Land Development Model
Whether having an on-land or and offshore wind turbine in the view shed from the permanent or summer residence or not, seems to have heterogeneous effects on the individual attitude. In general, having a wind turbine in the view shed seems to have some effects on the perception of wind farming. Having a view to on-land (and offshore) turbines or having a view to on-land turbines and seeing many turbines per day seems to reduce acceptability of a even stronger future expansion of on-land wind power systems (Ladenburg 2008 Ladenburg et al. 2011). On the other hand, having a view to on-land turbines can increase acceptability of offshore wind farms (Ladenburg, 2010). Interestingly, having a view to offshore wind farms appears not influence attitude towards offshore wind power (Ladenburg, 2008 2009 2010). This could point towards offshore wind power development becoming an increasing acceptable substitute for land-based wind power systems, if the future on-land development cannot be kept...
The time-warning mode is a long-term drought warning system based on meteorological and physical data. The Department of Meteorology provides weather information throughout the year. Particularly in the dry season, the department predicts drought for different parts of the country. The Department of Land Development provides the information on current land use, land use changes, and soil types. This mode evaluates the seasonal as well as monthly weather conditions during the hot and dry season and helps identify the potential drought-prone areas and their drought sever-
Unusually warm weather in recent past. In 2000, 27 of total food grain production i.e. 5 million ton was destroyed and more than 8.8 million ha land was affected. The perennial dynamics of locust population has strong relationship with transformation of landuse fabric in the republic from 1954 to 1992 onwards. The landuse distribution of Kazakhstan is dominated by semi desert and deserts (77.2 ), and grassland and forests of 9.4 . The grasslands used to serve as ecological niche for the desert locusts confined to smaller pockets from which they used to migrate in adjoining fringe of agricultural lands. But the land development history of Kazakhstan has adversely affected the natural habitats of locusts while passing through 4 different phases since 1954.
Under most circumstances, a poor rural family without financial resources would not be able to purchase land. This fact accounts for the widespread recourse to State land development schemes, under which new land is made available to settlers at little or no cost. Along with the historical concentration of landholdings in many countries, it also explains why so many expropria-tive agrarian reforms have been carried out.
According to Diepen and van der Wall (1996), factors influencing yield can be categorized as (1) abiotic factors, such as soil water, soil fertility, soil texture, soil taxonomy class, and weather (2) farm management factors, such as soil tillage, soil depth, planting density, sowing date, weeding intensity, manuring rate, crop protection against pests and diseases, harvesting techniques, postharvest loss, and degree of mechanization (3) land development factors, such as field size, terracing, drainage, and irrigation (4) socioeconomic factors, such as the distance to markets, population pressure, investments, costs of inputs, prices of output, education levels, skills, and infrastructure and (5) catastrophic factors that include warfare, flooding, earthquakes, hailstorms, and frost. Measuring or estimating some of these factors is often not feasible, and the influence of some other factors may be considered insignificant or constant in an economically stable region. It is therefore...
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