae); adults often blue or green (subfamily Calliphorinae). Larvae either scavengers or parasitoids.
EXAMPLES: Lucilia sericata (sheep maggot fly), Pollenia rudis (cluster fly), the latter a parasitoid of earthworms.
27. Family SCATHOPHAGIDAE
Adults without hypopleural bristles and with the lower thoracic squamae reduced to membranous folds: usually predacious on small insects. Larvae of variable habits but usually phytophagous or, including those of the well-known Scathophaga stercoraria (yellow dung fly), saprophagous. EXAMPLE: Nanna spp. (timothy flies).
28. Family ANTHOMYIIDAE
A large group of house-fly-like species in which hypopleura bristles are absent (cf. family Tachinidae). Larvae (Fig. 113) maggot-like, with often characteristic cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles and posterior tubercles; in common with most other groups (not family Agromyzidae, q.v.), the long axis of the mouth-hooks is more or less continuous with the rest of the mouthparts (Fig. 113c). Larvae mainly phytophagous.
EXAMPLES: Delia antiqua (onion fly), Pegomya hyoscyami (mangold fly).
species have piercing mouthparts and feed on the blood of mammals. Larvae of many species are carnivorous (in their second to fourth instars) and some are then useful predators of crop pests.
EXAMPLES: Haematobosca stimulans (cattle biting fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly), Hydrotaea irritans (sheep head fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); Muscina stabulans (false stable fly), the larvae of which are predators of, for example, larvae of Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (cabbage stem weevil).
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