Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

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The Role of Local Agricultural Research and Extension Services

While experts and researchers at high-level centres in Europe and other places ( developers ) have established significant Know-How and produced relevant of the above-cited tools for such climate-impacts studies practical experts at local agricultural-research or extension centres as well as agricultural advisers ( users ), those who should apply these tools for agricultural decision-making, are often not aware about the available tools or their

International Agricultural Research Centers

International R&D programs using modern biotechnology are being conducted by the international agricultural research centers (IARCs), particularly the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), and International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR). The Center for International Forestry Research also uses biotechnology in the characterization of forest diversity in its Asian program. The International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management is using new technologies in the improvement of fisheries and aquaculture systems. ILRI is initiating a program on Asian livestock improvement. The CGIAR centers invest approximately 30 million per year in modern biotechnology. Further details of the way the IARCs use biotechnology in their crop improvement programs are given in Appendix 11.

Policies Regarding the Sale of Agricultural Land

Among policy makers, sales of agricultural land have generated as much concern as rentals. A principal concern is that beneficiaries of agrarian reform may try to sell their plots, and the pattern of landholdings could become skewed once again. Independently of agrarian reform, the issue is that many smallholders may be forced to sell their land when they confront periods of temporary economic hardship, in order to provide subsistence to their families, and as that occurs inevitably landholdings will become concentrated over time. Platteau states the case In other words, a bad harvest, or a serious health problem, is more likely to force a small landowner to sell than a large landowner, because of wealth differences. The cumulative effect of such 'distress sales' may result in a greater concentration of landholdings, in part because long-term financing mechanisms do not generally exist that would permit the small farmers to repurchase land, or to avoid the distress sale in the first...

Agency for Agricultural Research and Development

AARD has developed a reasonably well-equipped Laboratory for Agricultural Biotechnology at CRIFC, now selected as a national centre by the Minister of Research and Technology, which will facilitate and coordinate research activities in biotechnology. The AARD programme involves the CRIFC the Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops (CRIIC) the Central Research Institute for Horticulture (CRIH) the Biotechnology Research Unit for Estate Crops the Indonesian Sugar Research Institute the Central Research Institute for Animal Production and the Central Research Institute for Fisheries (CRIF). The AARD research facilities, personnel development and research programming were greatly enhanced by a World Bank loan under the National Agricultural Research (NAR) Project (1980-1990) of US 65 million and the Agricultural Research Management Project (ARMP), which followed in 1990 running to 1995, with a World Bank loan of 35.3 million. The government recognizes that biotechnology research...

New Directions In Agricultural Research

Agricultural research systems are in evolution throughout the developing world, in response to the issues mentioned earlier in this chapter. In large part, the evolution is a response to budgetary stringency, but other factors are at work as well. The role of government is undergoing a re-assessment nearly everywhere. Research systems also are being pressed to respond to other concerns such as poverty alleviation, and this requires new ways of doing things. In spite of the general success of African agricultural research that was noted earlier in this chapter, weaknesses are apparent in the area of yield improvements as well Mudahar et al. have summarized 'some of the major changes occurring in agricultural research systems around the world' in the following terms increased emphasis on the cost effectiveness of agricultural research, often requiring reductions in staff and streamlining of bureaucracies While funding levels and staff capabilities will always remain core issues for...

Management and Institutional Structures for Agricultural Research96

Effective decentralization of a national agricultural research system requires a change in man 96. The main points in this section are explored more fully in D. Byerlee (1998), R. G. Echevarr a, E. J. Trigo and D. Byerlee (1996), C. Pray and D. Umali-Deininger (1998), and C. Thirtle and R. G. Echevarr a, 'Privatization and the roles of public and private institutions in agricultural research in sub-Saharan Africa', Food Policy, 19(1), February 1994. At the same time, taking into account the trend toward reduced budgets for research, agricultural research organizations need to become more cost-effective. There is a need for a more entrepreneurial approach to the management of national agricultural research systems, along with an emphasis on marketing the results of research, for full cost recovery, in those cases where the benefits are appropriable by the users. Where the choice is between a larger research staff and a higher quality staff, the latter should always be chosen. Equally,...

The Financing of Agricultural Research

Sources of financing for agricultural research, as well as the institutional makeup of research, need to be diversified. Public sector budgets alone will not be sufficient to support the required increases in research effort and quality. In addition to research financed purely by the private sector and research funding allocated through the mecha In the Honduran case mentioned in the box overleaf, the foundation has emphasized research in non-traditional crops and has supported trials by farmers. It has been successful in promoting the export of non-traditional crops in that country. Farmer associations are represented on its board of directors, along with the government and USAID. In the long run, the establishment of an appropriately endowed agricultural research foundation represents one of the best responses to the dilemma of financing the research programs. However, marketing of research efforts to the private sector and establishing arrangements for financial contributions...

Who Would Use An Ip Clearinghouse For Agricultural Research

Who are the most likely initial participants in an IP collective rights organization or IP exchange Everyone involved in agricultural research is to some degree both a supplier and a user of new technologies. First, however, let us examine who is actively patenting biological applications for agricultural use. Here are the names of the top 30 assignees of agricultural biology patents in the United States at the end of 1998, with public sector institutions italicized (Table 18-3).

Methods for Organic Farmers and Growers

There are two main questions people have asked about this chapter 'Why should soil analyses for organic farming differ from those for conventional farming ' and 'How can you get the details of methods and interpretation of results when little has been published, and there is so much secrecy because of vested commercial interests ' The former query is easier to tackle than the latter. It will be seen that the organic approach to soil chemical analysis looks at nutrient balance and potential availability over a longer term, rather than the immediate availability of nutrients. The commercial laboratory of Dr Friedrich M. Balzer has kindly provided some details of his designated methods, with corresponding guidelines on interpretation of results indicated on their website. More detailed information from commercial laboratories on interpretation, particularly from those using the Albrecht approach, would be desirable.

Free Bulletins from the Sustainable Agriculture Network

Defines sustainable agriculture by providing snapshots of different producers who apply sustainable principles on their farms and ranches. 16 pp. Features SARE projects about farming systems that boost profits while benefiting the environment and communities. 16 pp. Transitioning to Organic Agriculture Lays out promising transition strategies, typical organic farming practices, and innovative marketing ideas. 20 pp.

Gender in Agricultural Research

The relevance of much of existing agricultural research can also be questioned from a gender 35. J rgen Hagmann, Edward Chuma and Oliver Gundani, 'Integrating formal research into a participatory process', ILEIA Newsletter, Center for Research and Information on Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture, Leusden, The Netherlands, 11(2), 1995, p. 13. See also Jean-Marie Diop, Marga de Jong, Peter Laban and Henk de Zeeuw, 'Building Capacity in Participatory Approaches,' PTD Working Paper 4, ILEIA, Leusden, The Netherlands, 2001. Given the experiences with women as clients of rural financial institutions that are mentioned in Chapter 7 of this volume, it is reasonable to expect that women also would be good farm managers. The Doss and Morris study concludes, for that particular case at least, that women are as amenable to implementing new technologies as men are. It is other kinds of constraints that may inhibit them from doing so as rapidly as men.

Agricultural Research

Organizations carrying out agricultural research in Zimbabwe include the University of Zimbabwe Department of Research and Specialist Services (DRSS) Tobacco Research Board Cotton Research Board Cattle Breeders' Association and Pig Research Board. Among international organizations, the The area of greatest cooperation between government and industry in Zimbabwe is the support for agricultural research by government. The Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and Rural Resettlement has established the DRSS with laboratories to carry out agricultural research. At its central laboratories in Harare and research stations scattered throughout Zimbabwe, the DRSS undertakes research in crop and animal production, including veterinary services.

Gender Approaches in Agricultural Research

Participatory approaches to agricultural research can be more beneficial if they give special emphasis to the involvement of women in the dialog. The case of Malawi is instructive about the benefits of taking into account the viewpoints of rural women in both research and extension Although a gender orientation is still not widely used in agricultural research, the FAO's As these examples show, incorporating a gender focus in agricultural research is not difficult but it requires a sustained commitment on the part of research institutions. An important starting point is the carrying out of a gender analysis of new and existing technologies. Another is the identification of rural women's activities. They vary by context but often include post-harvest and marketing activities, the cultivation of staples and or It always is necessary to accompany agricultural research with infrastructure investments, programs of enhanced access to land, and other efforts directed towards improving the...

Agricultural Research and Poverty Alleviation

The charge has been levied against agricultural research that its benefits flow primarily to larger- This kind of bias in favor of larger farms also reflects the traditional emphasis of agricultural research on (a) new varieties, as opposed to crop management and natural research management, (b) single commodities as opposed to farming systems, (c) varieties that are relatively intensive in modern inputs, in comparison with native varieties, and (d) top-down methods of developing and transmitting research findings. Therefore, the question remains as to whether a change in those emphases, towards different kinds of varieties, cropping systems and resource management, and in the direction of participatory research, could lead to greater benefits from research for poor farmers. On the other side of the debate, skeptics assert that the aggregate benefits to agricultural research will always be greater to the extent that more commercial farmers adopt the research findings, given their...

Organic Farming and Food Safety

Conventional and organic farming are two major forms of agricultural practices today. Although organic farming can be traced back to England in the 1920s, it has been embraced over the last several years due to concerns over use of pesticides and genetically modified organisms in large-scale conventional agriculture. Organic farming avoids use of synthetic chemicals and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and follows the principles of naturally sustainable agriculture (51). Despite many favorable characteristics of organic farming, one of several criticisms about organic farming is the increased potential for microbial food contamination. A French study in 1999 to 2000 warned that biological toxins in certain organic products (i.e., apples and wheat) should be closely monitored. Another major concern is the use of manure as a fertilizer in organic farming. Manure can carry human pathogens and mycotoxins from molds. It is well known that E. coli 0157 H7 originates primarily from...

The emergence of private sector agricultural research

The incentives for private sector agricultural research increased further when the United States and other industrialized countries permitted the patenting of artificially constructed genes and genetically modified plants. These national protections were strengthened by the 1995 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which obliges WTO members to provide patent protection for biotechnology inventions (products or processes) and protection for plant varieties either through patents or a sui generis system. These proprietary protections provided the incentives for private sector entry in agricultural biotechnology research. The relative importance of the private sector in agricultural research, particularly in transgenic crop biotechnology, is shown in Table 3-2. While these estimates are imperfect, they reveal a sharp dichotomy between public and private research expenditures and between industrialized and...

Contents of volume

The Role of International Agricultural Research in Contributing to Global Food Contributions of National Agricultural Research Systems to Crop Productivity 7.5. International agricultural research centers 2512 3.4. Is the anti-commons impeding agricultural research 2557 Private Agricultural Research 2. History, size and structure of private agricultural research 2607 3. Private agricultural research output 2615 5. Impact of private agricultural research 2627 6. Incentives for private agricultural research and the role of public policy 2633 6.1. Appropriating benefits of agricultural research 2633

Robert E Evenson

Where j is the coefficient on land in the agricultural production function, and n is the rate of population growth. This casts growth as a race between technology and population growth. The designers of the International Agricultural Research Center (IARC) system recognized that technological gains could offset the negative consequences of population growth. The designers of the IARC system also evaluated the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) in place in the 1950s and concluded that they were not up to the task of meeting the challenge of high population growth rates. Jones (2002) develops a model where invention and innovation is undertaken in high-income countries and where developing countries devote effort to mastering the World Technology frontier . But as will be noted in the section on the Green Revolution, many developing countries invest nothing in industrial R&D. Almost all countries invest in public sector agricultural research in agricultural experiment...


The Role of International Agricultural Research in Contributing to Global Food Security and Poverty Alleviation The Case of the CGIAR PRABHU PINGALI and TIM KELLEY Contributions of National Agricultural Research Systems to Crop Productivity ROBERT E. EVENSON and DOUGLAS GOLLIN Private Agricultural Research

Agriculture in the United States

From 1950 to 1980, United States farm output doubled. At the same time, the number of farms fell from over 5 million to approximately 2 million, averaging 400+ acres in size and covering a total of nearly a billion acres. The farm population shrank from 23 million to 6 million (from 15 to 2.7 of the population). The number of persons supplied with farm products grew from 15 to 65 for each farm worker. The estimated market value of land and buildings on an average farm is over 500,000 or over 1200 per acre. Equipment is valued at nearly 70,000 per farm. Averages are somewhat misleading since 1.8 million of the 2 million farms in the United States are less than 500 acres. The market value of agricultural products sold in 2002 was The 2002 Census of Agriculture by the United States Department of Agriculture found a slight decline in the total number of farms, but a much more significant loss (18 ) in the number of corporate farms (74,000 from 90,000), reversing a trend of increasing...

The Farm Culture Ownership Patterns

Patterns of ownership and control of farm resources vary around the world depending on the philosophy and activity of government, stage of economic development, type of agriculture engaged in, and practices of inheritance and tradition. Farming in the United States, Canada, and most Western countries was founded on the family-farm concept. The head of the family is the head of the farm. The farm is large enough to provide most or all of the family income but small enough to be operated largely by members of the family. In the United States the concept of the family farm was supported in government policy (homesteading, squatter's rights, etc.) that encouraged settlers to take up farming on plots of land that were family-farm sized. In Latin America, family farms exist, but a larger proportion of land is concentrated in large holdings, and as a result there are a large number of very small farms and relatively poor farmers. Land reform (more equitable distribution of land resources) is...

Sensitive Human Populations

Groups have been referred to as sensitive populations because their response to particular exposures is presumed to be greater than that of the general population. Very young and very old individuals have traditionally been considered sensitive to various stresses (heat, cold, infectious agents). On the family farm, the youngest and the oldest members of the family are sometimes pressed into service in times of heavy work demands or just because they want to help out. This may put these populations at greater risk

Current state and political and methodological context 121 General

An example of this transition in the CIS countries is the transition from the Material Product System (MPS) to the System of National Accounts (SNA). This transition required the introduction of new concepts of output and intermediate consumption in order to ensure compilation of production accounts for agriculture consistent with the SNA requirements. The CIS countries were assisted in this endeavour by CIS-STAT in the context of more general work associated with the implementation of SNA 1993 by the CIS countries. The issue which requires attention in this context is the treatment of work in progress as prescribed in the SNA, treatment of different types of subsidies, and adjustment of figures on seasonality. Using the above concepts in practice required considerable work associated with collection of primary data both on output and input and achieving consistency of the estimates based on the data from different sources. Recall that in the former USSR an essential element of...

Major Processes Shaping The Evolution Of Agriculture Biotechnology And Biodiversity

Abstract The paper identifies five major global trends that are likely to impact agricultural biodiversity conservation and the adoption of agricultural biotechnologies. The trends covered include trade and capital market liberalization, the rise of the environmental movement, consumerism, privatization and devolution of government services, and the emergence of the information age. We find that trade liberalization is likely to lead to increased incentives and capacity for biotechnology adoption, with unclear but potentially negative impacts on agricultural biodiversity. Environmentalism has generated a system of environmental governance and regulation, which may come into conflict with those established under global trade agreements. However, the way in which these disputes will be resolved is still unclear, but it will likely have important implications for both agricultural biotechnology and biodiversity. The rise in consumer power associated with increased incomes and the...

Food Safety and Agricultural Medicine

To decrease the risk of microbial foodborne illnesses, the main methods of increasing food safety use pesticides and chemicals, food irradiation, and combined nonthermal technologies. Newer agricultural methods of genetically modified foods and organic farming have been advanced as ways of increasing global food supply while reducing the use of chemicals and pesticides. Organic farming has been popular over the past decade but may pose some risks for food safety.

Activities Investments and Values

Within the agricultural sciences, a common justification for preserving germplasm is the need to be prepared for potential outbreaks of diseases or pests. Large collections of germplasm - often at the intra-species level - give scientists the resources with which to respond to emerging disease and pest problems. Anecdotal evidence supports the idea that disease and pest resistance are often distributed sparsely across a population. Thus, small collections may not offer adequate protection against potential problems. A related issue is the tradeoff between conservation of different species and the conservation of individuals within species. Many of the world's largest gene banks are dedicated to preservation of very small numbers of species. For example, the International Rice Germplasm Collection (IRGC) at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines contains a collection of over 80,000 types of landraces of rice. But almost all of these types belong to two...

Why Agricultural Policy

In some cases, the economic environment in rural areas may be conditioned in part by the historical legacy of a different economic era, as in cases of pervasive State ownership of agricultural land or antiquated rural land registry systems. In contrast, land ownership or long-term leases are almost universally available in urban areas. Whatever the reasons for the differences between rural and urban economic environments, they exist. Reforming rural economic institutions so that they are more conducive to business activity, and at the same time facilitate a reduction in poverty, is normally a long-term undertaking but no less essential for that reason.

Biological Conditions

6 Size of holding according to area of agricultural land 8 Labor intensity number of employees per hectare of agricultural land 9 Inputs of animal power draught units per hectare of agricultural land 10 Inputs of mechanical power tractors, harvesters, etc. per hectare of agricultural land 14 Intensity of livestock breeding, animal units per hectare of agricultural land 15 Land productivity gross agricultural output per hectare of agricultural land 18 Commercial production commercial output per hectare of agricultural land 20 Percentage of total agricultural land in permanent grass 21 Percentage of total agricultural land in food crops 24 Industrial crops (sugar, fiber, rubber, beverages) as percentage of total agricultural land

The privatization of agricultural and life science research

One of the most striking areas where privatization has occurred is in the agricultural R&D industry, particularly those related to biotechnology. In the 1970s and 1980s developed countries experienced a major reduction in the amount of public funds devoted to agricultural research, accompanied by significant increases in private-sector spending (Pray and Umali-Deininger, 1998 Alston, Pardey, and Smith, 2000). In developing countries private sector-funded research is still a much smaller share of total research, but increases are occurring there as well. Declining public budgets, poor performance record of publicly funded research, increased appropriability of the returns to privately funded research due to IPRs, and the increased use of purchased inputs in agriculture as a result of increasing competition all contribute towards an increased role of private-sector funding in agricultural research.

United States Regulation

In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct) of 1970 has established specific regulations that apply to agriculture (Table 4.2) (8). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) enforce these regulations in states covered by the OSHAct. On the federal level the small farm exemption to the OSHAct prohibits enforcement of OSHA regulations on farms with fewer than 11 employees. State plans are not required to operate under this exemption. The health care provider must determine whether OSHA or state regulations apply in each situation.

Policies Programs and Projects

Frequently, both programs and projects are required to implement the policies in a strategy. If they are not derived directly from a sector-wide or sub-sectoral strategy, they should be made consistent with it. In the hierarchy of governmental decisions, programs and projects normally are subordinate to and derived from policies, and the latter, in turn, often are developed within the framework of a strategy. In the real world of decision making with multiple and conflicting interests and actors, things do not work out so neatly, but the attempt to co-ordinate policies, programs and projects can make them all more effective. An irrigation investment is more productive if it is accompanied by legislation that facilitates the formation and operation of water users' associations (Chapter 6). A livestock investment gives greater returns to farmers if rural financial systems are strengthened so that future funding is available on a continuous basis for adequate herd management (Chapter 7)....

Access to Inputs and Services

The access to inputs and services can be increased by improving rural infrastructure and distribution of agricultural inputs, forming cooperatives, subsidizing agricultural investments, funding agricultural research, among others. Governments can, with or without development aid, start programs to improve infrastructure, subsidize investments, or

An Overview of the Volume

The conference for which the papers in this volume were prepared (The Symposium on the Economics of Valuation and Conservation of Genetic Resources for Agriculture sponsored by the Centre for International Studies on Economic Growth, University of Rome Tor Vergata and held on 13-15 May 1996, at the University of Rome, 'Tor Vergata') was convened to address both economic valuation issues and economic policy issues associated with the conservation of genetic resources. An attempt was made to relate genetic resource policy to broader economic questions associated with biodiversity policy. Readers, we believe, will find that the papers in this volume show that policies for genetic resources based on economic principles are not in conflict with biodiversity conservation objectives. At the same time we recognize that the policymaking environment is influenced by the past history of agricultural land conversion and that our conclusion regarding the complementarity of agricultural

Roots of Agricultural Safety and Health Education

With the introduction of research funds in 1990, the research emphasis for many of the new professionals in the field has been surveillance and evaluation of the effectiveness of the educational and engineering methodologies. The decline in the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries associated with agriculture has reached a point where it is unlikely that any single strategy will result in additional decreases. Consequently, more energy is being invested in measuring results on a longitudinal and finite level. It can be argued that the most effective strategy has been the reduction in the number of people engaged in agricultural production due to new agricultural practices and intensive use of mechanization. Modern agriculture in North America is safer than at any time in its history (12).

How Will Current Adoption of Stronger Intellectual Property Protection Affect Biotechnology Innovation Beyond the

These examples show that even before TRIPS has had its full effect, confused perceptions of the geographic scope of patents, combined with confusing use of US patents of dubious validity, have had a plausibly discouraging effect on agricultural research and production in the developing world. Although these examples are instructive regarding the types of potential threats associated with IP claims that can confront producers and innovators in developing countries, they are obviously too few to establish the seriousness of such threats. But the potential for such international intimidation from lead innovators will only increase as IPR enforcement proliferates. Moreover, in the absence of more concerted opposition, the global ability to enforce IPRs is likely to strengthen further. World Intellectual

Climate Change and Spanish Irrigated Agriculture The Challenge

Irrigation is largely the main water user in most countries. Worldwide agricultural production in irrigated area is, in average, more than twice the production in rainfed zones, despite that irrigated area is lesser than 25 of the total agricultural area. The increment of world population and their feeding needs point toward an efficient agriculture and therefore irrigation is an absolute need. Irrigated agricultural land means approximately 350 million ha in the world. Irrigated areas are responsible for approximately 40 of the global food production (Smedema et al., 2000).

Uses of data for unintended purposes

Estimates for marketing and production decisions, agricultural research, legislative and policy decisions, and implementation of farm programmes. Data needs have evolved over the past several years, resulting in uses of NASS information to establish USDA farm programme payment levels and calculate the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA) insurance indemnity payments to farmers.

Herbicides and water quality

Since the 1980s there has been increasing recognition that herbicides, applied in the course of normal farming practices, have contaminated surface and ground water in many agricultural regions (Barbash et al., 1999 Larson, Gilliom & Capel, 1999 United States Geological Survey, 1999). Among the herbicides detected most frequently in drinking-water sources, there are a number of compounds classified as probable (e.g., acetochlor), likely (e.g., alachlor), and possible (e.g., atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine) carcinogens (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1999). Several herbicides contaminating drinking-water sources are also under scrutiny as possible disrupters of human immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems (see section Acute and chronic effects of herbicides on human health below). The effects of low-level exposure to herbicides are poorly understood, but there is considerable popular and regulatory concern over contamination of drinking-water sources.

Development in the demand for agricultural statistics

Agricultural statistics (including fisheries and forestry) have a long history. The subject has an extensive literature. A major reason for the review on which this chapter is based is the recognition of the need for a reorientation of agricultural statistics in order to integrate them into the wider system of statistics. New demands on environmental impact and ownership of rural areas, water and energy use, etc. have been signalled and need to be included. Recent conferences have concluded that globalization and issues such as climate change demand a different approach to statistics, given the important role of agriculture in the global economy, the sustainability of the global economy and modern society more generally, and this clearly includes agricultural statistics. More information is needed on the demand side and the non-food use of agricultural products. Furthermore, these conferences have concluded that, especially in developing countries, the capacity to produce agricultural...

Agricultural Modernization Varietal Adoption And Crop Biodiversity

Crop genetic diversity has changed over time along with the modernization of agriculture and the evolution of plant improvement and the changing locus of agricultural research. Teasing out the effects of private sector research from those caused by the structural transformation of agriculture is not a simple task. This section examines the forces that have influenced the spatial and temporal spread of modern cereal varieties, including transgenic varieties, and their implications for crop genetic diversity.

Choosing the reform path a political economy analysis

Even restricting the analysis in the second part of the book to addressing these three questions, however, is an ambitious task and needs to be narrowed further. While there certainly are many reasons for the observed differences among the choices that different leaders make, we focus on four general categories of determinants initial technology differences in farming practices and the environment within which farming occurs differences in wealth and the structures of the economies the ways the different governments are organized especially focusing on the degree of decentralization and the historical legacy of Socialism and the dependency of certain reform measures on decisions that had been made during the Communist era. market liberalization policies while, after the political changes in the early 1990s, nations in CEE and the CIS nations more or less simultaneously introduced property rights reforms and farm restructuring and market liberalization. Chapter 9 provides an...

Agricultural Biotechnology in Selected Countries Asia Pacific

Over the past two decades, Indonesia has placed high priority on biotechnology. The government designated three national biotechnology centres to coordinate R & D in agriculture, medicine and industrial microbiology. Applications of biotechnology in agriculture are primarily the responsibility of the Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD). A national committee on biotechnology advises the minister in developing guidelines for government policy in the promotion of biotechnology. In recent years there has been an extensive training programme within Indonesia and abroad to upgrade skills of scientists involved in biotechnological research.

Farm register and area frame

Farm structure surveys are the backbone of agricultural statistics, delivering microinformation that allows the detailed analysis of mechanisms on individual farmers' and farms' behaviour. The response burden described in Section 1.3 forces investment in the use of more efficient instruments for collecting data. Linking sources is a way forward in combination with a permanently updated farm register and area frame. Such frames facilitate sampling, but in themselves can already supply a lot of basic information. In many countries these farm registers have been built or are under development.

Transgenic crop adoption

Characteristics, a number of institutional factors will affect the farm-level profitability of transgenic crops, particularly in developing countries. Economic research is beginning to show that transgenic crops can generate farm-level benefits where they address serious production problems and where farmers have access to the new technologies. So far, however, these conditions are only being met in a handful of developing countries. These countries have been able to make use of the private sector innovations developed for temperate crops in the North. Furthermore, they all have relatively well-developed national agricultural research systems, intellectual property rights regimes, regulatory systems, and local input markets. The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) has developed the only source of transgenic insect resistance independent of the Bt genes patented by Monsanto. Pray et al. (2002) reports that CAAS has developed more than 22 locally adapted transgenic cotton...

The Issue of Support for Agriculture

Equally, attention should be directed to possibilities for raising more revenues to support infrastructure development, agricultural research and other programs in the sector. Commodity taxes are not advisable because of their distortive effects on incentives. Often efforts are made to improve the administration of income taxes, but with the lack of reliable accounts on most farms in developing countries, that route to revenue collection always will be difficult in rural areas. Among the more viable options are rural land taxes (on a per hectare basis), which are discussed extensively in Chapter 5, and partial user fees for services. In effect, the decentralization to users of the operation and maintenance of irrigation services is a form of levying higher user fees. Similarly, under privatization of extension services, measures can be taken to require that medium-and large-scale farms pay at least part of the cost of the services. Other revenue measures, including the participation...

Macroeconomic links to agriculture and the rural sector

What are the links of macroeconomic issues and the agricultural sector The analysis of the connections between macroeconomic policies and agriculture in developing countries has emphasized mostly price effects caused by trade protection related to import substitutions industrialization (ISI) and by policies that affect the exchange rate (Krueger, et al., 1988 Valdes and Bautista, 1993). These analyses have focused basically on two indicators the real exchange rate (an index of relative prices of tradable to nontradable products) and the internal terms of trade between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. Usually these analyses have assumed that agricultural products are mostly tradable and that they do not have a significant content of imports in their production.

Aflatoxin contamination and food quality

Agricultural crops can be contaminated by aflatoxin during production, storage, processing and transportation when temperature and humidity conditions are suitable. Mold growth and aflatoxin production are favored by warm temperatures and high humidity. Aflatoxin production requires high humidity and poor storage conditions often are conducive to the growth of Aspergillus (Hell et al., 2000). Aflatoxin contaminates a wide range of agricultural products, including cereals, dried fruits, nuts, coffee beans and oilseeds, which are the agricultural backbone of most developing economy's exports (Bankole and Adebanjo, 2003). Total aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1 and G2) content in ng g of product can give an indication of product quality and can be used as a threshold for separating high, medium and low quality produce. This grading is used for pricing either with a premium (high quality) or a discount (poor quality). The risk for spoilage is a function of factors including the variety of

Step 10 Monitor and Revise the Plan

This is because many changes will have to be made voluntarily by the people, such as changing crops. For example, through analysis, the planning team, determines that wheat will provide more income for farmers than potatoes in a certain area. In the land-use plan, it is stated that the crop to be grown will be wheat, not potatoes. The individual farmers in the planning area have to grow wheat to make the plan succeed. When the farmers are not willing to do that, their income will not increase and the planning will have failed. In addition, the farmers may have had a very good reason not to grow wheat they may have tried it before and their yield and or income dropped and so, they switched back to potatoes. If the planning team had asked the farmers about their ideas, they would have found this out earlier so that another way to increase the farmers' income could have been explored .

Strategies to increase crop value

In addition to reducing production costs, farm profitability may be improved by increasing prices received for crop and livestock products. Organic farming is one option for adding value to farm products that has become increasingly popular in recent years. During the mid to late 1990s, retail sales of organic products in the USA and Europe rose 20 to 30 annually (Tate, 1994 Burros, 1997 Welsh, 1999). In 1997, the American and European markets for organic products were each estimated to be between 4 and 5 billion, while sales in Japan were estimated to be 2 billion (Welsh, 1999). Geier (1998) predicted the worldwide market for organic foods will reach 100 billion by 2010. These and other studies indicate that organic production is a viable means of increasing farm profitability for some, but not all, farmers. Owing to a longstanding paucity of weed research relevant to organic farming systems, strategies to improve weed management are among the top research priorities of organic...

Coverage of administrative registers

Another example is given by the number of farms by size (classes of utilized agricultural area (UAA)) in Italy according to the results of the survey concerning the structure of farms (FSS) in 2007 and the national authority for subsidies (AGEA) see Greco et al. (2009). Table 3.1 shows large differences, particularly for very small farms. For

Pest or Pathogen Effects

Ingly are exposed to high levels of Bt proteins over long periods, emergence of resistant individuals within the pest population will be accelerated. This concern with pest resistance to transgenic pesticides is the same as that with resistance to chemical pesticides as a result of overexposure. Many experts agree that the question of pest resistance to Bt is not if but when. This is particularly important in organic farming where chemical alternatives are not acceptable.

Heterogeneity of agricultural conditions Trade

On average, from the mid-1990s to the early 2000s industrialized countries and LAC has had agricultural trade surpluses, supplying the other regions, which are net importers. Developing countries as a whole are net buyers (by about US 8 billion on average during that period). Trends in net trade position over time show some important changes. In particular, Africa (excluding the Republic of South Africa) has moved from a positive to a negative trade balance in agricultural and food products since the mid-l970s and the beginning of the l980s. A less dramatic but still clear switch from positive to negative net trade in agriculture occurred in the Eastern European economies. Among industrialized countries, the most important change has been the disappearance of the European Union as a net buyer in world markets as a result of the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The EU's net demand for agricultural products from the rest of the world, which amounted to about US 30 billion...

Fiscal Policy And Agricultural Prices57

Each of these statements is reviewed in turn. The first argument overlooks the fact that the long-run supply responsiveness of agricultural products, including plantation crops, is far from negligible. In fact, most of the long-run supply elasticities are much closer to 1.0 than to zero, thus suggesting that production will rise or fall approximately in proportion to price changes.61 A second deficiency of the argument is that relative prices have consequences for the intersectoral distribution of economic welfare. In other words, even if there were no supply responsiveness to price, taxing agricultural exports would reduce agricultural incomes relative to those of other sectors. Given that rural households are poorer than their urban counterparts in most countries, this kind of tax is regressive.

RD Simpson and RA Sedjo

One of the most frequently mentioned arguments for preserving biological diversity is that it may serve as a great reservoir of genetic information useful in crop improvement programmes (see, e.g. Wilson, 1992). Most of the world depends on only a relative handful of crops to meet its nutritional needs. Genetic diversity within these crops is narrowing. Vast stretches of agricultural land may be sown with virtually identical seeds, resulting in potentially extreme susceptibility to pests and disease. In this paper we consider research in crop improvement as a problem in search theory. Agricultural researchers seek to find genetic combinations that offer higher yields and or display greater resistance to environmental stresses. Casual empiricism, as well as common sense, suggests that the effort and expense dedicated to these searches depend on the cost of search, the expected rewards to be earned and the best alternative identified to date. In what follows we describe a simple search...

Macroeconomic Policy Options For Agriculture

For the past five decades most economic policy in the developing world has displayed a pronounced bias against agriculture. T. L. Vollrath, citing the work of R. Bautista and A. Valdes, reported that 'the trade, macroeconomic, and sector-specific pricing policies adopted in the developing countries since the early 1950s have given rise to the following incentive biases against the production of tradable goods and in favor of non-tradables within the tradable goods sector, against exports as compared with import-competing goods within the export sector, against agricultural products compared with manufactured goods and within agriculture, against export crops compared with food crops'.63 Furthermore, the 'empirical record shows that agricultural growth had a more pronounced impact on increases in developing-country income than did growth in the nonagricultural sector. The reason for the differential impact is that developing countries focusing on agricultural development experienced...

Country heterogeneity and macroeconomic policies and conditions

It is important to keep in mind this heterogeneity of structures and performances in developing countries when discussing the impacts of various world or domestic macro-economic policies and conditions. For instance, trying to improve the internal terms of trade for agricultural products (say, by a devaluation ofthe local currency) will have a different production response in Africa, where producers face relatively more constraints in infrastructure, capital, and technology, than in the other two regions (Table 2). In turn, the distributive effect (and therefore the political economy constraints for policies benefiting the agricultural sector) will be different in small-farmer agricultural economies of Asia than in dualistic agrarian structures of many LAC countries.

Asian Development Bank

Institute of Biotechnology Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, China National Center for Biotechnology Development Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Center for Biotechnology Research and Development The objectives of ARBN are to (i) promote human resource and infrastructure development for biotechnology at selected national agricultural research systems (NARSs) institutes through joint research and training coordinated by IRRI, and (ii) generate biotechnology tools and products for use by NARSs through IRRI research and infrastructure development.

Historical Development of Intellectual Property in Soybeans

In the 1830s, the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) established a federal seed repository and, in the 1840s, through its Division of Agriculture, began the free distribution of seeds to the nation's farmers (Aoki, 2003, pp. 264-265). Under the direction of the Treasury Department, Consular and Navy officials stationed overseas collected many of the new varieties distributed to farmers (Kloppenburg, 1988, p. 2 Aoki, 2003, pp. 264-65). Through trial, error and simple selection techniques, individual farmers improved crop varieties using the free seeds (Aoki, Although initially confined to selling European vegetable varieties to residential gardeners, seed brokers recognized the market potential of expansion into commercial agriculture seed and established the American Seed Trade Association (ASTA) in 1883 to lobby for an end to the government's free distribution of seeds (Aoki, 2003, p. 267). Although initially unsuccessful in eliminating the popular programme, brokers gradually...

Children in Agriculture

Agriculture encompasses the bulk of the world's poor, who work long hours for meager returns and under hazardous and difficult conditions. In India, the combination of poor nutrition and agricultural work in childhood has resulted in decreased stature, which impairs earning ability later in life. Children working on family-based vegetable farms in the Philippines have been exposed to infections from biohazards and chemicals in soil and water, and back problems from the heavy lifting of watering cans. They often work without protective clothing. Children working in South America peeling, cutting, and grading cashew nuts are exposed to cuts, skin irritation, and back pain from sitting or standing for long hours (2,3). Children's work in agriculture often goes hand in hand with debt bondage, where the poorest families have no land or too little land to meet subsistence needs and become trapped in debt to their landlord or another person. Parents may have little choice...

Conservation Activities And Its Impact On Pgrfa Conservation Policies

In the future, assuming an increase in the production in the present marginalized areas, the question will be with what economic instruments and incentives can agrobiodiversity be kept at the social optimum, securing nonmarketable genetic resources Due to the high costs of in situ conservation projects and programs and as long as most of PGRFA still in situ are conserved by farmers without any conservation costs, such active in situ programs can be only cautiously promoted. As long as property rights for genetic resources are not well defined and as long as there do not exist any mechanisms to integrate the social value of agrobiodiversity into a market mechanism, there will be the need for government interventions to protect the existing diversity on a minimum of agricultural land. These interventions, however, have to be as efficient as possible. Therefore, a flexible and self-targeting incentive mechanism that comes only into effect when a traditional variety is endangered by...

Waste impoundment planning considerations

Not all waste impoundments are planned to have an embankment. Those that do must consider the risk to life and property should the embankment fail. The information that follows is limited to embankment impoundment sites where the potential risk is limited to physical damage of farm buildings, agricultural land, or township and county roads. This hazard criterion is the low hazard or class (a) classification for dams that will impound clean water. Waste impoundments, however, present additional risk beyond that of clean water impoundments because of the nature of material they contain. This material can be high in organic matter, nutrients, and micro-organisms. In addition, the wastewater may have offensive odors. As such, even though a waste impoundment is sited so the risk is limited to physical damage of property, there may still be a significant potential in failure to degrade soil, water, air, plant, and animal resources as well as negatively impact the human environment.

The Cost of Onfarm Conservation

The cost of in situ conservation is the cost of assisting the necessary number of farms in key farming systems to maintain local resources and knowledge in order to maintain the crop evolutionary system of the centre of agricultural biodiversity. It is difficult to estimate the cost because of uncertainties regarding the social and biological status of farming systems and prerequisites for maintaining crop evolutionary systems in some semblance of their natural or historic order. The goal of in situ conservation is not to preserve a given number of alleles or genotypes (i.e. diversity perse) but to maintain an agricultural system which generates crop genetic resistance in a manner similar to the historic system. An object of in situ conservation should be to locate sites to represent a sample of the general eco-geographics zones of the crop in its centre of origin. The lower bounds of such a programme are not known and are probably both crop- and region-specific. Both biological and...

Food Security Agricultural Prices And The Rural Poor96

Countries that perform well in reducing undernourishment may do so by following one or more routes. They may have devoted more resources to increasing agricultural production - the best option for the purposes of increasing economic growth and, if small farms and poor consumers are able to participate and benefit, for creating a more equitable society. Alternatively, they may have imported large amounts of food, either purchased on the international commodity markets or received as food aid. Countries afflicted by longstanding civil wars or recent short-term shocks may achieve better than anticipated performances by the latter route.101

The basic model for illustrating Socialist inefficiencies

Consider a simplified Socialist farming system in which farms produce the output and the state determines the allocation of a subset of the inputs, all input and output prices, and the nature of the farm organization (including property rights). For each farm i, output, q', is produced with two types of inputs, x', and l' More formally, we demonstrate this by assuming that within the government-controlled farming system the government chooses two things first, as before the government chooses the form of the property rights which determines that organization of the farm (as well as the level of

Integrates crop and livestock operations

It did that, but it also did a whole lot more. Along with regular manuring with poultry litter, Vickers' new farming practices eased many of his pest problems. Moreover, it made a night and day difference in his soils. There's just no comparison, he says. It's beginning to resemble potting soil rather than clay.

Extraction Procedures Soils

We will refer to the UK MAFF ADAS publications in the appropriate chapter. There are, however, published procedures on the web, particularly from the USA. Two such manuals are available from Delaware Cooperative Extension (1995) Recommended Soil Testing Procedures for the Northeastern United States, 2nd Edition, and from the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station (1998) Recommended Chemical Soil Test Procedures for the North Central Region at their respective websites

Genetic Use Restriction Technologies

The economic challenge to development of such plant varieties is that plants naturally reproduce themselves. As a consequence, these new varieties are relatively expensive to create, but are trivially inexpensive to propagate once they are in existence - and, indeed, may propagate unintentionally. This 'public goods' problem of distribution at a marginal cost close to zero is common in other areas of innovation, even where the subject matter does not reproduce itself. Legal prohibitions have been the typical solution to this problem. In the USA, trade secrecy and utility patents have been used to secure exclusive rights in transgenic plant varieties, as has a specific form of IP granting plant breeders' rights (PBRs). The Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) is specifically directed at encouraging development of new varieties of sexually reproducing plants by granting the developer broad control over the growth, use, importation and sale of a new plant. This statute includes some...

Production costs decrease by up to a third

With the cover crop acting much like a jacket, Vickers' healthier soils hold moisture, prevent runoff and stretch his irrigation dollars. In its entirety, his farming system trims a quarter to a third off Vickers' production costs mostly for labor, equipment and fuel. He sidedresses a bit of nitrogen and applies several conventional herbicides, but cutting back to just one preplant insecticide in his peanuts slashed the insecticide share of his budget by 50 to 60 percent.

The Actors Of Pgrfa Conservation

As depicted in Fig. 8-1, public conservators at the national level dominate the ex situ conservation, storing 83 of all conserved accessions (FAO, 1998). Of these, 34 are stored in public genebanks of developing countries and 49 in public genebanks of industrialized countries (Virchow, 1999a). According to FAO, 15 of all ex situ conserved accessions are held in regional and international genebanks (FAO, 1998). The majority of these accessions are stored in the ex situ collections of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).1 Private breeding companies in industrialized countries store approximately 1 of the accessions and the relevant private companies in developing countries roughly 0.2 (Iwanaga, 1993). Finally, it is estimated that less than 0.2 ) of all ex situ conserved accessions are held by local conservators, i.e., farmers supported by NGOs (FAO, 1998). The CGIAR is a an informal association that supports a network of 16 international agricultural...

Equity and Access to Knowledge Resources

Qualitative changes brought by technology, and may overlook a broader, longer-lasting interest in realizing and responding to the intangible value of trade. But technological change also affects how a knowledge resource is perceived recognizing the innate intangible value of a knowledge resource can have a strong retrospective aspect, spurred by newly, technologically enabled appropriation of the value. Some of the most ancient traded products and basic commodities, such as agricultural products, have a valuable 'knowledge' or 'intangible' component, which is fully conceived as such in response to a perception of misappropriation, including technological innovation and imitative innovation (the trend of creating genuinely new products that are intended to mimic or even - controversially - to surpass the distinctive products of an original traditional product). Basmati rice is a traded commodity of long and venerable reputation, and merits its superior value in the marketplace. It was...

Use of Biotechnology in the Activities of Genetic Resource

Pioneer Hi-Bred International, in collaboration with other members of private industry (Linkage Genetics and Applied Biosystems), and with the public sector (Brookhaven National Laboratory, and the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service at Raleigh, North Carolina, and Griffin, Georgia) have developed a set of primers that will allow amplification of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for maize. Primer sequences will be made publicly available to the global community and cost effective assays will be investigated that could, for the first time, make DNA-based codominant molecular marker technology a practical means of characterizing diversity in heterogeneous landraces whether they reside in situ or ex situ. Characterization of maize landraces using some of these SSRs is now being use at the USDA Plant Introduction Station at Ames, Iowa. These SSRs will also be investigated by researchers at CIMMYT.

Step 2 Identify potential farm operations among the unmatched records from E

As indicated above, approximately 30 of all tax records do not match with the farm register. This is mostly due to conceptual differences, reporting errors and processing errors. Most of the unmatched tax records report very small farm income and do not involve much farming activity, if any. As a result, a cut-off sample of the farms reporting the largest farm income is selected for further processing. The size of the sample depends on the level of perceived coverage of the register, the timely need to improve its coverage and costs. For example, the sample would be much larger just before the census when the coverage of the register is likely at its lowest and the need for this coverage is at its highest.

Policies For Land Markets

A fundamental policy question in all countries is, what should the nature of land rights be Should customary land tenure regimes be retained If so, how can they be protected against land grabbing For land use systems that are emerging from customary regimes, in what form should land rights be formalized For systems making the transition out of collective farming, what options should be provided to the members of the collectives For countries with extensive State ownership of land, what kinds of customary and private land rights should be acknowledged or established, and how should allocations of State lands to users be made For countries with traditions of private land ownership, are equity and efficiency objectives adequately served by the existing land tenure rules and regulations In the interest of greater equity, what kinds of restrictions are appropriate for ownership of agricultural land, if any What are the consequences for efficiency

Missing Farms Followup

More specifically, snapshot records that (a) were not must-get farms, (b) had not matched to the Census of Agriculture records, (c) had reported farm activity in a survey in the 6 months prior to the MFFU collection period, and (d) had matched to a Step D household were automatically added to the census database. These small farms were assumed to be active on Census Day and not contacted to avoid needless response burden. In a similar manner, MFFU farms that had (a) not matched to census records, (b) had

Conditions on Titling

In all parts of the developing and transitional world, titling agricultural land has the potential to create undesirable side-effects. If such effects are anticipated, both administrative and judicial mechanisms can be put in place to avoid or minimize them. One hazard noted above is the appropriation of land rights by those who are well placed in the politico-administrative system. This hazard can be reduced by campaigns of rapid and widespread dissemination of information about a titling program and its implications, and the greater involvement of civil society (including NGOs) in those programs. Such campaigns can be supported by international agencies. Political will in the country concerned, expressed at the highest levels, also can do a great deal to reduce this danger. Financing the costs of titling programs is another issue that requires resolution. Often, the conventional approach is to require beneficiaries of titling to reimburse the full costs, on the same grounds that...

The Case for Public Knowledge in Agricultural Biotechnology

Private agricultural research is growing in significance - At the beginning of the 20th century, most research and development (R&D) of plant varieties was done by the public sector. After widespread adoption of hybridization and even more so with modern biotechnology, the private sector accounts for a larger share of R&D. The use of IPRs by companies is simultaneous with the increasing significance of the private sector and is one avenue for understanding current and future R&D.

Vulnerability to Drought

Alentejo represents almost one-half of the total cropland of the mainland. However, 60 of irrigated land is in the northern and central regions (GPPAA, 1999). In Alentejo, few areas are irrigated, although there has been an increase in the last few years. This region of Portugal is particularly vulnerable to droughts, which have frequently occurred here during the last few years. Due to the seasonal distribution and high variability in precipitation, agricultural practices are highly dependent on irrigation during spring and summer seasons (IHERA, 1999). A strong Mediterranean influence and declining spring precipitation have contributed to the desertification of some rural areas, mainly in the southern and northeastern regions. In addition, conventional farming practices have contributed, to some extent, to land degradation and subsequently to desertification.

Transition Issues in the CIS and Eastern Europe

Land reform has been the most rapidly implemented of Kazakhstan's economic reform packages. . instead of the 2500 State and collective farms in existence in 1991, at present there are more than 62000 individual farming units, 8754 production cooperatives, 1169 business partnerships, 578 joint stock companies, and only 89 State enterprises . . The share of nonstate enterprises is 93.9 percent of all agricultural lands, 94.9 percent of arable land, and 91 percent of livestock and poultry. . . . The positive changes in Kazakhstan's land allocation to individual farmers fail to reveal the huge losses and crises that resulted. In reality, the reforms turned many efficiently functioning large public farming enterprises into numerous small farms, most of which are not viable because they lack machinery and working capital and cannot adapt to market conditions. As a result, the owners of property and land shares again joined together and established production cooperatives on the basis of...

Improving Access to Land for Women

In India, for example, women have practically no right to inherit agricultural land. . Despite passage of the Hindu Succession Act (1956), which was intended to improve women's rights, the law has been interpreted so as to deny women access to agricultural land. In some Indian states, laws explicitly exclude widows and daughters from inheriting agricultural land. . Kenya's Succession Act (1972), intended to provide greater gender equality in inheritance, fails to do so because agricultural land was left under customary law, which denies women the right to inherit farmland. . . .246

Agriculturally Related Biotechnology

Agricultural Research Service 24.5 Cooperative State Research Service NOTE EPA Environmental Protection Agency FDA Food and Drug Administration and SAES State Agricultural Experiment Stations. c Estimate based on data from the Agricultural Research Institute, 1985. A Survey of U.S. Agricultural Research by Private Industry III. Bethesda, Md.

Recognize that the debate is not about science alone

Biotechnology has several unique features that raise powerful concerns not associated with conventional agriculture its capacity to manipulate the very nature of living things in unprecedented ways its use of patents and other means of intellectual property protection that severely limit access to its products its identification with large multinational companies that are seen as the nemesis of small farmers, particularly in developing countries and its added costs for regulatory compliance and patent protection that make it unaf-fordable to poor farmers. Addressing only the

Exposure to Dusts Inorganic Dusts

Agricultural work is generally performed outdoors. Major outdoor work activities leading to dust and chemical exposure by farm workers include preparation of soil for field crops, growing, harvesting, transport, storage of agricultural products, and fieldwork activities such as plowing, tilling, and haying. Fieldwork also has the potential to expose agricultural workers to inorganic dusts as well as various pesticides and chemicals. Exposures may be particularly significant in dry, semiarid, and desert climates and under windy conditions. The bulk of inorganic dusts are composed of silicates. These include crystalline silica (quartz) and noncrystalline amorphous silica (diatomite). Dust samples from outdoor agricultural environments may be composed of approximately 10 to 20 or greater concentrations of crystalline silica. Workers performing fieldwork may develop clinically significant exposures to various silicates including respirable fibrous minerals and to nonfibrous silicate...

Key Study Assumptions

Rapid development of the bioenergy sector will be reliant on a strong investment in agricultural research and technology. This will not only increase the competitiveness of bioenergy products, but it will also reduce the cost of the transition to this new industry. In this

Fungal Biotechology In Food Production

Advances in ingredient subdisciplines of mycology as in the past will remain the drivers of applied agricultural research. With new interests there will be major investment focused on generating discoveries and their applications towards both conventional and biotechnology oriented useful products and processes or services.

Strategic Implications

Capturing benefits from the above potential synergies requires strategy. Those actors concerned with emerging groundwater problems need to move beyond the linear step-by-step attempts to develop integrated water management programmes and institutions that characterize current global water debates. As Schlager (Chapter 7, this volume) comments 'Groundwater basins and large-scale canal irrigation systems present challenging governance issues that are often avoided, ignored or made to disappear within the black box of integrated management'. As a result, instead of attempting to formulate comprehensive approaches, more incremental 'clumsy' solutions tuned to specific times, physical contexts and institutional settings are needed. As any commercial organization interested in building a dam knows, ideas need to be developed and multiple plans formulated so that they can be put into action when a drought or other crisis creates a window of opportunity. Similarly, instead of advocating a...

Method 59b Determination of extractable phosphorus automated method

An automated method for the Lachat QuikChem Automatic Flow Injection Ion Analyzer is given in Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station (1998), pp. 27-29, and is available free of charge from Lachat (Lachat Instruments, 1988). Sun et al. (1981) describe a method for the Tecator FIAstar flow injection system. A method for a segmented continuous flow procedure for both phosphate and potassium was devised by Armitage (1965). The parameters for the phosphate analysis using a dilute HCl soil extractant are outlined below. The manifold diagram (Fig. 5.3) has been modified to allow for the fact that Armitage later changed the Sampler I to a Sampler II module.

The need to accumulate capital increasing investment and savings rates

One, based on the empirical observation at that point in time of declining terms of trade of countries exporting agricultural products (or primary products, in general) compared to countries exporting industrial goods. Singer's arguments were based on the characteristics of agricultural goods (such as supply and demand elasticities) Prebisch contrasted market structures in developed countries (characterized by industrial oligopolies and strong unions) with those of developing countries (characterized by smaller firms and surplus labor) and argued that the former could retain the benefits of technical progress while the latter surrendered gains from productivity through falling prices of their primary exports (hence the decline in the terms of trade).

The belief that markets and the price system would not adequately guide the necessary process of investment and capital

According to the post-war development strategy, the role of agriculture was subordinated to the needs of the industrialization process Various arguments were utilized to support this view. Quantitative historical analysis (for instance, Kuznets, 1966) showed that agriculture declined in importance with the advance of economic development. This fact appeared related to Engel's Law, which argued that the percentage of food expenditures declined as incomes increased. Also, and especially in Latin America, various authors argued that (1) agricultural production was inelastic to domestic prices, (2) international demand was also inelastic with respect to international prices, and (3) the international terms of trade were moving against agriculture (Cepal, 1969). It was said that increasing the prices of agricultural products would not increase production but would add to inflationary pressures. If domestic production and international demand were inelastic, the imposition of taxes on...

Reassessment of macroeconomic and development policies in the 1970s

By the mid-1960s several concerns began to be voiced about the adequacy of this development strategy. Protection and subsidies to the industrial sector were damaging other sectors, such as agriculture. Schultz (1964), in an influential book, argued that the farmers in the developing countries were poor but efficient, reacting with economic rationality to changes in prices and incentives. If the agricultural resources were efficiently utilized, there were not gains to be made by the economy from transferring labor and savings to other sectors. The suggestion was to support the agricultural sector through technological development and human capital formation in rural areas. The dispute, between Fei and Ranis (1966) on one hand and Jorgenson (1967) on the other, over the operation of dual economies also centered, at a macro level, over whether there were efficiency gains to be made by moving labor from agriculture to industry. Jorgenson's neoclassical position emphasized that labor was...

Present State Of Biotechnology Applications To Agriculture

To date, a relatively small number of commercial agricultural products have been developed through the application of molecular biotechnology techniques. Some vaccines against animal diseases, strains of yeast, and other products for cheese and wine fermentation, as well as few transgenic crops have been developed. Marker-assisted selection is still in its infancy due to the fact that detailed linkage maps are not yet available for several species. Requiring large investments, most of the research products that are being developed using genetic engineering are coming from the private sector in developed countries, even though all the research builds on the basic research funded by the public sector in developed countries. This section provides a conceptual overview of the present state of biotechnology applications to agriculture the first section of Chapter 13 provides a technical overview that includes examples of specific products. ERS (2003) also provides a general overview of...

International Cooperation

Advances in biotechnology are taking place at such a rate internationally that close liaison among scientists working at the leading edges of biotechnology is vitally important. Funds for travel to international congresses and symposia are of special importance for scientists, as is access to international research data banks. Being able to access current literature is a high priority and sufficient funds should be assured to key AARD libraries so that they can maintain subscriptions to important periodicals, or at least maintain a complete run of journals at the Central Library for Agricultural Science, Bogor, or obtain copies of reprints from abroad.

Market Strength and Structure The Cost of Engaging in Intellectual Property Transactions

In industrial organization literature, transactions costs - those of negotiating and managing contracts - are a principal determinant of contractual relationships among firms and hence of a firm's own organizational design. When transaction costs are low, firms are likely to concentrate on a core specialty, purchasing their supportive inputs or services. As a result, the marketplace becomes active. When transaction costs are high, firms seek to avoid these costs by internalizing the production of supportive inputs, through either acquisition of, or long-term coordination with, other firms. The marketplace of arm's-length transactions hence becomes thin. Transaction costs are, therefore, inversely related to the market's importance in facilitating production and distribution. Put differently, the cost of establishing and enforcing contracts for the use of an agricultural innovation is inversely related to the market's success in facilitating agricultural research specialization.

Research Trends Crops And Traits

In January 2003, FAO launched an online database (FAO-BioDeC, 2003) to monitor the trends in the status of development, adoption, and application of crop biotechnologies, including GM crops in developing countries. The database encompassed data collected and kindly provided by ISNAR Biotechnology Service (IBS), part of the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR). Both FAO-BioDec (2003) and IBS ISNAR's Next Harvest Databases (Cohen et al., 2003) show that not only a diverse range of crops important for resource-poor farmers, including food security crops (e.g., rice and corn), are being studied, but also traits important to resource-poor farmers in developing countries (e.g., tolerance to abiotic stresses and quality traits). The number of transformation events was recorded. A transformation event is a unique insertion of the gene into the plant genome. Each transformation event may contain a unique gene, gene promoter, gene marker, and gene location within the...

Favorable Environmental Conditions for the Presence of Agriculture

What kind ofsample is suitable for examining possible correlations between the importance of agricultural products in their diet and the various environmental indicators Even under extreme conditions, certain kinds of agriculture could be practiced irrigation could offset extreme aridity and the herding of reindeer could offset climatic barriers to agriculture in very cold climates. To deal with this problem, I have eliminated from the SCCS all societies with less than 200 millimeters of rainfall per year or with an effective temperature7 of less than 11 centigrade. Another problem in sample selection arises with seafaring societies that obtained a predominant part of their diet by fishing and hunting for sea mammals. So I have also removed from the sample all societies with more than a 35 percent reliance for subsistence on aquatic resources. This left 135 societies in the SCCS sample, which, in Table 3-1, were then arranged according to their reliance on agriculture (plant...

The Field For The Small Combined Harvesterthresher

The combine is also one of the few machines which may be purchased as well as operated at a lower cost than the equipment which it replaces. It is not, however, sufficiently low in first cost to permit its use on thousands of farms where general-purpose tractors are used. A small, inexpensive combine of somewhat different design ihan those now on the market would, it is believed, be used on many small farms in the east, north central, and some of the middle and south Atlantic states for smalt grain, in the south Atlantic and east south central states for soybeans, alfalfa, and clover, as well as a stationary thresher for cowpeas and other legumes.

Political changes grassroots pressure and agricultural reform in China

Hence, instead of being seen as a policy solely emerging from the political bag of Deng, property rights reform, or decollectivization, in China should be seen as a process that was encouraged by grassroots pressure. In fact, the pressure by farm families to return to family-based production not only occurred during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but had actually begun to emerge during the decades preceding the HRS reforms.2 Because of this, we believe that grassroots pressure was a key element of the reform movement. Interestingly, however, while there has been pressure at different periods of time during the 1960s and 1970s, it should be noted that the pressures were not constant, but fluctuated both by region and over time. Over time, the pressure to decollectivize was most strong in the aftermath of the Great Leap Forward policy in the late 1950s and the famine that it created in the early 1960s. The ideological pressure and the associated radical collectivization during those...

International Biotechnology Initiatives

Bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, international organizations, national agricultural research institutions, universities, private foundations and commercial companies are all involved in the financing and or execution of international biotechnology initiatives for developing countries (Brenner and Komen, 1994 Cohen, 1994). Since 1985, organizations covered by an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development survey contributed an estimated US 260 million in grant funds to international biotechnology initiatives. These activities included research programmes, advisory programmes, networks and specific projects. During this period, the total biotechnology component of World Bank loans and credits for national agricultural research projects in developing countries has been estimated at US 150 million.

Full details are required about the manner in which the trial release of the GMO is to be undertaken

The trial site is inside the Northern Agricultural Research Unit property. It lies on a south-facing slope and is far away from any general access area or public pathway. The trial site is surrounded by other crop trials on all sides. The closest other cotton planting will be 800 m south of the GM trial site.

Interest Rate Regulations

Many countries limit the interest rate charged on loans to protect unwary borrowers from unscrupulous lenders. In practice, however, high interest rates are often justifiable. Many of the costs associated with a loan are fixed, and these fixed costs represent a higher percentage of a small loan than of a larger loan. Since operators of small farms and businesses are more likely to want a small loan than are operators of large farms and businesses, private lenders charge higher interest rates to small operators than to larger ones. The lender would ordinarily hope to recover these larger costs with some combination of higher interest rates and an up-front processing charge. In addition, the costs of monitoring small, unsecured loans are higher than those of monitoring larger, secured loans. A lender with a small, unsecured loan must regularly inspect the borrower's business premises to be confident that the business is still solid, while secured lenders know that they have the right to...

Establishing Effective Intellectual Property Rights And Reducing Barriers To Entry In Canadian Agricultural

Abstract Governments face a second-best situation when they consider the appropriate policy for realizing the optimal level of agricultural research. As public research effort is constrained, private research is required. In absence of any effective way of excluding others from using intellectual innovations, a public good problem will exist. While intellectual property rights help to reduce the public good problem through granting market power to innovators seeking to commercialize their inventions, these rights also create deadweight losses. This paper examines the tradeoffs inherent in IPR policies and uses a Canadian example to show how some of the unwelcome effects can be minimized.

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