Supporting smokers to stop smoking
Risky health behaviors are more common among rural youth. The rate of drunk driving arrests is significantly greater in nonurban counties. Forty percent of rural 12th graders report using alcohol while driving compared to 25 of their urban counterparts. Rural 8th graders are twice as likely to smoke cigarettes (more than 26 vs. 13 in large metropolitan areas).
Evidence suggests that drug-seeking behavior may be caused by genetically determined abnormalities in central nervous system neurotransmitters. Depressants such as heroin or stimulants such as cocaine mimic the structure of neurotransmitters at synaptic junctions of the brain. Stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine mimic neurotransmitters that cause a stimulant reaction heroin, other natural and synthetic opiates, and alcohol mimic neu-rotransmitters with a depressant effect. Dopamine has been suggested as a positive reinforcer, and drugs such as amphetamine, cocaine, and nicotine act by increasing the amount of dopamine in the synapse. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, marijuana) acts like dopamine in the brain and reinforces the stimulant effects of the neurotransmitter. Alcohol also stimulates the release of dopamine (12).
Secondary signs of drug use may also be helpful in making a diagnosis. These may include track marks (the scars caused by injecting drugs), distinctive tattoos (especially on the arms to hide track marks), jewelry, and drugs on the person or at the workplace. Paraphernalia found on the worker's person or at the workplace may include roach clips (used to hold marijuana cigarettes), cigarette papers, bongs for smoking hashish, syringes for injecting drugs such as heroin and crack, and spoons for cooking heroin before injection. However, care must be exercised not to become overzealous and make a diagnosis based on misinterpretation of secondary signs. Drug-related jewelry may be worn innocently, diabetics may carry syringes, and former drug users, bikers, and almost anybody may have tattoos.
Green tobacco sickness has been reported in the medical literature among tobacco harvesters in Kentucky, Florida, Tennessee, North Carolina, India, Malaysia, and Japan. Prior to 1970, green tobacco sickness had not been described within the medical community, but was apparently well-known among tobacco farmers. Green tobacco sickness, which has also been called green symptom or tobacco cropper's sickness, is a self-limiting occupational illness. The diseased patient presents with generalized weakness, nausea and vomiting, headache, diarrhea, pallor, dizziness, and prostration. It has also been associated with occasional fluctuations in blood pressure or heart rate. Generally, the symptoms mimic those associated with nicotine intoxication in novice smokers. These acute symptoms most frequently appear during working hours (within a few hours of exposure) and as a result may be confused with heat exhaustion but may begin in the evening, with almost no cases being reported the following...
Often the same identified type of stimuli may cause rhinitis in one person and asthma in another. Pollens and organic dusts including endotoxins, bacteria, glucans, insect parts, grain mites, mold or mycotoxins from fungi, and aerosolized and respirable dust from the plant product or pure plant material are the sources of virtually all plant-borne causes of rhinitis and asthma. Several years ago it was questioned as to whether grain dust asthma really existed, but this was primarily attributed to the fact that the composition of grain dust is so complex that identification of a specific antigen is difficult despite clear positive responses to dust inhalation challenge and skin testing. Grain dust has been found to significantly increase symptoms of cough, sputum, wheezing, and shortness of breath. However, these problems were found to be more severe in smokers (1,2,3).
Agricultural areas have potentially significant sources of exposure to respiratory irritants and allergens associated with respiratory diseases. From an occupational and environmental perspective on a global scale, exposures to organic and inorganic dusts, biological material such as endotoxin and mold, pesticides, and chemicals are prevalent in agriculture and associated with a wide variety of respiratory symptoms and diseases. Agricultural activities such as fieldwork, planting and harvesting, grain handling, and work in silos, animal stalls, and dairy barns can generate significant amounts of respirable dust. Many respiratory exposures, like total dust concentration in fields, can be higher in agriculture than in other industries, and exposure levels may often exceed general industry standards for nuisance dusts. Despite generally lower rates of cigarette smoking in agriculture and farm workers, they have an increased prevalence of respiratory illnesses compared to the general...
The prevalence of bronchitis is elevated in agricultural workers despite their lower rates of cigarette smoking compared to the general population and other occupational cohorts. Nonsmoking farming populations appear to have a prevalence range of 3 to 30 for chronic bronchitis. Up to 13 to 20 of hog confinement workers may report symptoms consistent with chronic bronchitis. Exposures to grain dust, swine confinement areas, and poultry farming appear to be associated with the highest risk for bronchitis in the agricultural population. Grain workers may develop a dose-related, acute cross-shift decline in peak flow and a gradual reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over the initial 2 weeks of exposure. Many workers also experience cough and dyspnea, which is initially reversible but recurs with seasonal reexposure to grain dust. With chronic exposure, approximately 20 of nonsmoking and up to 50 of smoking elevator workers develop cough and phlegm (84-91).
The incidence of cancer in veterinarians is generally low, in part due to the low prevalence of cigarette smoking in this group. However, they come into contact with several potentially carcinogenic exposures including radiation, anesthetic gases, pesticides, and zoonotic agents. Other sources of carcinogenic exposure are solar radiation, veterinary pharmaceuticals, and office and laboratory chemicals (25).
The point of greatest contention in the literature is whether smoking provides a protective effect for tobacco farmers. In some studies it appeared to do so, however the results are highly disputed and not always reproduced. Smoking is certainly not recommended as a form of disease prevention. If any protective effect is obtained from smoking, it appears that green tobacco sickness would still occur once the nicotine level in the body rose above the person's normal nicotine threshold (51,52).
Quit Smoking For Good
Quit smoking for good! Stop your bad habits for good, learn to cope with the addiction of cigarettes and how to curb cravings and begin a new life. You will never again have to leave a meeting and find a place outside to smoke, losing valuable time. This is the key to your freedom from addiction, take the first step!