For Indonesia, sufficient data exist on inputs by crop to enable the calculation of total factor productivity indexes (TFP) that take into account the use of conventionally measured inputs. These indexes show that after considering all inputs, Indonesia has achieved impressive growth in TFP in rice.
Rice varieties in Indonesia have undergone considerable change within the MV class. Dwidjono (1993) has defined the following 'generations' of rice varieties.
• Generation 1. This generation includes IR5, IR8, IR20 and C463. These are the first semi-dwarf varieties developed in the Philippines (IR5 and IR8 at IRRI, C463 at the University of the Philippines). It also includes Pelita 1/1 and Pelita 1/2, the first Indonesian-bred varieties. These varieties were generally subject to brown plant hopper (BPH) and tungro virus attacks.
• Generation 2. This generation includes varieties developed at IRRI and in Indonesia that incorporated BPH resistance and tungro resistance. These include IR22, IR34 (from IRRI) and several varieties from Indonesian programmes. These varieties were developed in response to the incidence of insect and disease problems afflicting the first generation of MVs.
• Generation 3. This generation includes both IRRI (IR32-38) and Indonesian varieties that incorporate multiple resistance and tolerance traits. The IRRI varieties were the result of its Genetic Evaluation and Utilization (GEU) programme in the 1970s.
• Generation 4. This generation includes other MVs incorporating more location-specific and related traits. These varieties were released in the 1980s and include mostly Indonesian varieties.
Each of these MVs was rated by plant breeders for resistance to three diseases (bacterial leaf blight, tungro virus and grassy stunt virus) and two insect pests (BPH and gall midge (GM)).
Was this article helpful?