Contents

Preface xii

About the Author xv

Disclaimer xvi

Acknowledgements xvii

Abbreviations and Acronyms xx

Chapter 1 Experimental Planning 1

Experimental Design 1

Plot size 2

Equipment Considerations 2

Autoanalysis 2

Samplers 4

Peristaltic pumps 4

Chemistry module 5

Heating bath and dialyser 5

Colorimeter and spectrophotometer 6

Chart-recorders 6

Chart reader 7

Flow injection 8

Batch Size 8

Sampling Protocol 9

Soils 9

Composts 10

Feeds 10

Plant components 15

Microbiological analysis 16

Biological substances 16

Fertilizers 16

Chapter 2 Sample Preparation 17

Pre-treatment of Samples and Sample Contamination 17

Trace Element Analysis 17

Sub-sampling 18

Drying Techniques 19

Air-drying 19

Oven-drying 19

Vacuum oven 19

Freeze-drying 20

Desiccation 22

Milling, Grinding and Homogenization 22

Freezer mill 23

Homogenization 23

Storage of milled samples 24

Chapter 3 Weighing and Dispensing

Weighing Errors 26

Corrections of weighings in vacuo 26

Incorrect calibration of the balance 26

Static charge 27

Convection currents 27

Absorption of moisture by the sample 27

Absorption of moisture by the sample container 27

Dispensing Errors 28

Bottle top dispensers 28

Syringe pipettes 29

Chapter 4 Acid-digestion, Ashing and Extraction Procedures 30

Acid-digestion and Washing 30

Acid-digestion of soils 30

Total soil nitrogen 31

Acid-digestion of plant materials 32

Digestion systems 32

Distillation systems 32

Microwave acid-digestion 34

Dry ashing 35

Extraction Procedures - Plant-based Materials 36

Oils, fats and waxes 37

Fibre, lignin, cellulose, nitrogen-free extract and starch 38

In vitro digestibility 42

Nitrate and water-soluble carbohydrate 48

Water content in silage 50

Extraction Procedures - Soils 50

pH extractants 51

Phosphate extractants 52

Potassium extractants 54

Trace element extractants 54

Chapter 5 Analysis of Soil and Compost 57

Soil Analytical Procedures 57

Method 5.1. Determination of extractable boron 57 Method 5.2. Cation exchange capacity, exchangeable bases and base saturation 59 Method 5.3. Determination of effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) 66

Method 5.4. Determination of fulvic and humic acids 68

Discussion 5.5. Determination of available nitrogen 71

Method 5.5a. Determination of nitrate by selective ion electrode 71

Discussion 5.5b. Determination of total mineralized nitrogen 72

Method 5.5b.i. Determination of extractable ammonium-N 73

Method 5.5b.ii. Determination of extractable nitrate-N 74 Discussion 5.6. Determination of organic plus ammonium nitrogen 74

Method 5.6a. Determination of soil nitrogen by autoanalysis 75 Method 5.6a.i. Reduction of nitrate before digestion and colorimetric analysis 75 Method 5.6b. Determination of organic plus ammonium-N by digestion and distillation 76

Discussion 5.7. Determination of soil organic matter 78 Method 5.7a. Determination of soil organic matter by loss on ignition 78 Method 5.7b. Determination of easily oxidizable organic C by

Tinsley's wet combustion 79

Discussion 5.8. Determination of pH and lime requirement 81

Method 5.8a. Measurement of pH 82

Method 5.8b. Determination of lime requirement 82

Method 5.8c. Determination of pH in soils with soluble salts 83

Discussion 5.9. Determination of extractable phosphorus 84 Method 5.9a. Determination of extractable phosphorus (manual method) 84 Method 5.9b. Determination of extractable phosphorus

(automated method) 86 Method 5.9c. Determination of resin extractable phosphorus

(automated method) 87 Method 5.10. Determination of extractable magnesium, potassium and sodium 89

Method 5.11. Determination of extractable trace elements 91

Discussion 5.12. Determination of extractable sulphur 93 Method 5.12a. Determination of extractable sulphur (manual method) 94

Method 5.12b. Determination of extractable sulphur (automated method) 96

The Analysis of Composts

Method 5.13. Determination of CEC in composts 101

Method 5.14. Determination of Ca, K, Mg and P in composts 103

Method 5.15. Determination of heavy metals in compost 104

Chapter 6 The Analysis of Fertilizers 106

Fertilizer Analytical Procedures 107

Discussion 6.1. Determination of total nitrogen in presence of nitrate and organic N 107

Method 6.1a. Determination of total nitrogen in presence of nitrate and organic N, with final determination by distillation 108

Method 6.1b. Determination of total nitrogen in presence of nitrate and organic N, with final determination by autoanalysis 109 Discussion 6.2. Determination of phosphorus in fertilizers 110

Method 6.2a. Determination of water-soluble phosphorus (extraction) 114

Method 6.2a.i. Determination of water-soluble phosphorus (autoanalysis) 114

Method 6.2a.ii. Determination of water-soluble phosphorus (manual method) 116

Method 6.2b. Determination of 2% citric acid-soluble phosphorus - method for basic slags (Thomas phosphate) 117

Method 6.2c. Determination of total phosphorus in the acid digest from Method 6.1b. with final determination by autoanalysis 118 Discussion 6.3 Determination of potassium in fertilizers 119

Method 6.3a. Determination of water-soluble potassium 120

Method 6.3b. Determination of ammonium oxalate-soluble potassium 120

Method 6.3c. Determination of potassium in the acid digest from Methods 6.1a. or 6.1b 121

Liming Materials 121

Method 6.4. Determination of the moisture and neutralizing value of liming materials 122

Method 6.5. Determination of fineness of grinding (150 ¡jm/100 mesh fraction) 123

Chapter 7 The Analysis of Animal Feed and Plant Materials 124

Discussion 7.1. Determination of acid detergent fibre, cellulose and lignin 125

Method 7.1a. Determination of acid detergent fibre 125

Method 7.1b. Determination of lignin 126

Method 7.1c. Determination of cellulose and ash 127

Method 7.2. Determination of crude fibre 128 Method 7.3. Determination of modified acid detergent fibre (MAD

fibre) 130

Method 7.4. Determination of neutral cellulase plus gamanase digestibility (NCGD) of feeding stuffs 131

Method 7.5. Determination of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) or plant cell-wall constituents 133

Method 7.6. Determination of nitrate in plant material by autoanalysis 135

Discussion 7.7. Determination of total nitrogen (crude protein) in plant material and feeding stuffs 137

Method 7.7a. Determination of total nitrogen (crude protein) in plant material by autoanalysis 138

Discussion 7.8. Determination of oil in feeding stuffs by extraction with petroleum spirit 141

Method 7.8a. Determination of oil in feeding stuffs by extraction with petroleum spirit 142

Method 7.8b. Determination of oil in rapeseed 142

Method 7.9. Determination of pepsin-cellulase digestibility of plant material 143

Discussion 7.10. Determination of total phosphorus in plant material and feeding stuffs 144

Method 7.10a. Determination of total phosphorus in plant material by autoanalysis 145

Discussion 7.11. Determination of total potassium in plant material and feeding stuffs 146

Method 7.11a. Preparation of plant sample solution by dry combustion 147

Method 7.11b. Determination of potassium in plant material by flame photometry (dry ashing extract) 148

Method 7.11c. Determination of potassium in plant material by flame photometry (Kjeldahl acid digest) 148

Discussion 7.12. Determination of starch by acid hydrolysis 149

Method 7.12a. Determination of starch in potatoes by hydrolysis and autoanalysis 149

Discussion 7.13. Determination of trace elements in plants and feeds 150

Method 7.13a. Determination of trace elements in plants and feeds 151 Method 7.14. Determination of water soluble carbohydrate by autoanalysis 151

Chapter 8 The Analysis of Silage 154

Method 8.1. Determination of ammonium-N in silage 154

Method 8.2. Determination of moisture in silage 156

Method 8.3. Determination of pH in silage 159 Discussion 8.4. Determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs)

in silage 159 Method 8.4. Extraction method for obtaining silage juice for analysis for VFAs 164

Chapter 9 Near Infrared Spectroscopy 167

Prediction of Metabolizable Energy (ME) 167

Applications of NIR 168

Interpreting NIR Spectra 169

Interferences 170

Chapter 10 Methods in Equine Nutrition 172

Toxic Effects of Some Elements 172

Method 10.1a. Application of ytterbium marker to feed 175 Method 10.1b. Feeding of ytterbium marked feed and faecal collection and preparation 176 Method 10.1c. Preparation of ytterbium marked feed for analysis 177

Mobile Bag Technique (MBT) 177 Method 10.2. Determination of digestibility using the mobile bag technique 179

Hemicellulose 181

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) 182 Method 10.3. Determination of total non-starch polysaccharides 183

Chapter 11 Methods for Organic Farmers and Growers 187

Origins 187

Balance 188

Albrecht 189

Basic cation saturation ratio 189

Other ratios 190

N:K balance 190

Trace elements 190

Fertilizers 191

Commercial Analytical Services 191

BCSR versus SLAN 192

Phosphate Analysis 193

Organic phosphorus 193

Determination of organic P 194 Method 11.1. Determination of extractable organic and inorganic soil P 194

The Balzer Methods 196

pH determination 197

Humus 197

Humification (see also Chapter 5, Method 5.4) 198

Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium 198

Trace elements 199

The UK Situation 199

Chapter 12 Quality Assurance and Control 200

Replicates 201

Standard Reference Materials 202

Quality Systems 203

Matrix Interference 204

Standard Additions, or 'Spiking' 204

References 206

Appendix 1: Equipment Suppliers 223

Appendix 2: Soil Index Table 225

Appendix 3: Lime Application Rates for Arable Land 226

Appendix 4: Lime Application Rates for Grassland 227 Appendix 5: Nitrate and Nitrite in Soil, Plant and Fertilizer Extracts 228

Appendix 6: Phosphate in Soil, Plant and Fertilizer Extracts 233 Appendix 7: Analytical Methods Used by ADAS for the Analysis of Organic Manures 241

Appendix 8: Laboratory Safety 247 Appendix 9: Chemical Composition Data Sources for Plants, Feeds,

Blood, Urine and Soils 251

Appendix 10: Atomic Weights, Units and Conversion Tables 253

Subject Index 259

Commercial Index 265

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment