Drought Early Warning System

Using some of the indices described above, an operational system for drought early warning for North China Plain (NCP) was designed (Tian et al., 1997), as illustrated in figure 28.3. Atmospheric and geometric corrections are made in the AVHRR data before estimating temperature and albedo. Meteorological data and CWSI images are appropriately registered. Finally, the system integrates drought models and remote sensing and meteorological data to produce a series of drought maps and reports....

Global Information and Early Warning System

The GIEWS was established in 1975 during the world food crisis of early 1970s and is now one of the leading sources of information on food production and food security for every country in the world, whether they are members of FAO or not. In the past 25 years, the system has become a worldwide network that includes 115 governments, 61 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and numerous trade, research, and media organizations. GIEWS has established a unique database on global, regional,...

Drought Monitoring

Drought is monitored using different indices. To characterize drought spells in mainland Portugal, some simple indices such as the percentage of normal have been used. To monitor drought situations in Portugal, the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) (Palmer, 1965) is now being used. The next step will be the implementation of the standardized precipitation index (McKee et al., 1995) and its comparison with PDSI. The percentage of the normal precipitation is one of the simplest methods of...

ENSO and Droughts

The ENSO events have worldwide consequences. Many researchers have studied the relationships between ENSO events and weather anomalies around the globe to determine whether links between ENSO events and droughts exist. ENSO events perturb the atmosphere around the tropics to varying degrees, generating anomalous climatic patterns at the regional and local levels. As a result, possible connections between an ENSO event and, for example, drought in northeast Brazil, Australia, and Africa can be...

Eddy De Pauw

The countries of North Africa and West Asia, hereafter referred to as the Near East, cover a large part of the world (more than 7,200,000 km2). This region is characterized by diverse but generally dry climates, in which evaporation exceeds precipitation. The level of aridity is indicated by the aridity index, the ratio of annual precipitation to annual potential evapotranspiration, calculated by the Penman method (UNESCO, 1979). The degree of aridity is shown spatially in figure 16.1 and...

Vanda Pukyong University

ALKHALIL ADOUM, USGS FEWS-NET Sahel, AGRHYMET Center, B.P. 11011, Niamey, Niger AHSAN U. AHMED, Water and Environment Division, Bangladesh Unnayan Parishad (BUP), House 50, Block D, Niketon, Guishan-1, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh PETER AMBENJE, Drought Monitoring Center, P.O. Box 10304, 00100-Nairobi, Kenya JAY ANGERER, Department of Rangeland Ecology and Management, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2126, United States ASSAF ANYAMBA, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory...

Monitoring Major Droughts

The United States is the world largest producer and leading exporter of agricultural products, including grains. Drought occurs almost every year somewhere in the nation, affecting agriculture (see chapter 9). Severe droughts occurred in the United States in 1988, 1989, 1996, and 2000. The 1988 drought cost around 40 billion in damages to the U.S. economy in human health, environment, and wildlife. Grain production fell below domestic consumption probably for the first time in the second half...

Conclusions

Radars can potentially be used to monitor soil moisture, plant moisture content, and vegetation production. For example, it has been demonstrated that drought conditions can be inferred from scatterometers by calculating soil moisture anomaly indicators or by using the remotely sensed parameters as input to the more complex crop-growth models to capture cumu- SWI February 1999 GPCC Frebruary 1999 SWI February 1999 GPCC Frebruary 1999 -45 35 -25 -15 -5 -135-105-75 -45 -15 -45 35 -25 -15 -5...

Stochastic or Proababilistic Analysis

In the mathematical modeling of agricultural droughts, most often soil moisture records are taken as the basis where a time series of the soil moisture contents, X1, X2, X3,. . ., Xn is truncated at a threshold soil moisture value, X0, as shown in figure 4.1. An agricultural drought can be defined on the basis of some objective, random, probabilistic, or statistical properties or features Figure 4.1 Variation in soil moisture content during a crop-growing season and its comparison with a...

Causative Factors of Agricultural Drought

The causes for agricultural drought in Latin America can be analyzed from two points of view. In the first case, drought is intrinsically related to precipitation deficit during a given period of time, which negatively affects crops and water resources (Brunini et al., 2002). Second, the poor management of agricultural lands and exploitation of natural resources have turned highly productive areas into degraded lands. The decaying of organic matter increases the risk of drought due to the...

Elijah Mukhala

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations was founded in 1945 with a mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity, and to improve the condition of rural populations in the world. Today, FAO is the largest specialized agency in the United Nations system and is the lead agency for agriculture and rural development. FAO is composed of eight departments Agriculture, Economic and Social, Fisheries, Forestry, Sustainable...

Drought Monitoring Techniques

In southern Africa most of the techniques used for drought monitoring are heavily influenced by the meteorological definition of drought. The rainfall index, the vegetation condition index, and the water requirement satisfaction index are used to monitor the progress of the rainfall season and its impact on agriculture. Because of the difficulty and cost of monitoring parameters such as soil moisture and the lack of data to estimate potential evapotranspiration, the most widely used index for...

Drought Mitigation

The following are some strategies for drought mitigation that were developed in India since the 1970s. Based on rainfall analysis, water availability periods were identified for several locations in India in order to escape droughts and plan crop sowing according to the water availability (Srinivasamurthy, 1976). Figure 23.4 shows four different scenarios that characterize monsoon behavior in India (1) Normal onset of monsoon followed by adequate amount of rainfall, (2) normal onset of monsoon...

Drought Monitoring in the West Indies

Agricultural drought monitoring in the West Indies is largely restricted to determining the presence of ongoing agricultural drought. It is generally the responsibility of the Ministries of Agriculture in the individual territories or other appointed bodies. In all cases monitoring of agricultural drought by these bodies consists of monitoring two sets of indices a set of simple rainfall indices to determine when meteorological drought has set in, and a set of equally simple agricultural...

References

Droughts and southwest monsoon. In Monsoon Meteorology. 3rd WMO Asian African Monsoon Workshop. Pune, India. Boken, V.K., and C.F. Shaykewich. 2002. Improving an operational wheat yield model for the Canadian Prairies using phenological-stage-based normalized difference vegetation index. Intl. J Remote Sens. 23 4157-4170. Chakraborti, A.K. 2000. Satellite remote sensing for near-real-time food and drought impact assessment Indian experience. In P.S. Roy, C.J. van Westen, V.K....

Pattern Recognition

Pattern recognition (PR) is a process to classify an object by analyzing the numerical data that characterize the object. Various academic fields, such as image processing, medical engineering, criminology, speech recognition, and signature identification, have applied PR to classify objects of interest (Duda et al., 2001). However, PR techniques have not been exploited for drought prediction. The process of PR begins with the identification of a variable that can be used to define the object...

The Possible Impact of Future Climate Changes on the Occurrence of Droughts

For predicting the effect of droughts on agriculture in a given region, one needs to have a completely reliable and detailed climatic forecast for that Figure 34.3 Annual variability in wheat yields in some European countries bold solid lines are the trends. Figure 34.3 Annual variability in wheat yields in some European countries bold solid lines are the trends. region and a completely adequate yield model. If these two requirements are satisfied, the technique of agroclimatic analysis can be...

History of Droughts or Famines in Ethiopia

Information sources for African droughts are mainly from local records, archived data, historical texts, traveler's dairies, European settlers' notes, and folk songs. The historical reports of drought are mostly qualitative in nature. The National Meteorological Services Agency (NMSA, 1996a), Workineh (1987), Mesfin (1984), and Pankhurst (1984) attempted to collect and document the history of droughts and famine and their impact on various administrative regions of Ethiopia from different...

Marion Pratt Macol Stewart Cerda Mohammed Boulahya And Kelly Sponberg

Humankind has not yet discovered a way to prevent drought entirely. Hence, the provision of timely and accurate climate and weather information can help rural and semiurban producers to better prepare for and mitigate the effects of insufficient precipitation (IRI, 2001). Communicating drought information to remote rural populations, however, has been a major challenge in Africa (Stern and Easterling, 1999). Seasonal rainfall forecasts, precipitation, and stream flow monitoring products, key...

Drought Mitigation in Bangladesh

Since ancient times, farmers have practiced irrigation using surface water from nearby sources for a variety of crops including Aman and a number of nongrain Rabi crops. There have been local Aman species cultivars that required very low levels of supplementary irrigation. Traditional irrigation techniques have been used extensively. With the advent of green revolution in the mid-1960s and with the development of HYV seeds, people began to irrigate lands heavily. The initial results have been...

Drought in the Near East

Regardless of the degree of aridity, precipitation variability is considerable in the Near East. Figure 16.2 shows the annual rainfall variations for three stations in different moisture regimes across a considerable annual precipitation gradient (150-1000 mm). It is evident from figure 16.2 that high rainfall variability is not confined to the low rainfall areas of the region. The large amplitude of the variations is typical for the region and predisposes it to drought. The patterns of drought...

Amjuri S Rao And Vijendra K Boken

Drought Prone Identification

Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 70 of India's more than 1 billion population. Indian agriculture is predominantly rain-fed and depends on the spatial and temporal distribution of rains from southwest (JuneSeptember) and northeast (October-December) monsoons. A monsoon refers to seasonal alteration of atmospheric flow. The Indian subcontinent is predominantly characterized by a tropical monsoon climate, where climatic regimes are governed by rainfall rather than by temperature. The...

Time Series Analysis

Weather data during a growing season cannot be used for obtaining the long-term estimates simply because the long-term estimates are required before crops are even sown. As the yield is known to be influenced most by weather conditions during the growing season, it is a common practice to estimate yield using weather data. Attempts to obtain long-term estimates that do not employ weather data are limited. As an alternative to weather data, annual time series of yield data is used to obtain the...

Drought Mitigating Measures

Portugal is reducing risks associated with the occurrence of droughts using mitigation measures and early warning systems. Portugal is in the process of building dams and artificial lakes to store water and develop irrigation techniques to cope with water shortage, especially during drought periods. Alqueva Dam in Alentejo will create a large artificial lake. Other methods for drought mitigation include carefully choosing appropriate crops for a given region and local climate, developing crop...

Drought Frequency

In Ethiopia, an agricultural drought is assessed using the concept of the length of growing period (LGP). The growing period is defined as the period (in days) during a year when rainfall exceeds half the potential evapotranspiration (PET), plus a period required to evapotranspire water from excess rainfall stored in the soil profile (FAO, 1978). One-half of the PET has been considered sufficient to meet the crop water requirement (FAO, 1978 Doorenbos and Kassam, 1979). A year with an LGP less...

Physical Fundamentals

The interaction of radar energy with agricultural targets is different from that with visible-infrared energy. Interpretation of radar data requires an understanding of the physical processes involved in the scattering of electromagnetic waves by objects that are smaller, comparable to, and larger than the wavelength. Therefore modeling these processes is relatively difficult because simplifying mathematical assumptions often results in a lack of correspondence with physical reality. In an...

Wheat

At more than 575 million tons, wheat has the third largest global production of any food crop. The center of origin for wheat is in the Middle East between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. As a cereal with C3 photosynthesis metabolism, wheat productivity generally declines as temperatures increase above 30 C (Abrol and Ingram, 1996). Thus, wheat is predominantly produced in the temperate regions of the world (table 2.3). Thirty countries produce 90 of all wheat produced globally. A small...

Operational Drought Monitoring in Australia

Several levels of drought monitoring exist in Australia. The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) monitors drought across the nation from a meteorolog ical perspective. The climate monitoring network, which is the basis for BoM's drought assessment, also serves as input to a national monitoring system operated by several state government agencies. These systems are described later in this chapter. Individual state governments also operate official drought declaration schemes that involve monitoring...

Engida Mersha And Vijendra K Boken

In Ethiopia, 85 of the population is engaged in agriculture (CSA, 1999). Agriculture supplies a significant proportion of the raw materials for the agro-industries, and accounts for 52 of the gross product and 90 of the export earnings. A wide range of climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic diversities influence Ethiopian agriculture. The dependency of most of the population on rain-fed agriculture has made the country's economy extremely vulnerable to the effects of weather and climate, which...

Rabi Drought

The drought problem in Bangladesh perhaps reaches it peak during the Rabi season that extends from mid-October to early April. December, January, and February are the months with negligible rainfall across the 1.75 million ha of the combined catchment area of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river systems in the eastern Himalayan region (Ahmad et al., 1994). As a result, river flows are at their minimum. From March to early April, the temperatures shoot up rapidly, particularly during the...

Main Reasons for Drought

The main reason for drought formation in arid regions of Russia and other CIS regions is the penetration of anticyclonic air masses from the Arctic (Selyaninov, 1928, 1958, 1966). These air masses have low temperature and low water content and are mostly transparent for solar radiation under clear weather conditions. When these air masses move south, their temperature rises quickly, which increases the water vapor deficit in the atmosphere without changing its absolute water content. As a...

Photos Of Monthly Variation In

Figure 12.3 The variation in maize production from 1989 to 2000 for the central southern region of Brazil. Data for 1996-97 was not available. Figure 12.3 The variation in maize production from 1989 to 2000 for the central southern region of Brazil. Data for 1996-97 was not available. Figure 12.4 Monthly variation in the difference between precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for different locations in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay. and Paraguay in figure 12.4. This...

Pre Kharif Drought

The pre-Kharif season stretches from mid-March to June. It is a period with erratic rainfall, a long period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and Figure 24.1 The temporal distribution of temperature and precipitation and the crop calendar for major crops in Bangladesh. Figure 24.1 The temporal distribution of temperature and precipitation and the crop calendar for major crops in Bangladesh. increased evapotranspiration. Jute, Aus, and the deep water variety of Aman are common crops generally...

Fatima Esprito Santo Rita Guerreiro Vanda Cabrinha Pires Lus E V Pessanha And Isabel M Gomes

Mainland Portugal (37 -42 N latitude) is located in the transitional region between the subtropical anticyclone and the subpolar depression zones. In addition to latitude, its orography and the effect of the Atlantic Ocean are the major factors affecting the climate of the mainland Portugal. The highest altitudes vary from 1000 m to 1500 m, with the exception of the Serra da Estrela range (figure 14.1), whose peak is just below 2000 m. The regions farthest from the Atlantic Ocean are around 220...

Measures for Drought Mitigation

Various biological, agrotechnical, and agrometeorological methods are used to mitigate the adverse impact of arid conditions (Gringof, 2000). These include (1) selecting drought-resistant crop varieties (2) following complex water-saving practices (crop rotation, leaving fallows, snow retention, establishing field windbreaks, fertilizing, weed control, and effective irrigation including drip irrigation) (3) shifting the sowing dates (4) optimizing the winter and spring crop ratio (5) presowing...

Causative Factors of Drought

A significant decrease in rainfall, especially during the dry season, causes serious damage to crops. There are many factors affecting rainfall variability in Indonesia. There are three types of rainfall within Indonesian region (Boerema, 1938). The first type is monsoon rainfall, which peaks in December. The second is equatorial rainfall, characterized by two monthly rainfall peaks in March and October. The third is a local type with a monthly rainfall peak in July-August (figure 26.1)....

Causes of Drought

Figure 18.1 shows below-normal rainfall during different years that are often associated with droughts in Kenya. These rainfall deficits are caused by the anomalies in the circulation patterns that can extend from local or regional to very large scales. Some patterns that are responsible for spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall in Kenya include the Intertropi- cal Convergence Zone (ITCZ), subtropical anticyclones, monsoonal wind systems, tropical cyclones, easterly westerly wave...

United States

Figure 34.1 shows different yield anomalies, (y yt) yt, for the U.S. states Colorado, North Dakota, and Kansas. These curves show the important regularity that, despite significant distinctions in meteorological conditions in these three U.S. states and their remoteness from each other, the principal features of their annual variability are similar. The five-year smoothed averaged values of relative anomalies were mainly positive during 190017, 1940-48, and negative during 1918-39. In addition...

Drought Monitoring Using RANET

Rural communities in Niger and Uganda have begun to use the RANET system to improve the management of grazing and croplands, increase agricultural production, enhance food security, and reduce vulnerability to natural disasters (Shapley, 2001 Eskau, 2002 Thurow, 2002 Pratt and Stewart, 2002). The greatest benefits are realized in field sites where both the community FM radio and satellite multimedia link are function ing smoothly. Even in sites where only community radio or multimedia services...

Use of Satellite Data

Weather data are commonly used to estimate crop yield and agricultural droughts. However, weather data are collected only on point locations and do not adequately represent the spatial coverage by crops. In contrast, satellite data have greater capability to monitor crop condition in a spatially continuous fashion and on a regular time interval and therefore have proven to be a dependable source for monitoring crop yields and agricultural droughts. Various types of satellite data are currently...

The Origin of the Ranet Program

The need for a drought communications system tailored to the realities of rural Africa was initially communicated to the director of the African Centre of Meteorological Applications for Development (ACMAD http www.acmad.ne) by a nomad in the desert of southeastern Algeria when he declined the gift of a radio offered by the young meteorologist researching desert locusts near Djanet. The nomad did agree that information was vital to his survival. Just tell me where it has rained. I will know...

Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture

Microwave remote sensing provides a direct measurement of the surface soil moisture for a range of vegetation cover conditions. Two basic approaches are used, passive and active. In passive methods, the natural thermal emission of the land surface (or brightness temperature) is measured at microwave wavelengths using very sensitive detectors. Only passive microwave methods are treated in this chapter. Chapter 8 provides details on active microwave systems. The microwave region of the...

Zbigniew Bochenek Katarzyna Dabrowskazielinska Andrzej Ciolkosz Stanislaw Drupka And Vijendra K Boken

Poland is situated in the Great European Plain between the Baltic Sea and the Carpathian and Sudety mountains. Its territory includes lowlands (91.3 ), highlands (7.7 ), and mountains (1 ). Most of Poland's soils are light soils of podsolic origin, which are usually of poor quality. It is for this reason that only 25 of the agricultural land, which accounts for 60 of the total territory and engages about 12 of population, is used for producing wheat, barley, sugar beets, rape seed, and...

Apisit Eiumnoh Rajendra P Shrestha And Vijendra K Boken

Thailand is located between 5 30' and 20 30'N latitudes and between 97 30' and 105 30'E longitudes. Geographically, the country can be divided into northern, northeastern, central, and southern regions (figure 25.1). Most of the country experiences distinct wet and dry climates, except some parts of the southern region, which experience a wet and humid climate. Of the country's total area (514,000 km2), 41 is under agricultural use (Office of Agricultural Economics, 1999) with 92 of it being...

Impact of Drought on Agriculture

The major crops of the Near East include cereals (wheat, barley, maize), potatoes, olives, sugarcane, sugar beets, fruits (especially citrus, grapes, and watermelons), cotton, and vegetables (especially onions). The relative importance of each of these crops is shown on a country basis in table 16.2. Of these crops, barley is one of the most important in the Near East because of its link with livestock production and its value for the economic exploitation of agriculturally marginal lands. It...

Abraham Anthony Chen Trevor Falloon And Michael Taylor

The core of the West Indies (figure 11.1) consists of the archipelago of islands that stretches southeast from the Yucatan and Florida peninsulas to Venezuela. Generally the term West Indies is synonymous with the Antilles and is therefore often used to refer to the islands that compose the Greater and Lesser Antilles. The islands of the Greater Antilles include Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica all located in the north Caribbean Sea while the Lesser Antilles encompasses the smaller...

Monitoring Drought and Famine by Fews Net

Food security assessment in sub-Saharan Africa requires monitoring the agrophysical and socioeconomic conditions of large and spatially dispersed populations. From a physical science standpoint, food security assessment requires monitoring climatic variables and modeling their implications for rain-fed agriculture on an ongoing basis. Simultaneously, the human factors of famine vulnerability must be accounted for and mapped. These include, for example, population distribution, household income,...

Drought Monitoring Methods

The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has 509 automated rain-gauge stations, which record precipitation on hourly or daily basis. Total precipitation from September to the next May and the mean and standard deviation of monthly precipitation from June to August, as well as monthly precipitation deviation from the long-term average are simple parameters used for drought monitoring. In addition, one-month forecasts of the temperature and precipitation are made and broadcasted every 10...

Jerry W Stuth Jay Angerer Robert Kaitho Abdi Jama And Raphael Marambii

Rangelands in Africa (i.e., grasslands, savannas, and woodlands, which contain both grasses and woody plants) cover approximately 2.1 x 109 ha. Africa's livestock population of about 184 million cattle, 3.72 million small ruminants (sheep and goats), and 17 million camels extract about 80 of their nutrition from these vast rangelands (IPCC, 1996). Rangelands have a long history of human use and are noted for great variability in climate and frequent drought events. The combination of climatic...

Vijendra K Boken

Droughts develop largely due to below-average precipitation over a land area, and they adversely affect various economic sectors in a region. Some of these adverse effects include reductions in agricultural production, hydropower generation, urban and rural water supplies, and industrial outputs. These effects lead to other consequences, secondary and tertiary, that further impact an economy. For instance, when agricultural production declines, food and other commodities tend to cost more and...

Procedures for Drought Monitoring

At early stages of studying droughts in Russia, much effort was directed to the development of argometeorological indices to assess drought conditions. Russian scientists have developed more than 50 indices (Ivanov, 1949 Koloskov, 1958 Konstantinov et al., 1976 Loginov et al., 1976 Drosdov, 1980 Ulanova, 1988 Khomyakova and Zoidze, 2001). However, in this chapter we discuss only those indices that are widely used for drought monitoring in Russia. A hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) developed by...

Leonard S Unganai And Tsitsi Bandason

Southern Africa lies between 0 S to 35 S latitude and 10 E to 41 E longitude. In this region, annual rainfall ranges from below 20 mm along the western coastal areas of Namibia to as high as 3000 mm in some highland areas of Malawi figure 20.1 . Rainfall generally increases from south to north in response to topography and the main rain-bearing systems affecting the subregion. In the southwest sections of the sub-region, annual rainfall averages below 400 mm, whereas the high-altitude areas...

Vegetation Indices

Spectral Reflectance Examples

The spectral properties of vegetation canopies, mentioned above, make it possible to monitor vegetation dynamics and their spatial and temporal variability using various remote-sensing platforms. Satellite data-based detection of vegetation health and stress depends on the strong relationship between simple transforms of reflected red and near-infrared energy and the intercepted or absorbed photosynthetically active radiation APAR of the plant canopy. Several such transforms, referred to as...

Relationship between NDVI and Crop Yield

Total dry matter of plant or crop yield are related to APAR Kumar and Monteith, 1982 Monteith, 1977 , and the NDVI is highly correlated with APAR Daughtry et al. 1983 Hatfield et al., 1984 Wiegand and Richardson, 1984 Asrar et al., 1985 . Thus, the use of NDVI data for crop condition assessment, yield estimation, and hence drought monitoring has been intensively analyzed Aase and Siddoway, 1980 Tucker, 1980b Tucker et al., 1981 Weigand and Richardson, 1984 Boken and Shaykewich, 2002 . The NDVI...

AVHRRBased Vegetation Indices

Radiances measured by the AVHRR instrument onboard National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration NOAA polar-orbiting satellites can be used to monitor drought conditions because of their sensitivity to changes in leaf chlorophyll, moisture content, and thermal conditions Gates, 1970 Myers, 1970 . Over the last 20 years, these radiances were converted into indices that were used as proxies for estimating various vegetation conditions Kogan, 1997, 2001, 2002 . The indices became indispensable...

WMOs Activities in Support of the Combat against Drought

The fight against drought receives a high priority in the long-term plan of WMO, particularly under the Agricultural Meteorology Programme, the Hydrology and Water Resources Programme, and the Technical Cooperation Programme. WMO actively involves the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services NMHSs , regional and subregional meteorological centers, and other bodies in the improvement of hydrological and meteorological networks for systematic observation, exchange and analysis of data...

Felix N Kogan

Operational polar-orbiting environmental satellites launched in the early 1960s were designed for daily weather monitoring around the world. In the early years, they were mostly applied for cloud monitoring and for advancing skills in satellite data applications. The new era was opened with the series of TIROS-N launched in 1978, which has continued until present. These satellites have such instruments as the advanced very high resolution radiometer AVHRR and the TIROS operational vertical...

Impacts of Droughts

Foodgrain Production 2001 2002

The main food crops affected by drought are rice, wheat, pearl millet, sorghum, and pegion pea that are grown during southwest monsoon season under rain-fed conditions. Legumes and pulses, which are short-duration crops, are less affected. Persistent droughts cause crop failures and lead to acute shortage of food, fodder, and water for drinking or irrigation , affecting human and livestock health. During drought years, people and livestock in the arid parts of Rajasthan migrate to neighboring...

Livestock Early Warning System

The LEWS http cnrit.tamu.edu lews was designed to provide an early warning system for monitoring rangeland forage conditions, livestock nutrition, and health for maintaining food security of pastoralists. The program is an integral part of the existing framework of early warning systems for drought and famine in five countries Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Eritrea in pastoral areas of eastern Africa figure 22.1 . The development and implementation of LEWS include spatial...