Index

Page numbers in bold italic indicate a photo or figure.

Abdul-Baki, Aref, 60 aeration, 56-57

agrichemicals. See also fertilizers beneficiƔis and, 21, 95 biodiversity and, 16, 86, 87 biological control and, 68 cover crops and, 4, 27, 28, 32-33,

59-64, 74, 75 crop rotation and, 4, 59, 60-61 economic sustainability and, 48 effectiveness of, 1 environment and, 1, 48 mulch and, 60 no-till and, 4, 27, 29, 59-64 perimeter trap cropping and, 36, 40 production costs and, 1 resistance and, 44, 45, 47, 48-49 soil and, 59-64 vineyards and, 32-33 weeds and, 43, 61-62 Agricultural Research Service, 36, 46, 74 agroecology, 86-87, 100-101 agroforestry, 10, 86 Aleiodes indiscretus, 3 Alyssum, 3 7

aphelinid wasps (Aphelinidae), 83 aphids, 72-73, 75-76 apple fruit moth, 34 apples, 48-49. See also orchards assassin bug, 8

"A Total System Approach to Sustainable Pest Management," 1

augmentation biological control, 8, 25

bachelor button flowers, 5

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), 16, 59, 83-84

bacteria, 83-84, 85. See also beneficials;

pathogens balansa clover, 64 Bathyplectes curculionis, 79 beetle banks, 38

Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, 67 beneficials. See also biological control; natural enemies agrichemicals and, 21, 95 biodiversity and, 21-24 borders and, 21, 24, 25-34 corridors for, 37-38, 88 cover crops and, 4, 18-20, 22-23,

27-29, 30-33, 74-75 crop rotation and, 4, 19 flowering plants and, 12, 19-20, 24, 39,

42, 74-75 habitat management strategy for, 87-89, 93-95

intercropping and, 19-20 keys to, 50-53, 70, 78 microclimates and, 24 mowing and, 35 mulch and, 21 no-till and, 4, 27-29, 30-33 organic matter and, 21, 24 overview of, 21-24, 88 perimeter trap cropping and, 40

plant diversity and, 14-15, 18-21 plant selection and, 39-41, 88, 92 soil and, 21, 58-64 strategies for enhancing, 21-24 supplementary resources for, 25, 88-89, 95

tillage and, 74-75, 90 weeds and, 19, 41-43 Berkowitz, Zach, 7, 30-33 Bibin, Frank, 91

big-eyed bugs (Geocoris spp.), 76-77 biodiversity agrichemicals and, 16, 86, 87

agroecology and, 86-87

agroforestry and, 10, 86, 92

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and, 84

beneficials and, 21-24

biological control and, 7-10

checklist for, 10, 92

compost and, 15

corridors and, 86

96-97 ecosystems and, 86 flowering plants and, 12 harvest and, 16 intercropping and, 10, 92 kinds of, 10-13

livestock and, 10, 15, 16-17, 92 microclimates and, 10, 92 organic farming and, 87 organic matter and, 86 overview of, 6-7, 95 parasitoids and, 82 plant diversity and, 14-15, 18-21 plant selection for, 93 predators and, 69-71 resilience and, 13 resistance and, 13, 16 risks of, 11, 21 soil and, 11-13, 15-16 strategies for enhancing, 92, 100-101 strip-cropping and, 10, 92 tillage and, 15, 16 water and, 10, 92 weeds and, 16 wind and, 14 biological control, 7-10, 68. See also beneficials

Blackmer, Randy, 40, 40 Blando brome grass, 33 blooming. See flowering plants blueberries, 47. See also fruit Blue Hubbard squash, 40 borders beneficials and, 21, 24, 25-34 biodiversity and, 10, 14, 86, 87 ladybugs and, 26 natural enemies and, 25-36 perimeter trap cropping, 34-36, 40 risks of, 36 temperature and, 89 weeds and, 36, 43 Boucher, T. Jude, 40 boundaries. See borders braconid parasitoid wasp (Microgaster politus), 34 buckwheat, 11 , 39

Carlson, Eric, 47-49 Cecarelli, Nelson, 40 Cedar Meadow Farm, 4, 60-63 celery, 5

chalcid wasps, 80-83 chewings fescue, 20 classical biological control, 8 Colorado potato beetle, 8 compaction, 56-57, 91, 102 compost, 15, 47, 58, 90. See also manure conservation biological control, 8 constitutive defenses, 44 continuous defenses, 44 Cornell University, 61 corridors, 37-38, 43, 86, 88. See also intercropping; strip-cropping cotton, 45, 46, 74-75 cover crops, 19, 23

59-64, 74, 75 beneficials and, 4, 18-20, 22-23, 27-29,

30-33, 74-75 biodiversity and, 10, 17, 86, 92 crop rotation and, 4, 60-63, 92-93 as fertilizer, 67 mowing and, 20, 31-32, 35 mulch and, 22, 23 nitrate leaching and, 22 no-till and, 4, 27-28, 30-33, 60-63,

92-93 in orchards, 22-23

organic matter and, 4, 22, 63, 64, 90 pathogens and, 4 pests and, 4

production costs and, 27, 28 soil and, 22, 27, 58-64, 91-92 temperature and, 89 tillage and, 74-75 water and, 22

weeds and, 4, 28, 61-62, 74 yields and, 63, 74 crimson clover, 2, 33, 64 crop health, 103 crop residue, 90 crop rotation agrichemicals and, 4, 59, 60-61 beneficials and, 4, 19 biodiversity and, 10, 14-15, 16-17, 92, 96-97

cover crops and, 4, 60-63, 92-93 no-till and, 60-63, 92-93 organic matter and, 4, 63 pathogens and, 4 pests and, 4

soil and, 58-59, 62-63, 96-97 weeds and, 4, 61-62 yields and, 63 cucumber beetles, 36, 40

defenses, 44-49 dipteran flies, 79-80 diversity. See biodiversity

Ecologically Based Pest Management, 3 ecological pest management benefits of, 3 costs of, 4

ecosystems and, 1-3, 67

elements of, 94-95

habitat management strategy for, 87-89,

93-95, 100-101 pillars of, 9

whole farm approach of, 18 economic sustainability, 48, 96, 97-99 ecosystems, 1-3, 67, 86 encyrtid wasps (Encyrtidae), 83 environment, 1, 48 Epstein, David, 23 erosion, 91, 102

eulophid wasps (Eulophidae), 81-82 European mountain ash

(Sorbus aucuparia), 34 fairyflies (Mymaridae), B1 fertilizers, 64-67, 91. See also agrichemicals filter strips, 34 flowering plants.

74-75 biodiversity and, 12 corridors and, 37-38 natural enemies and, 42 perimeter trap cropping and, 36 size and shape of, 39 timing of, 39 Forsline, Philip, 46 Fort Valley State University, 74 fruit, 47-49. See also orchards fungi, B4. See also beneficials; pathogens fungicides. See agrichemicals genetics, 10-13, 45-46, 84, 100, 101 grapes, 30-33, 46

green manure, 97. See also cover crops Groff, Steve, 4, 60-63, 62 ground beetles (Carabidae), 38, 73 gypsy moth caterpillar, 3

habitat management strategy, B7-B9, 93-95, 100-101 hairy vetch, 64 harvest, 16

health. See also resistance crop, 44, 103

soil, 55-58, 89-92, 95, 102 herbicides. See agrichemicals high tunnels, 62 Horton, Dave, 35, 35

induced defenses, 44 Ing, George, 35 inoculation, 8

insect growth regulators, 59 insecticides. See agrichemicals integrated crop-livestock systems, 5, 15,

16-17, 100 intercropping, 10, 19-20, 89, 92. See also corridors; strip-cropping inundation, 8

lacewings (Chrysoperla spp.), 73-76

ladybugs (Coccinellidae), 7-9, 26, 72-73 lettuce, 37

manure, 58, 90. See also compost; green manure margins. See borders Michigan State University, 20, 22-23 microclimates, 10, 24, 92 minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.), 76 mowing, 20, 31-32, 35, 43 mulch, 24

agrichemicals and, 60 beneficials and, 21 cover crops and, 22, 23 risks of, 24 temperature and, 89 mustard, 39 mycorrhizal fungi, 57

National Academy of Science, 1, 3 natural enemies. See also beneficials borders and, 25-36 corridors for, 37-38 flowering plants and, 42 overview of, 24, 68 plant selection and, 39-41 supplementary resources for, 25 weeds and, 41-43 nematodes, 85. See also beneficials;

pathogens nitrate leaching, 22 nitrogen. See fertilizers no-till. See also tillage agrichemicals and, 4, 27, 29, 59-64 beneficials and, 4, 27-29, 30-33 cover crops and, 4, 27-28, 30-33, 6063,92-93 crop rotation and, 60-63, 92-93 equipment for, 62-63 organic matter and, 4, 63, 64 pathogens and, 4 pests and, 4

production costs and, 27, 28 soil and, 27, 59, 62-63 weeds and, 4, 29, 61-62 yields and, 28, 63 Nugent, Mike, 28-29

orchards cover crops in, 22-23

margins and, 34 mowing, 35 predators in, 71 resistance and, 47, 48-49 tart cherry orchard, 22-23 organic farming

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and, 84 biodiversity and, 87 economic sustainability and, 96, 97-99 fertilizers and, 65-67 pests and, 88 plant selection and, 88 weeds and, 99 organic matter. See also soil aeration and, 57 beneficials and, 21, 24 biodiversity and, 86 compost and, 90

cover crops and, 4, 22, 63, 64, 90 crop residue and, 90 crop rotation and, 4, 63 fertilizers and, 91 manure and, 90 no-till and, 4, 63, 64 nutrients and, 58 quality of, 102

parasitoids, 8, 53, 77-83, 88. See also beneficials pathogens, 4, 21-24, 83-85. See also beneficials perimeter trap cropping, 34-36, 40 pests damage caused by, 1

fertilizers and, 64-66

habitat management strategy for, 87-89,

organic farming and, 88 perimeter trap cropping for, 34-36, 40 risks of, 25, 26, 90 soil and, 58-64 plant diversity, 14-15, 18-21, 92-93 plant selection, 39-41, 88, 92, 93 potatoes, 59

predators, 50-53, 69-77, 88-89. See also beneficials; natural enemies production costs, 1, 27, 28, 40, 47 pteromalid wasps (Pteromalidae), 82-83 pumpkins, 40 pyrethroids, 59

Quinn, Bob, 96-99, 98 rapeseed,4

raspberries, 49. See also fruit red clover, 23 resilience, 13

resistance, 13, 16, 44-49, 58, 64-67, 98 rose clover, 33 rosemary, 11

Rosmann, Ron and David, 15 Rosmann, Ron and Maria, 14-17 rye, 4, 20, 59, 86

Schomberg, Harry, 74, 75 soil, 56, 57. See also organic matter agrichemicals and, 59-64 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and, 59 beneficials and, 21, 58-64 biodiversity and, 11-13, 15-16 biological properties of, 55-56, 58 chemical properties of, 57-58 compaction, 91, 102 compost and, 58

cover crops and, 22, 27, 58-64, 91-92 crop rotation and, 58-59, 62-63, 96-97 erosion and, 91, 102 fertilizers and, 64-67, 91 health of, 55-58, 89-92, 95, 102 livestock and, 15 manure and, 58 no-till and, 27, 59, 62-63 pests and, 58-64 physical properties of, 56-57, 58 resistance and, 44, 58 strip-cropping and, 91 temperature of, 62, 89, 90 tillage and, 90 water and, 56-57, 62, 102 Southern green stink bug, 8 spatial diversity, 10-13, 16-17, 93, 100 spiders, 72 squash, 36

strip-cropping, 10, 91, 92. See also corridors;

intercropping sunflowers, 41

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE), 35, 40, 74 syrphid flies, 25, 77

tart cherry orchard, 22-23 temperature, 62, 89, 90

temporal diversity, 10-13, 93, 100 Thompson, Dick, 18-19 Thompson, Larry, 12

tillage, 15, 16, 43, 74-75, 90. See also no-till Tillman, Glynn, 74-75 trap crops, 34-36, 40 Trichogramma wasps (Trichogrammatidae), 81

Trissolcus basalis, 8

University of Connecticut, 36, 40 University of Georgia, 59, 74 University of Wisconsin, 48 Upton, Junior, 56

Vickers, Mark, 27-28 vineyards, 30-33, 37-38, 86 viruses, 84-85. See also beneficials; pathogens water biodiversity and, 10, 92 cover crops and, 22 crop residue and, 90 resistance and, 44 soil and, 56-57, 62, 102 wheat and, 98 weeds agrichemicals and, 43, 61-62 beneficials and, 19, 41-43 biodiversity and, 16 borders and, 36, 43 corridors and, 43 cover crops and, 4, 28, 61-62, 74 crop rotation and, 4, 61-62 green manure and, 97 mowing, 43

natural enemies and, 41-43 no-till and, 4, 29, 61-62 organic farming and, 99 production costs and, 47 resistance and, 47 risks of, 43 tillage and, 43 wheat, 96, 97-98 Willis, Tad, 96 wind, 14

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment