Suborder Apocrita

Abdomen typically with a deep constriction between the first (propodeum) and second abdominal segments (the part of the abdomen behind

Ichneumonidae Venation
Fig. 154 Venation of the forewings of parasitoid wasps: (a) family Ichneumonidae; (b) family Braconidae.

this constriction being termed the 'gaster'); cenchri absent; fore tibiae usually with one spur. Larvae apodous; head often well developed but greatly reduced in some parasitic forms. Larvae of many species are carnivorous, being either ectoparasitoids or endoparasitoids; others are predacious and some feed on nectar and pollen; faeces are usually retained throughout larval development and ejected just before pupation (as the larval meconium).

This suborder divides into the PARASITICA (ovipositor modified for piercing or boring) and the ACULEATA (ovipositor modified for stinging) but this is not particularly satisfactory and use of superfamilies is more appropriate.

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