Orchid Growing Training Course
Thailand is focusing on the applications of biotechnology to traditional foods, fruits and export commodities. R & D priorities are to raise production and cut costs by using new biotechnology to address problems on crops such as rice, sugar cane, rubber, durian and orchids. An early success in Thailand has been in the application of biotechnology to the development of new molecular diagnostics for the diagnosis and control of virus diseases in shrimps. These diseases cost the shrimp export industry over US 500 million in lost production in 1996 (Morakot, 2000).
The number of seeds produced by an individual plant will depend on the number of ovules produced, their rate of fertilization, and on how many fertilized ovules survived to become mature seeds. What determines the actual number of seeds produced First, there are the genetic constraints over the number (and size) of seeds a species can produce. Orchids produce thousands of dust-sized seeds but cannot produce coconut-size seeds coconut trees cannot produce as many seeds as orchids do. Within these constraints, seed number is influenced by the availability of resources and by the environmental conditions during pollination and seed development. For example, the number of seeds produced by redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) decreases as light level decreases (McLachlan et al., 1995).
Orchid tulips (Tulipa), which cause tulip finger (hyperkeratosis and Assuring in the fingertips) among frequent handlers of the bulbs. A plant that is allergenically similar to the Compositae family and cosmetically similar to the lichens but a member of the Jubulaceae family is the liverwort (Frulania) which incites an allergic response to sesquiterpene lactones (34,38,41,43).
(tungro and sheath blight) Improvement of Orchids and Tulips Through Genetic Engineering Construction of Recombinant Bacteria for Vaccine Delivery Development of DNA Markers for Identification of Color Varieties and Sex in Tiger Barbs (ii) Good progress is being made in developing genetic manipulation and transformation systems, and inserting genes of interest into several plants including rice, papaya, banana, orchid, pineapple, oil palm, and rubber. Orchid. The ethylene gene ACO, related to the senescence of orchid, has been cloned along with genes involved in flower color. The transformation system for Dendrobium has been established and transgenic plants containing antisense ACO have been produced.
As a definition of mycorrhizae, Smith and Read (1997) proposed a symbiosis in which an external mycelium of a fungus supplies soil derived nutrients to a plant root. Mycorrhizae are further divided into six types based on anatomical characteristics, which are (a) arbuscular mycor-rhizae (AM), (b) ectomycorrhizae, (c) orchid mycorrhizae, (d) ericoid mycorrhizae, (e) monotropoid mycorrhizae, and (f) arbutoid mycorrhizae. Some plants have requirement for mycorrhizae in order to complete their life cycle. Mycor-rhizae may influence host plant survival in regeneration niches and mycorrhizae can also increase seed production, seed quality, and host and offspring vigor. Some types of mycorrhizae enhance host plant resistance against severe environmental conditions. The most widely studied and most-commonly encountered mycorrhizal systems are the ectomycorrhizae and arbuscular mycorrhizae.
Plants that rely on their host for only some resources (hemiparasites) form either obligate or facultative relationships. Some parasitic species are dependent on their host for physical support (epiphytes). Orchids, ferns, bromeliads, lichens, mosses and many mistletoes are epiphytic. Epiphytes live upon other plants and may or may not have a negative effect on their host. One example of a parasitic epiphyte is the strangler fig (Ficus leprieurii) (Fig. 9.2).
Four broad types exist the vesicular-arbuscular- (VAM) or arbuscular- (AMF), orchid-, ericoid-, and ecto- mycorrhizae. The VAM or AMF generally occupy environments where phosphorus is the main growth limiting nutrient. They dominate forests in tropical climates, but some temperate trees such as sycamore, ash, and poplars have AM, and some such as willow can form both AM and ectomycorrhizal associations. Ectomycorrhizae, however, are supreme in forests on moder, mull, or brown earth soils in temperate regions of moderate latitude and altitude (e.g., Read 1991), and in relatively infertile soils particularly where nitrogen and phosphorus uptake is curtailed. The ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium sheaths root cortical cells, forming a Hartig net, and extends through the litter and surface soil layers forming a foraging, ramifying network. The substantial mycelial investment involved implies that prolonged associations tend to occur. The biology, ecology, and biotechnological application of...
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