Aij

(Pij if

Vija yija

a ij where Xji is the actual value of the /th index of drought assessment in the 7th dekad; <p/and ^j"are the range (min, max) of the jth index within the drought category; and yjja, are the absolute ranges (minimum and maximum values) of the jth index of drought assessment. The minimum value is zero for every index listed in table 15.3, while the maximum values are 5, 3, 100, 11, 11, 70, 140, and 280 for each index listed in table 15.3, respectively.

Recently, a Russian meteorological satellite (Meteor) has been used for drought monitoring, in addition to satellites of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (chapters 5 and 6). Beginning in 1995, RF Roshydromet has carried out regular drought monitoring from ground-based and satellite information (Kleschenko, 1998). Subsequent studies in this direction will be aimed at obtaining a coordinated map of aridity from satellite and ground data. These activities will be performed by a Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) that will be located in the territory of the All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology (ARRIAM, Obninsk, Russia).

Drought Early Warning System

In Russia and most of the CIS countries a drought warning system is in its infancy. The Interstate Council for Hydrometeorology has taken a decision to establish the DMC at the ARRIAM. One of the primary objectives of this center is to develop the procedures for monitoring agricultural droughts (intensity, area, duration), their early diagnosis, drought impact on the condition of crops, pastures, meadows, and crop yields. A dekadal bulletin containing drought information will be issued for the period from April to October. The following steps are involved in the development of this system: (1) agrometeorological information in a form of agrotelegrams for the ith dekad is received from observation site of RF Hydrometeorolog-ical Service by ARRIAM (DMC), (2) ARRIAM estimates drought intensity during ith dekad, (3) the hydrometeorological center makes a monthly weather forecast in the territory of Russia, which is presented to ARRIAM in early month, and (4) ARRIAM forecasts the expected drought development using the estimated drought category for the ith dekad and informs possible users.

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