Home Remedies To Treat Obesity Naturally

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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of Underground Fat Loss Manual can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

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Dietary risk assessment

Risk assessments are routinely performed to assess the safety implications for the intentional or unintentional presence of low-molecular-weight chemicals in food and feed. The procedures and mathematical models used to predict risk have evolved over the years and have been extensively reviewed.97-99 The dietary assessment includes both acute and chronic exposure assessments. Acute exposure assessments address short-term exposures using approximately 95th- or 97.5th-percentile food consumption data (where available) and acute toxicity data generated with the low-molecular-weight chemical. Some, however, may question the use of acute dietary risk assessments for proteins when there is no evidence that they are acutely toxic. Chronic exposure assessments use mean (50th-percentile) food consumption data and use the lowest no-effect level from the battery of toxicology studies to establish an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for the low-molecular-weight chemical added to food. Calculation of...

Weight and Force Mass

Force or weight changes with gravity or acceleration. You will weight about 1 6th as much on the moon as on the earth, because the force attracting you to the moon, gravity is about 1 6th that of the earth's gravity. In orbit about the earth, where the net gravitational force is zero, your weight is zero.

Risk Assessment is Subjective

Such as economic impact, dietary and nutritional needs, religious and social values, and the like.) In reality, however, other influences will creep into the assessment process. For example, national policy determinations on the institutional home of biosafety and type of regulatory instrument employed (e.g., regulations under the ministry of environment vs. biosafety legislation in the ministry of agriculture) will shape assessment objectives and the configuration of review panels. Figure 1 (page 8) suggests a balanced influence of these factors on risk assessment, but this is rarely obtained in practice. It is much more likely that one or two of these factors will dominate the decisions that will be made.

Intervention strategies against aflatoxins

In a community intervention study in Guinea (Turner et al., 2005a), we implemented a number of measures to reduce fungal growth and toxin production post-harvest on the peanut crop peanuts are the main dietary staple in the lower Kindia region of Guinea where the study was conducted. None of the introduced practices were new to the local farmers but they typi

Biological Monitoring

It has been estimated that with an exposure level of 1 g lead m3 in air, an increase of 1 to 2 g lead 100 g whole blood will occur. Blood lead does not correlate well with body burden of lead. In experiments with increasing dietary lead in volunteers it has been shown that a plateau of the blood level is reached while body burden continues to increase (18,19).

Maximum levels for ochratoxin A

Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by several species of fungi including Penicillium and Aspergillus. It occurs naturally in a wide variety of plant products. The European Scientific Committee for Food adopted a scientific opinion on 17 September 1998 regarding ochratoxin A. An assessment of the dietary intake of ochratoxin A by the population of the Community (14) was performed (SCOOP) in the framework of Council Directive 1993 5 EEC of 25 February 1993 on assistance to the European Commission and cooperation by the Member States in the scientific examination of questions relating to food (15). The EFSA has, on request from the European Commission, adopted an updated scientific opinion relating to ochratoxin A in food on 4 April 2006 (16), taking into account new scientific information and derived a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 120 ng kg body weight (bw).

Maximum levels for patulin

In 2001, a SCOOP-task Assessment of the dietary intake of patulin by the population of EU Member States in the framework of Directive 1993 5 EEC was performed (19). Based on this assessment, the average exposure is well below the TDI. When considering specific groups of consumers, especially small children, and assuming worst case scenarios, the exposure to patulin is more significant but is still below the TDI.

Improved nutritional and medicinal quality

With 800 million malnourished people in developing countries, malnutrition can be addressed with nutritional genomics that use metabolic engineering to manipulate plant micronutrients for human health (DellaPenna, 1999 Tian and DellaPenna, 2001 Lucca, Hurrell, and Potrykus, 2002 Mackey, 2002). Although the production of the so-called functional foods may initially focus on wealthy consumers in the developed world, genes can be engineered into crops cultivated and consumed by poor farmers to improve their dietary requirements. Efforts are also being made to enhance nutritional values and or reduced toxic or allergenic properties in food. These may be especially beneficial to poor farmers and people who do not have a balanced diet composed of diverse food sources. The example of GM rice with enhanced beta-carotene and iron is just the beginning of efforts of what has been coined nutraceuticals. This would benefit people whether rich or poor in developed or developing countries. Indeed,...

Assessment of Potential Oral Activity of IGF1

Two rat gavage studies were carried out to assess the potential oral activity of IGF-1, as requested by the FDA. In the first study, male and female rats were dosed orally with 0, 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mg kg day IGF-1 for 14 consecutive days.74 The 2-mg kg oral dose of IGF-1 is several thousand times higher than the potential human dietary exposure from consuming milk. Positive control groups were given either 0.05 or 0.2 mg kg day of IGF-1 for 14 days by constant subcutaneous infusion via implanted osmotic minipumps to ensure systemic administration. Another positive control group was given 4.0 mg kg day porcine somatotropin (PST), also by subcutaneous infusion. Rats of both sexes in the IGF-1 positive control subcutaneous infusion groups exhibited biological effects consistent with those observed in rats injected with somatotropin i.e., increased body weights, decreased erythrocyte count and hemoglobin (PST only), decreased BUN and creatinine (IGF-1), increased liver, kidney and spleen...

Meat And Milk composition

Milk is an important source of essential dietary nutrients. It provides a variety of digestible proteins that also impart functional properties important for the manufacture of various dairy products (cheese, ice cream, etc.). Milk is also an important source of calcium and other minerals and vitamins such as A, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, etc. Milk is a dietary source of lipids that provide flavor characteristics and functional properties for processed dairy products. The composition of milk is not constant during lactation but is influenced by various factors such as genetics, breed, stage of lactation, age, diet composition, nutritional status, environment, and season. For example, milk protein concentration can vary from 3 to 4 , and fat content from 3.5 to 6.0 , whereas lactose remains relatively constant around 5 .159 For example, in the first eight weeks of lactation, dairy cows are in negative energy balance, which means that the dairy cow is not taking in enough dietary

General Considerations And Principles

The objective of the dietary intake assessment must be clearly identified before the appropriate input data may be selected. For example, will the results of the evaluation be used to determine whether consumers have adequate protein intakes, or will it be used to determine whether too much of a protein is being consumed Will it be used to evaluate the potential for allergic reactions or for other types of endpoints Is the frequency of intake of the protein of relevance How do the levels of the protein to be evaluated compare to the total protein in the diet The methodology applied should be clearly stated and reproducible. Information about the model and data sources used, assumptions, limitations, and uncertainties should be documented. The assumptions concerning concentration levels and consumption patterns upon which dietary intake estimates are based need to be fully described.

Criteria foR selection of Protein Levels foR Estimating Intake

The criteria for selecting the most appropriate concentration data to use in a dietary intake estimate depend on the purpose of the modeling exercise. For a probabilistic approach, all available concentration data can be used. For a deterministic or point estimate approach, a statistic such as the mean or median may be used. For most food component analyses, the intakes are log-normally distributed. In those cases, a median or geometric mean would be the most appropriate measure of the concentration. Unfortunately, there is often too little data to reliably determine the characteristics of the distribution in those situations, the mean is generally used.

Approaches for Food Consumption Data Collection 9321 Population Based Methods

Food supply data for a country, such as food balance sheets (FBSs) or food disappearance data provide annual estimates of the national availability of food commodities. These data may also be used to calculate the average per capita availability proteins and other nutrients. The major limitation of national food supply data is that they reflect food availability rather than food consumption. Losses due to cooking or processing, spoilage, and other sources of waste as well as additions from subsistence practices cannot easily be assessed. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), FBS consumption estimates tend to be about 15 above the consumption estimates derived from household surveys or national dietary surveys. Information regarding food availability or consumption at the household level may be collected by determining the foodstuffs purchased by a household, or by surveying the household to determine what foods were consumed by the household. Such data are useful for...

Combined Methods fOR Estimating Food Intake

Consumption data collection methods may be combined to improve accuracy and facilitate validity of the dietary data. Consumption data collection methods may also be combined for practical reasons. For example, some surveys, such as the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), combine the food record with the 24-hour recall. FFQs that focus on selected nutrients have been used in addition to the 24-hour recall. The 24-hour recall is frequently used to help establish the typical meal plan. This information can be used for getting better information from the diet history method. The FFQ may also be used as a cross-check for the other three types of methods.

Intake assessment models

Dietary Intake person day X (introduced protein or protein of interest Dietary intake assessments can be based on a food consumption distribution determined empirically from a food consumption survey and a single-point estimate to represent the chemical concentration in the relevant food product. Each point of the distribution curves of food consumption can be multiplied by the concentration level in the relevant food commodity. Conversely, it is possible to have a single-point estimate for consumption and an empirical distribution of introduced protein concentrations in that food. Finally, it is possible to have sufficient data to determine the distribution profile for both the amounts of food consumed and the levels of the introduced protein in those foods. Food consumption data should be available in a format that allows matching the consumption data with the concentration data used in the dietary intake assessment. When modeling food consumption, it is important to include all...

SAfETY Assessment of ANTifuNGAL Proteins

Since AFPs' mode of action, AFPs' stability to digestion, and bioinformatic analyses all suggest that these proteins may have a potential effects on human health, protein-specific studies were performed. Perturbation of neural viability, steady-state electromembrane potentials, and sodium, potassium, and calcium channel function were examined and compared with purified AFP protein (alfALP, isolated from the seeds of M. sativa), scorpion toxin proteins (Csev3 from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing venom), control neurotoxins, and ordinary dietary proteins such as Rubisco.

Biochemical differences between proteins and lowmolecularweight chemicals impact on safety assessment of proteins

As will be shown later, the vast majority of proteins involved in food use that have been selected and subjected to safety testing do not cause systemic toxicity. There is a long history of safe consumption of plant and animal proteins in the diet. As discussed above, dietary proteins are generally degraded and thus poorly absorbed intact from the GI tract (see discussion below) hence, there is very low systemic exposure. Thus, the safety evaluation of proteins intentionally selected and subsequently introduced into food generally requires less toxicology testing than that carried out for low-molecular-weight chemicals in food or feed where systemic absorption of biologically active parent compound or metabolite(s) generally occurs with the potential for end-organ toxicity prior to and or during excretion elimination.

Conhrmatory sAfETY studies

The procedures for carrying out high-dose acute testing of proteins were presented in Chapter 10. To date, no treatment-related adverse effects have been observed up to the highest dosages tested (Table 11.1). As will be shown later, the high dosages of proteins administered to mice are orders of magnitude higher than potential human dietary exposures from consuming food from biotechnology-derived crops. For PIPs that have a history of safe use and defined mode of action, the EPA does not require additional toxicology testing beyond acute oral maximum hazard dose testing.22 Acute toxicology studies are generally conducted via the oral route because the diet is the most likely route of human exposure to the proteins introduced into Intravenous (IV) dosing has also been used to assess the intrinsic safety of proteins introduced into biotechnology-derived crops.41 Generally, low dosages ( 10 mg kg) of the introduced protein are administered as it is assumed that only small amounts of...

The estimation procedure

This indicator is directly related to a household's access to food. Economic access to food is considered the main food insecurity concern in Palestine (Abuelhaj, 2008 Mane et al., 2007). The traditional indicator for measuring food access capacity is income, but this study includes two additional indicators the dietary diversity and food frequency score (DD) as a nutritional indicator and the household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) as an indicator of the household's perception of food security. Estimation of the IFA indicator involves use of the following variables 10 Not all the observed variables are taken directly from the raw data. Some are measured using complex procedures (e.g. the household food insecurity access scale and the dietary diversity and food frequency score). 12 The FANTA project supports integrated food security and nutrition programming to improve the health and well-being of women and children. It is managed by the Academy for Educational Development and...

Threshold Of Toxicological Concern

* Human dietary exposures are estimated using the corn endosperm fraction. This fraction contains most of the protein which would include the introduced protein. Other corn fractions such as bran, sweeteners, and oil contain very little protein. It also assumes that the Cry1Ab protein has not been introduced into sweet corn. Data derived from the DEEM-UK database (Exponent, Inc.).

Relevant provisions of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

A further important and innovative part of the Treaty is contained in Articles 10 to 13 (Part IV), which establish a Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-Sharing, which applies to a list of 64 crops, selected according to criteria of food security and interdependence. The crops in question cover about 80 of the world's food calorie intake from plants. Under this part of the Treaty, contracting parties agreed to include the plant genetic resources of these crops that are under their management and control and in the public domain into the multilateral system. In addition, they will encourage natural and legal persons within their jurisdiction to include the plant genetic resources they hold into the multilateral system. The ex situ collections of the International Agricultural Research Centres of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) will also be brought into the Multilateral System, through agreements with the Governing Body.

Biologically Bifurcated Biography of Biopiracy

P5 7 (so named because it was the 57th chemical tested) and at one time planned to market a diet drug that would compete against currently available concoctions that rely on the troubled combination of ephedra and caffeine (see, e.g. Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedrine Alkaloids, 2000 Regulations on Statements Made for Dietary Supplements, 2000). It is quite clear that such a concoction, if successfully tested and marketed, would earn massive profits ' p urchasers of diet products are often pathetically eager to obtain a more slender figure' (United States v An Article of Food . . . 'Manischewitz . . . Diet Thins', 1974). However, in July 2003 Pfizer withdrew from the project and discontinued clinical development of P5 7 (Pfizer Returns Rights, 2003). Although the absence of commercial exploitation moots the question whether P57's developers owe the San people any compensation, this sort of battle typifies the fierce conflict over biopiracy.

Kerstin Hell Pascal Fandohan Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Sebastian Kiewnick Richard Sikora and Peter J Cotty

In developing countries, many individuals are not only food insecure, but also are chronically exposed to high levels of mycotoxins in their diet. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (FAO, 1996). Food safety results when microbial contaminants and chemical toxicants are present below tolerance levels in foods. Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin, compromises food security in the most vulnerable groups of people in Africa. Dietary change, dietary interventions and detoxification High incidences of mycotoxin-associated diseases have been recorded in areas where maize and peanuts are dietary staples. Thus, one approach is to reduce the frequent consumption of these high risk foods by consuming a more varied diet. In parts of China, individuals that change their diet from maize to rice reduce their risk of aflatoxin exposure (Yu,...

Livestock Early Warning System

Because the PHYGROW model is used in grazed environments, it was critical to have proper information on temporal changes in the animal population densities and their dietary preferences for plant species. We have collected, by interviewing experienced pastoralists, sufficient information to classify major species into the preference categories (i.e., preferred, desirable, undesirable, toxic, nonconsumed, or only used as an emergency forage by the grazing animals).

Maximum levels for Fusarium toxins

In the framework of Directive 93 5 EEC the SCOOP-task Collection of occurrence data on Fusarium toxins in food and assessment of dietary intake by the population of EU Member States was performed and finalized in September 2003 (28). Based on the scientific opinions and the assessment of the dietary intake, maximum levels have been set (Table 4) for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. With respect to fumonisins, analyses of grain from recent harvests indicate that maize and maize products can be very highly contaminated by fumonisins and measures should be taken to prevent highly contaminated maize and maize products from entering the food chain.

Femoral Mononeuropathy

Peroneal mononeuropathy is common and may be caused by prolonged sitting in a slightly tilted position, as, for example, in a tractor driver's seat or airplane seat, especially in patients who cross their legs or fold the left leg underneath while pushing the pedals with their right foot. Squatting, especially in persons of thin stature, is a known risk factor, while obesity is emerging as the most commonly overlooked source of peroneal nerve compression (40).

Peter J Cotty Claudia Probst and Ramon Jaime Garcia

Contamination may limit the economic viability of agriculture in some regions and, in others, reduces the acreage on which susceptible crops, e.g., maize and peanuts, may be grown (Wu, 2004). In the United States, areas with severe contamination may yield crops with > 500 ng g total aflatoxins (Jaime-Garcia and Cotty, 2003). However, in developing countries the contamination of crops with aflatoxin leads not only to economic losses, but also has a tremendous impact on human health. In Africa, a continent that relies on vulnerable crops such as peanuts and maize as dietary staples, af-latoxin contamination causes major health problems (Shephard, 2003). People in rural areas may have no option but to consume contaminated crops on a daily basis. This moderate, chronic intake of aflatoxin via food can lead to severe pathological conditions, including liver cancer, immune system deficiency and impaired development of children (Wild et al., 1992 Wild et...

Other Selected Mycotoxins

Frequently associated with the natural occurrence of OA, citrinin, also a nephrotoxin, is produced by P. citrinum and several other penicillia, aspergilli (Cole and Cox 1981) and Monocuus ruber and M. purpureus (Pastrana et al. 1996). The presence of citrinin in the diet with low quality corn could lead to chronic, hard to diagnose kidney disease in susceptible individuals and animals (CAST 2003). One of the mycotoxins closely associated with the natural occurrence of AF in peanuts is CPA, which causes hyperesthesia and convulsions as well as liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, salivary gland, and myocardial damage (CAST 2003). CPA inhibits the calcium-dependent ATPase (Chu 2002 Petr et al. 1999). The toxin is produced by several species of the genus Penicillium, including P. cyclopium, P. crustosum, P. griseofulvin, P. puberulum, P. camemberti, and Aspergilli including A. versicolor, A. flavus but not by A. parasiticus and A. tamarii in Bhatnagar et al. (2002) . Other than peanuts, CPA...

Methodological approaches

7 For example, IFA includes not only household income (which is observable), but also a series of estimated variables related to food consumption and expenditure and to the household's perception of food access and dietary diversity, which are context- and data-specific.

Livestock Improvement

Phenotypes of commercial livestock breeds that are highly productive under intensive production systems in temperate climates do not realize their production potential in subtropical or tropical production systems. Dietary constraints, inability to adapt to local environments, and susceptibility to disease are among the factors responsible.

Safety And Quality Control Of Microbial Protein Products

Of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and Centre for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN, http www.cfsan.fda.gov). The food agencies have to establish among others, the Compliance Policy Guides, current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP), official methods and mechanisms of inspection and control to be used to evaluate the quality and safety of food products. As an example of the AAFCO and FDA policy, a direct-fed microbial product listed by the AAFCO Official Publication and not labeled or promoted with any therapeutic function will be regulated as a food and usually will not require FDA regulatory attention. However, a direct-fed microbial product with claims for disease cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention (e.g. a dietary product containing a specific bioactive compound) will be considered an unapproved drug and required for regulatory action, the initial proceeding being a warning letter (FDA, Compliance Policy Guide CPG 7126.41, Directed-Fed Microbial products). In...

Richard T Awuah Kwaku O Agyemang Simon C Fialor and Curtis M Jolly

Mycotoxins in fermented maize products. Koomson (1998a) showed some lack of understanding of the matter when, for example, he wrote According to the report, maize which is a major dietary staple has been identified as the 'villain'. The molds which develop on the maize particles, because of delayed or poor drying process, contain a bacteria called aflatoxin (italics mine), a proven cause of cancer. In a related report (Koomson, 1998b), confused the issue further by referring to aflatoxin as a fungi (italics mine) that can cause certain types of cancer.

Role of the Acute Mouse Gavage study to Assess Protein safety

The EPA requires the high-dose, acute oral gavage study to assess the potential hazards of pesticidal proteins to nontarget organisms such as mammals and to establish the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL). The NOAEL is the dose that causes no adverse effects in test animals and is used to estimate a safe level of exposure for humans to the food containing the introduced protein, or margin of exposure. The margin of exposure is defined as a ratio of the NOAEL to daily dietary exposure to the transgenic protein, which takes into consideration the quantity of food crop consumed on a daily basis by humans and livestock, and the level of protein expressed in edible parts of the crop. The higher the calculated margins of exposure, the less risk to human and animal health would be associated with dietary exposure to food and feed products containing the transgenic protein. Therefore, a single high dose g kg body weight (BW) has been typically used for pesticidal proteins, the actual...

Future studies on immune effects of aflatoxin and other mycotoxins

The proportion of, and secretion of major cytokines by, subsets of lymphocytes, macrophages or other leukocytes can be determined by using immunoassays and more advanced flow cytometric methods such as five color staining. Specific mechanisms of immunomodulation and synergistic effects of commonly occurring mycotoxins also need to be investigated. A major area for investigation is the immunomodulatory interactions between mycotoxins and infectious agents that are immunosuppressive, e.g., HIV, and between mycotoxins and immune modulators, e.g., nutritional factors. The dietary interactions in immunosuppression by aflatoxin are not known, but a less than fully functioning immune system due to mycotox-in suppression certainly could enable many secondary disease conditions.

Nutritional And Medicinal Values Of Mushrooms

Them suitable for specific groups suffering with certain physiological disorders or ailments like obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypertension, hyperacidity, constipation, etc (Rai 1995 1997). Nutritional value of mushrooms has been reviewed by many workers (Chang and Miles 1989 Crisan and Sands 1978 Rai 1995). Only salient features will be briefly but critically described here. It is a fact that there are wide variations in the nutritional values reported for the same species by different workers (Beelman and Edwards 1989 Rai et al. 1988). However, certain generalizations do emerge. Owing to very high (90 ) moisture content these are basically a low calorie food (25-35 cal per 100 g fresh weight) and this fits in well in this era of healthy eating by reducing the intake of calories. However, fat content in mushrooms is very low, it is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid and is cholesterol-free (Rai 1995). Though carbohydrates constitute the major fraction (50 of dry matter), they...

IGF1 in Milk and Body Fluids39

Following review of the available data, JECFA39 concluded that .any increase in the concentration of IGF-1 in milk from recombinant bST (rbST)-treated cows is orders of magnitude lower than the physiological amounts produced in the gastrointestinal tract and in other parts of the body. Thus the concentration of IGF-1 would not increase either locally in the gut or systemically, and the potential for IGF-1 to promote tumor growth would not increase when milk from rbST-treated cows was consumed there is thus no appreciable risk for consumers. The JECFA dietary risk assessment is as follows Assumptions The total intake of IGF-1 from consuming milk (1.5 L) from unsupplemented cows is 6000 ng versus 9000 ng for milk from bST-supplemented cows. The net difference for intake of IGF-1 is 3000 ng. The incremental daily ingestion of 3000 ng IGF-1 represents (3000 383,000) 0.8 of the daily gastrointestinal secretion (383,000 ng day). Considering that the total daily blood IGF-1 production in...

Requirements for enriched Artemia by freshwater prawn larvae

In contrast to penaeid shrimp, the (n-3) HUFA requirements of M. rosenbergii were not expected to be very critical, because they spend most of their life in fresh water. Roustaian et al. (1999) concluded that the larvae of M. rosenbergii have sufficient capability to convert dietary linoleic acid (18 2 n-6) and linolenic acid (18 3 n-3) to arachidonic acid (20 4 n-6) and EPA to meet larval demand for HUFA, although there was no assimilation and consequent tissue storage of DHA. As a result it was claimed that non-enriched Artemia can fulfil the nutritional requirements, providing a greenwater system is used. These assumptions, however, were in some way contradicted by studies at the Artemia Reference Center of Ghent University, where M. rosenbergii larvae were reared on Artemia alone in a clearwater circulating system. Devresse et al. (1990) demonstrated that pronounced improvements in growth, survival, metamorphosis synchrony and stress resistance were obtained whenArtemia enriched...

What Makes Perennial Polycultures Different

The biggest difference, however, comes from considering perennial cereals. Most of the cereals that people eat (such as wheat, rice, oats, and corn maize) are grown in annual plantings and often in monocultures. Since cereals account for at least half of dietary energy worldwide,3 converting that production to perennial polycultures with mixed intercropping would be a significant change in worldwide agriculture.

Provisions for ochratoxin A deoxynivalenol zearalenone fumonisin Bi B2 and T2 and HT2 toxins in feeds

Deoxynivalenol has toxic effects in humans and all other animal species investigated thus far. Species sensitivity varies considerably, but pigs are generally recognized as the most sensitive animal species. The initial adverse effect observed after deoxynivalenol exposure is reduced feed intake. At higher toxin concentrations vomiting and feed refusal occur. These effects lead to reduced body weight gain, particularly in growing animals. Deoxynivalenol also reduces immune response. The lowest reported levels of deoxynivalenol in feeds with a negative effect on feed intake for pigs range from 0.35 to 0.9 g g. With respect to other animal species, healthy ruminants tolerate several mg of deoxynivalenol per kg of feed. Poultry are less sensitive than pigs to the effects of deoxynivalenol on feed intake and weight gain, but the data do not suffice to estimate a no effect level. Other animal species, including rabbits, horses, cats and dogs, all seem to have a higher tolerance to...

Summary of safety assessments on proteins

As discussed earlier, the oral bioavailability of digestible proteins is negligible, thus their potential to exert systemic adverse effects, if such activity were to be characteristic, is also very low. As a consequence, there is not normally the scientific case to subject proteins screened for introduction into food and feed crops to the same extensive battery of safety tests required for low-molecular-weight chemicals that end up in food or feed. As discussed in preceding chapters, no systemic toxic effects have been identified in the many dietary toxicity studies that have been carried out with proteins of variable structure and function that are used in food production. Although the vast majority of subchronic feeding studies with food enzymes have consistently found no evidence of treatment-related adverse effects in test animals, a couple of studies reported local irritation to the stomach caused by feeding high levels of protease enzymes to rats. Such effects might be...

Occurrence and toxicity of aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens and mutagens. Naturally occurring mixtures of afla-toxins are classified as Class 1 human carcinogens (IARC, 1993). There is a correlation between the incidence of liver cancer in humans in some areas of Africa and dietary exposure to aflatoxins. Studies in Kenya, Mozambique, Swaziland, and South Africa have found that aflatoxin levels in the diet and the incidence of primary liver cancer are correlated (Groopman et al, 1988). Aflatoxin consumption also has been implicated in some infant diseases such as kwashiorkor, a form of protein malnutrition (Hendrickse, 1984), and protein-deficient diets may increase aflatoxin toxicity (Hendrickse et al., 1982).

To Modify Endogenous Plant Metabolic Pathways

Even with large uncertainties in available estimates, it is apparent that transcription factors represent only a tiny fraction of total plant proteins, and their concentrations ( ppb) are likely to be several orders of magnitude lower than proteins introduced into biotechnology-derived crops (ppm) to date (Table 11.3) or typical food proteins that might constitute 1 (10,000 ppm) or more of the total protein present in the food.16 Total protein levels in food crops can range from 10 for maize to 40 for soybeans.147 Tissues consumed from food animals also provide a dietary source of transcription factors and other regulatory control proteins as they are ubiquitous in the cells of animals, albeit at low levels. If levels of these transcription factors or other regulatory control proteins are elevated in food or feed beyond that normally observed in the plant product, this information would also be used in the evaluation of the history of safe consumption of related proteins. 1. The lack...

Soil Moisture On Rice

Rice's center of origin is in Southeast Asia. Though rice ranks third in total production, it provides more than half of the daily dietary calories for the majority of the world's population. This is because most rice is consumed directly by humans in countries where it is produced. Generally, less than 5 of the global rice production is traded internationally. Although rice is cultivated from the equator to 55 latitude, one of the widest production zones of any crop, only 15 countries produce more than 90 of the annual total rice production. Less than 20 of total rice production lies outside of Asia (table 2.2).

Food Safety Assessment For Use Of bsT

As shown in Figure 7.2, there are fundamental differences in the structures between protein and steroid hormones that have profound effects on the potential bioavailability of hormone residues present in meat or milk. bST is a protein hormone and, if ingested, is degraded by digestive enzymes like other dietary proteins and is not hormonally active by ingestion. Moreover, as will be discussed shortly, bST is not hormonally active in humans even following injection due to species-specific activity of somatotropins. In contrast, estrogen is a steroid hormone it is identical in humans and farm animals. It is orally active if ingested, as a consequence of its chemical structure, which is completely different from protein hormones such as bST. Steroid hormones are much smaller than protein hormones such as bST and insulin, are not appreciably degraded in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and are lipid-soluble all of these properties enhance their absorption from the GI tract. Based in part...

MuocENic Activity of IGF1

Other studies were published that correlated diet intake with circulating IGF-1 levels in men and women and concluded that high energy, protein, and milk intakes were associated with higher levels of IGF-1.146,147 One author concluded that increased circulating IGF-1 was beneficial for bone health,147 whereas the other hypothesized that increased circulating IGF-1 from consumption of certain diets might pose an increased risk for cancer.146 In the Holmes et al. study, intake of fish, cereal, and pasta were more strongly correlated with increased circulating IGF-1 levels than was milk.146 Based on other associations in the Holmes et al. paper, one could conclude from their data that cancer risk can also be reduced by smoking, taking hormone replacement therapy, avoiding exercise, not drinking milk or eating cereals, and eliminating fish as well as vitamins A and D from the diet. It is apparent that the associations developed by these authors made little sense biologically. Curiously,...

Avoiding Human Exposure

4.2.3 Dietary Modifications Dietary modification greatly affects the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of mycotoxin and subsequently affect its toxicity reviewed in Bhatnagar et al. (2002) . For example, the carcinogenic effect of AFB1 is affected by nutritional factors, dietary additives, and anticarcinogenic substances. Diet containing chemoprotective agents and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, BHA, BHT, ethoxyquin, oltipraz, penta-acetyl geniposide, Kolaviron biflavonoids, and even green tea, have also been found to inhibit carcinogenesis caused by AFB1 in test animals. The toxic effect of OA and FmB to test animals was minimized when antioxidants such as vitamins C and E are added to the diet. Ascorbic acid also provided protective effect against AFs. Aspartame, which is partially effective in decreasing the nephrotoxic and genotoxic effects of OA, competes with OA for binding to serum albumin. L-phenylalanine was found to have some protective effect for the toxic...

Future research avenues

Their nutrition must come from a well-balanced diet proffered by management. Unlike the diets typically developed for grow-out production (i.e. somatic growth), broodstock diets must provide the proper nutrition for optimal egg production (i.e. high-quality yolk deposition) and high-quality sperm production. The use of properly balanced diets may indeed affect reproductive performance. Das et al. (1996) found that a diet containing 40 crude protein with an energy level of 4000 kcal kg increased egg production. Cavalli et al. (1999) demonstrated that high dietary levels of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) and linoleic acid (18 2n-6) increased not only egg production, but also promoted the tolerance of 8-day-old larvae to ammonia stress. Similar results were observed for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherol (Vitamin E) (Cavalli et al. 2003) This clearly suggests the possibility of enhancing not only fecundity, but also larval quality through further improvements in...

Digestion of proteins consumed as food

Proteins are constantly being turned over in body tissues as old cells die and are replaced by new ones. Approximately 300 g of new protein is made each day in the human body. The amino acids used to make new proteins are, in general, derived partly from proteins digested in the gastrointestinal tract and partly from those released by intracellular proteolysis. Of the 20 amino acids commonly found in nature, 9 cannot be made by humans and must be supplied in the diet, as they are essential to sustain life. These nine essential amino acids, alternatively termed indispensable, include valine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylal-anine, lysine, tryptophan, and histidine. The daily dietary requirement for essential amino acids to sustain normal nitrogen balance in the human female weighing 65 kg ranges from 260 mg day for tryptophan to 2535 mg day for leucine.13 Sulfur-containing amino acids and threonine appear to be the most critical essential amino acids, since studies...

Gabrielle J Persley

Children and women are most vulnerable to dietary deficiencies. Dietary micronutritional deficiencies accompany malnutrition. Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent in the developing countries and it is estimated that over 14 million children under 5 years of age suffer eye damage as a result. Up to 4 of severely affected children will die within months of going blind and even mild deficiencies can significantly increase mortality rates in children. Iron deficiency affects 1 billion people in the developing world, particularly women and children and its effects are compounded by common tropical diseases.

SUMMARY

To prevent this, the GI tract serves as a largely impermeable barrier for absorption of intact proteins into the circulation. Proteases are released into the GI tract and are also present in the vicinity of intestinal epithelial cells that effectively degrade ingested proteins into small peptides and amino acids that can be absorbed into the systemic circulation. Humans must ingest protein because they cannot synthesize 9 of the 20 common amino acids found in nature and must therefore obtain them from dietary sources. For millennia, the vast majority of the millions of proteins produced by plants and animals have been safely consumed by humans as food.

Future Challenges

The population of Asia is projected to increase from 3.0 billion to 4.5 billion in the next 25 years. During the same period, the urban population will nearly double from 1.2 billion to 2.0 billion, as rural people move to the cities in search of employment. These increases will place massive pressure on developing member countries (DMCs) of ADB to increase food production. Food demand is influenced by population growth, urbanization, income, and associated changes in dietary preferences. Urbanization and income growth frequently lead to shifts from a diet based on root crops (cassava, yam, and sweetpotato), sorghum, millets, and maize to rice and wheat, which require less preparation time, and to more meat, milk, fruits, vegetables, and processed foods. This dietary transition has already happened in much of the region (ADB 2000b). Meeting the food needs of Asia's growing and increasingly urbanized population requires increases in agricultural productivity and matching these...

Block and Tackle

When you're skidding a timber, you can stand anywhere and pull. Lifting a timber, though, you probably want to stay on the ground, so you add one more pulley at the top of the gin pole to change the direction of the force. Now you have that 2 1 advantage again, and you can pull the rope with all your weight.

Upper Extremity

Ergonomic risk factors for MSDs include repetitive motion, awkward posture, long duration of repetitive activity, lack of recovery time, forceful movement, vibration, uncomfortable conditions (cold, wet), and stressful work organization. Relatively few studies of sufficient quality exist to assess the work-site causative factors associated with MSDs other than back pain, hand wrist elbow MSDs, and knee hip arthritis. Nonoccupational factors such as gender, age, work satisfaction, other additive occupational or recreational activities, and chronic medical conditions and lifestyle practices such as diabetes, hypothy-roidism, arthritis, obesity, pregnancy, and alcohol use are potential confounding factors. There is general agreement that a combination of forces (force, repetition, posture, and vibration) is most strongly associated with carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, and lateral epicondylitis, particularly high force and high repetition. There is also positive evidence for the...

Consumption Data

Food consumption data reflect what either individuals or groups consume in terms of solid foods, beverages (including drinking water), and supplements. Food consumption can be estimated through food consumption surveys (FCSs) at an individual or household level, or approximated through food production statistics (FPSs). FCSs include records diaries, food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), dietary recall, and total diet surveys. The quality of the food consumption survey data depend on the survey design, the methodology and tools used, the motivation and memory of the respondents, the statistical treatment, and the presentation (foods as purchased versus as consumed) of the data. FPSs, by definition, represent foods available for consumption for the whole population, typically in the raw form as produced.

Lipids

Lipids are undoubtedly the best documented dietary component of Artemia, since it was identified in the late 1970s and early 1980s that variations in nutritional value when using different geographical sources of Artemia for shrimp, prawn, lobster and crab species could be linked to differences in lipid composition (Leger et al. 1986). Studies in Japan and the multidisciplinary 'International Study on Artemia' revealed that the concentration of the essential fatty acid 20 5 n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) in Artemia nauplii was determining its nutritional value for larvae of various marine fish and crustaceans (Leger etal. 1986). Various results were obtained with different batches of the same geographical Artemia source, containing different amounts of EPA and yielding proportional results in growth and survival of mysid shrimps (Mysidopsis bahia) fedthese Artemia (Leger et al. 1985). Levels of this essential fatty acid vary tremendously from strain to strain and even from batch to...

Background

JECFA retained the previously established provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 100 ng kg body weight (bw), corresponding to approximately 14 ng kg bw day. Estimates of tolerable daily intake for ochratoxin A, based on non-threshold mathematical modeling approaches or a safety factor threshold approach, have ranged from 1.2 to 14 ng kg bw day. The Scientific Committee for Food of the European Commission (SCF, 1998) considered that, It would be prudent to reduce exposure to ochratoxin A as much as possible, ensuring that exposures are towards the lower end of the range of tolerable daily intakes of 1.2-14 ng kg bw day that have been estimated by other bodies, i.e., below 5 ng kg bw day. In the most recent assessment of ochratoxin A amongst European consumers (SCOOP, 2002), and in earlier investigations, cereals were the most important dietary source of ochratoxin A, contributing from 50 to 80 of the toxin intake. Thus, prevention of ochratoxin A formation by specific molds in...

Maya Pineiro

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) World Food Summit Plan of Action specifically states that Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. FAO works to eliminate poverty and hunger by promoting sustainable agricultural development, improving nutrition and guiding the pursuit of food security. Food safety is an essential component of improved nutrition and food security.

Lipid enrichment

In view of the importance of DHA in marine species, much effort is made to incorporate high levels of DHA and high ratios of DHA EPA in live food. So far, the best results have been obtained with enrichment emulsions fortified in DHA (containing a DHA EPA ratio up to 7) yielding Artemia metanauplii that contain 33 mg DHA g DW. Compared to enrichment with traditional products, a maximum DHA EPA ratio of 2 (instead of 0.75) can be reached under standard enrichment practices. The reason for not attaining the same ratio in Artemia, as in the enrichment products, is the inherent retroconversion of DHA to EPA upon enrichment in the most commonly used species of Artemia. The capability of some Artemia strains to reach high DHA levels during enrichment and to maintain them during subsequent starvation (Evjemo et al. 1997) offers perspectives to provide higher dietary DHA levels and DHA EPA ratios to crustacean larvae, if required.

The future

The research to date on the use of enterosorption to reduce human aflatoxicosis indicates that such an effort could be easily justified. Virtually everyone living in West Africa carries biomarkers of chronic exposure to aflatoxin. Such chronic exposure interferes with both general nutrition (Gong et al., Chapter 6), micronutrition (Turner et al., 2003) and immunity (Jolly et al., Chapter 5). We also know from the studies done both on animals and humans that there are (as yet) no known risks to the use of this clay as a dietary supplement. One of the major advantages of this approach is that it is effective for the toxin in multiple foods, i.e., it is toxin-specific rather than commodity specific. At the very least this technology enables epidemiological studies that can establish the extent to which aflatoxins contribute to presently identified risks. Such knowledge is needed to identify future options, to develop research agendas, and to define intervention strategies. The use of...

Purpose

Limit fungal growth and toxin synthesis Limit fungal growth and toxin synthesis Chemical inactivation or binding of af-latoxins through the use of clay dietary supplements or ammoniation_ Gong, Y.Y., Cardwell, K., Hounsa, A., Egal, S., Turner, P.C., Hall, A.J. and Wild, C.P. (2QQ2) Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Benin and Togo Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 325, 2Q-21.

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