What Are Possible Secondary Benefits

Beyond the more direct benefits of reversing environmental degradation and the loss of biodiversity, perennial polyculture farming holds the promise of indirectly addressing other global problems. These problems include global hunger and poverty, growing worries about fossil fuel

14 R. S. Kellert and E. O. Wilson, eds., The Biophilia Hypothesis, Island Press, Washington, D.C., 1993.

15 David Pimental et al., "Economic and Environmental Benefits of Biodiversity," BioScience, Vol. 47, No. 11, December 1997, pp. 747-757.

16 These estimates are from Pimental et al., 1997. See this reference for a quantitative assessment of biodiversity benefits.

17 For different approaches to arguing for and quantifying the importance and benefits of biodiversity, see R. Costanza et al., "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital," Nature, Vol. 387, May 15, 1997, pp. 253-260; Pimental et al., 1997; Gretchen C. Daily et al., "Valuing Ecosystem Services: Philosophical Framework and Empirical Approaches," in Donald Kennedy et al., Nature's Services: Societal Dependance on Natural Ecocsystems, Island Press, Washington, D.C., 1997; B. A. Stein et al., Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000, pp. 93-118; and Smith and Smith, 2001.

consumption, and the deteriorating state of health and education—especially among women and children—in developing countries.

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