Superfamily Chalcidoidea chalcids

Antennae geniculate, with one to three annuli (cf. superfamily Proctotrupoidea) and fewer than 14 segments; wings, when present, without a pterostigma and the venation much reduced; pronotum not extending back to the tegulae (cf. superfamily Proctotrupoidea). This superfamily contains the largest number of species, most of small size, and includes the smallest of all insects; most are parasitoids or hyperparasitoids, the former attacking mainly Hemiptera (notably scale insects), Diptera and Lepidoptera, especially lepidopterous eggs and larvae.

The main families of economic importance are as follows.

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