Kidney Disease Solution
Key words liver disease, kidney disease, agrochemicals, biological hazards, organic solvents, infections Generally speaking, the occurrence of liver or kidney disease is not particularly associated with agriculture. Nevertheless, life in rural settings in general, as well as work in agriculture in particular, is associated with a variety of health risks that can affect liver or kidney. These risks are not completely different from those in urban life but can be present to a greater or lesser degree. Environmental exposures on farms are typically characterized by biological hazards, including a higher infectious disease risk by the use of agricultural chemicals, including fertilizers and biocides and by exposures to solvents, fuels, paints, and welding fumes associated with maintenance and repair work. On the other hand, pollution by traffic exhausts, industrial emissions, and other effluents of civilization play a comparatively smaller role in a rural environment. Health risks...
Could you live without your kidneys Healthy soils and vegetation are the ecosystem's kidneys. Without these filters, stormwater runs off instead of seeping down into ground water, and land health declines. Erosion leads to an inevitable depletion of biodiversity and decreased productivity on the land, in freshwater systems, and in the oceans, all of which adversely affects the ecosystem's potential for recovery.
Local effects, except for Latrodectus hasselti, are usually quite mild, ranging from a sharp pinprick to nothing, leaving a small pair of red marks, and occasionally yielding slight redness and swelling. Within an hour, dull cramping and often severe pain and numbness spread from bite to the entire torso the syndrome begins to wane after three hours, but can last for days. Sometimes, a surgical abdomen is mimicked, but the lack of tenderness and distension, the history, and the muscle spasms allow the correct diagnosis. Other symptoms include tachycardia, headache, diaphoresis, salivation, weakness, fever, vomiting, backache, respiratory distress, priapism, impotence, urinary retention, anxiety, increased deep tendon reflexes, protein-uria, parasthesia, hypertension, fetal positioning, and burning these changes usually end after several days, but can last for months. Complications include shock, convulsions, and cerebral hemorrhage, as well as respiratory, cardiac, or renal failure.
The isolation procedure follows that of Schliephake et al. (2000). Laccase was purified from 7.91 of culture fluid in two ultrafiltration steps followed by concentration, dialysis, and column chromatography on Sephadex G 75. Fractions absorbing at 614 nm were analyzed for laccases activity, pooled, dialyzed against 20 mM histidine buffer pH 6, and again concentrated. The concentrate was chromatographed on a 5 5 Mono Q anion exchange column with a sodium chloride gradient of 0-0.5 M over 50 min at 1 ml min. Fractions absorbing at 614 nm were pooled and stored at 85 C in the presence of a protease inhibitor mixture. A 45-fold increase in specific activity was obtained on purification. Capillary electrophoresis estimated purity at greater than 95 with minor peaks (areas 0.079 and 4.596 ) at longer elution times.
Frequently associated with the natural occurrence of OA, citrinin, also a nephrotoxin, is produced by P. citrinum and several other penicillia, aspergilli (Cole and Cox 1981) and Monocuus ruber and M. purpureus (Pastrana et al. 1996). The presence of citrinin in the diet with low quality corn could lead to chronic, hard to diagnose kidney disease in susceptible individuals and animals (CAST 2003). One of the mycotoxins closely associated with the natural occurrence of AF in peanuts is CPA, which causes hyperesthesia and convulsions as well as liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, salivary gland, and myocardial damage (CAST 2003). CPA inhibits the calcium-dependent ATPase (Chu 2002 Petr et al. 1999). The toxin is produced by several species of the genus Penicillium, including P. cyclopium, P. crustosum, P. griseofulvin, P. puberulum, P. camemberti, and Aspergilli including A. versicolor, A. flavus but not by A. parasiticus and A. tamarii in Bhatnagar et al. (2002) . Other than peanuts, CPA...
Capillary damage and DIC-like state lead to decreased platelets and fibrinogen, hemorrhage, and sometimes shock not seen with elapid venom Phospholipases induce red cells to swell, causing hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria Major components in Mojave rattlesnake and elapid venom, can cause flaccid paralysis of skeletal muscle by blocking transmission at the neuromuscular junction, lead to death by respiratory paralysis Can result in massive skeletal muscle breakdown, myoglobinuria, potential renal failure Cause primary and secondary damage to kidneys
Provisions for ochratoxin A deoxynivalenol zearalenone fumonisin Bi B2 and T2 and HT2 toxins in feeds
Pigs are considered the most sensitive farm animal species to the nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin A. No no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) can be established, but based on effects on renal (diagnostic) enzyme levels and kidney function, a dietary concentration of 0.2 g g is considered the lowest-observed-effect-level (LOEL). Chickens also are a sensitive species, and ochratoxin A is assumed to be the most important cause of poultry nephropathy. Ruminants are less sensitive to ochratoxin A than are monogastric species. This result is consistent with data indicating that prior to absorption, significant microbial degradation of ochratoxin A to the less toxic ochratoxin
Histologic evaluation of infected tissue show that viral antigens are distributed primarily within the endothelium of capillaries throughout various tissues. Histopatholgic lesions are mainly seen in the lungs and spleen. Immune complexes have been detected in the sera and may be responsible for the increased capillary permeability, vascular injury, platelet lysis, and kidney damage. Individuals with HLA-B*3501 have an increased risk of developing severe HPS, suggesting that CD8(+) T cell responses contribute to pathogenesis (55,56).
Chemical exposures in agriculture and farming can be manifold and heterogeneous. This is especially true for the handling of pesticides, an exposure category often used in the occupational medical literature (see Chapter 16). Although liver and kidney damage from agrochemicals is noted with some regularity both in high-dose animal toxicology testing and in case reports from accidental or suicidal poisoning, these findings are hardly transferable to occupational or environmental human exposure situations. The reason for the findings in animals is that many of these chemicals through their metabolism may lead to adaptive responses such as enzyme induction, organ enlargement, and, finally, to overload phenomena at the highest doses that are not normally achievable in human workplaces. Consequently, a general risk increase for liver disease caused by agrochemicals is doubtful, and no reports are available regarding the general risk for kidney effects. However, in situations with poor...
Peripheral nervous system much earlier than in any other organ system. This explains why, except in cases of deliberate poisoning, as in suicide, manifest liver or kidney damage due to insecticide use hardly ever occurs in persons who handle them professionally. One exception to this statement may be lead arsenate, which was used as an insecticide in vineyards in the past and allegedly caused liver cirrhosis and liver cancer in wine growers. Such cases have been acknowledged as an occupational disease in Germany however, some doubted the relevance of arsenic as the major culprit. Elevated liver enzyme activities in professional pesticide sprayers have occasionally been reported, whereas others did not confirm these findings (19-25). Herbicides primarily target plant-specific enzymes and are thus generally of comparatively low toxicity to nontarget organisms. Acute intoxications mainly affect the central nervous system, with kidney effects being reported after long-term exposure to...
Life in rural areas itself may be associated with lack of sanitation or unhygienic work practices, not only in developing but also in developed countries. One well-described risk factor for infectious disease in general, including liver or kidney disease, is the use of untreated waste water for irrigation, which increased the incidence of shigellosis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, and infectious hepatitis by a factor of two to four in Israeli kibbutzim. In Turkey, this practice has been identified as a source of hepatitis E infection in farm Noninfectious biological hazards through fungal growth on hay, grain, food, and feedstock also have to be taken into account. Again, liver and kidney are not the most important targets for associated health effects but can be affected in special cases. A case of acute renal failure (ARF) due to inhalation of ochratoxin A produced by a mold of the species Aspergillus ochraceus was reported from Italy. After working 8 hours in a granary closed for...
Chelation therapy with BAL, DMSA, or d-penicillamine is the primary treatment of arsenic toxicity. Removal of the offending agent and aggressive gastric decontamination aids in reducing ongoing absorption of arsenic. Hemodialysis may be beneficial in patients with acute renal failure (16,27-29).
F. verticillioides or pure FmB1 to rats resulted in cirrhosis and hepatic nodules, adenofibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma-ductular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma (Gelderblom et al. 2001 Haschek et al. 2001). Kidney is also a target organ, and tubular nephrosis was found both in rats and in horses of field cases associated with equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM). In addition to FmB1, which was originally found to be a potent cancer-causing agent, FmB2 and FmB3 have also been found to be carcinogens and have cancer initiation and promoting activities in rats. The effective dose of FmB1 for cancer initiation in rat liver depends both on the levels and on the duration of exposure. In cell culture systems, FmB1 has been demonstrated to be mitogenic and cytotoxic, without genotoxic effects (Gelderblom et al. 2001). Kidney cells have also been shown to be targeted by these toxins.
Necrotic areas narrower than 2 cm may require only pain medicine, anti-histamines, sterile dressings, tetanus prophylaxis, ice, and elevation of the affected limb. Necrotic foci larger than 1 cm require screening for hemolysis, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Mild systemic reactions are usually apparent within 3 days and include leukocytosis, malaise, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, proteinuria, vomiting, diarrhea, and generalized urticaria. Severe reactions include anuria, delirium, shock, hemolysis, and coma. These reactions should prompt consideration of hospitalization.
Relevant than that of the active ingredient pesticide. This aspect is often neglected in the discussion of health findings in pesticide sprayers, not least because of the difficulty of differentiating between the effects of single factors in complex mixtures. To enable an educated guess of the possible solvent-related health risk for farmers, experience from typically solventexposed professionals like degreasers, printers, painters, and paint manufacturers may serve as a model. Here, on average, subclinical effects have been described on liver and kidney function. However, except from some specific agents like AA'-dimethylformamide or several chlorinated hydrocarbons, the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of organic solvents should not be overrated (30-34). Many similar studies have not found any demonstrable solvent effect on liver and kidney even in comparatively highly exposed subjects, and liver-related findings often were more closely associated with individual alcohol...
Ochratoxin A is the more toxic of the two derivatives and is nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, carcinogenic and teratogenic in all experimental animals tested (WHO, 1990). It has been classified as a Group 2B compound, i.e., possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC, 1987). The toxin has been associated with endemic nephropathy which is a fatal renal disease found among rural populations in Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania.
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