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DIY Home Energy System Summary

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Impacts to the Renewable Energy Sector

Based on information from POLYSYS and the non-agricultural energy goals plus the target goal, a renewable energy sector is created consisting of a weighted mix of conversion facilities. Quantities of electricity, ethanol, and biodiesel produced in each state from agricultural and non-agricultural renewable fuel types are estimated. These quantities are then used as weights to develop the estimated input expenditures required to meet the projected state level of production and inserted as GAC's into the model. Based on 2002-2004 energy prices, the total industry output is estimated and the sector impacted by that amount to determine induced and indirect effects. Finally, investment impacts are estimated using the number of facilities required to meet electric demand in each state assuming that the impacts occurred in the year that the facility was needed to meet renewable energy demand.

Biomass Feedstock Sources

Much of the land that is suitable for timber may not be suitable for dedicated energy crops such as switchgrass. In the South where pulpwood stumpage fees are on the decline and an additional market for these managed forests is being sought, this acreage will likely play a role in meeting the nation's renewable energy needs. Because of limitations in the model and data related to forestry, no standing trees were used to meet the renewable energy goal. With 33 percent of the United States' land area in forests and with 58 percent of the forest land in nonindustrial private land ownership, the use of such for energy conversion would, of course, impact the degree of change in crop acreages and, no doubt, other study outcomes.

Impacts on the Nations Economy

The impacts projected in this study are divided into two areas 1) those caused by changes in the agricultural sector, and 2) those caused by the development of a renewable energy industrial sector. The agricultural sector impacts include the additional impacts that result from changes from the baseline in agricultural commodity prices, government payments, and acres planted in both traditional crops and dedicated energy crops. The impacts in the renewable energy and interstate commerce sectors incorporate the entire production of the ethanol and biodiesel industries. Renewable Energy Sector Renewable Energy Sector Renewable Energy Sector By 2030, an estimated 330.8 billion is generated annually in the conversion of renewables to energy based on expenditures of 85 billion in the ethanol conversion industry, excluding expenditures in the agricultural sectors that supply feedstocks. Assuming the renewable energy sector is developed in close proximity to the feedstocks, the states that...

Tax Implications of producing 60 Billion Ethanol Gallons

Breaking the impacts apart into those generated by the renewable energy sector and those generated by the agricultural sector, a projected 43 billion will be generated from economic activity generated from the renewable energy sector and an estimated 2 billion from economic activity generated from the agricultural sector.

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A variety of economic impacts would result with a movement away from non-renewable energy sources to renewable ones. There are numerous annual impacts that occur to the agricultural sector as a result of projected changes in crop acreage, crop prices, and government payments by POLYSYS, and the addition of an energy crop (switchgrass). The operation of the bioenergy conversion facilities also has an annual impact on the economy. New facilities will require employees, expenditures on inputs, and will increase the total industry output of the renewable energy sector. There will also be one-time construction impacts. Transportation of the energy feedstocks and the output from these firms will also occur. These impacts can not be estimated until firms are actually located. Knowledge of the available infrastructure and the methods (for example, truck, train, or barge) used to transport the commodities are needed before impacts to the economy as a result of energy transportation can be...

Figure 2 Bioenergy Sources

Recently, policy initiatives to spur the development and use of bioenergy and bioproducts using starch, cellulose, oil, etc. have been enacted or proposed. President Clinton signed Executive Order 13134 calling for tripling the use of bioproducts and bioenergy in the U.S. by 2010. The Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2002 provides for the research and development of biobased industrial products. The National Energy Supply Diversification and Disruption Prevention Act, passed in 2005, encourages the development of more renewable energy and expedites the development of environmentally responsible renewable energy projects on federal lands. In addition, the Act established a renewable fuel content requirement for the nation's fuel pool mandating 7.5 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2012. While ethanol is the primary focus, biodiesel is also defined as an eligible renewable fuel.

Introduction

Agriculture is uniquely positioned among the current renewable energy sources (Figure 1) to be a source of energy feedstock that can contribute to the production of both power (electricity) and transportation fuels (ethanol and biodiesel). It is also well positioned to be a good fit to utilize the current infrastructure of distribution and energy utilization, in both electricity generation and transportation engines. Furthermore, when referring to agricultural feedstock for energy, there is a diverse set of feedstock (Figure 2) like traditional starch and sugar crops, crop residues, dedicated energy crops, animal waste, forest residues, mill wastes, and food residues. This diversity of feedstock resources enables specific regions of the country to contribute with their unique set of resources. Use of bioenergy feedstocks could not only help reduce reliance on foreign oil, but could also provide significant environmental benefits and help invigorate rural economies. The purpose of this...

Methodology

The methodology, schematically displayed in Figures 3 and 4, responds to the need to perform an in-depth analysis of the agricultural sector's ability to be a significant source of energy. Figure 3 is a schematic of the process to achieve the first objective that begins with the definition of the energy targets for energy produced with agricultural feedstocks. This information plus data on conversion costs for agricultural and forest feedstock is introduced into POLYSYS to estimate the quantity and type of energy to be produced from agriculture, as well as the price, income and other economic impacts derived from producing such a level of energy production. The second diagram, Figure 4, reflects the process to estimate the overall economic impacts of producing renewable energy from agricultural feedstock. This estimation seeks not only to quantify the impacts of producing the feedstock but also the impacts of the conversion processes on the overall economy. Figure 3. Process for...

Modeling Methodology

The renewable energy conversion technologies used in the analysis and as modeling inputs for IMPLAN are discussed in this section of the report. Studies existing in the literature which provide sufficient cost data for each technology were used in allocating expenditures to the appropriate IMPLAN sectors. A summary of the conversion technologies, facility size, total industry output, employees, and cost information sources is presented in Table 1, while the detailed examples for each conversion technology are presented in Appendix A. At the top of each table in Appendix A, the conversion technology is listed, along with the total industry output for a particular type and size of facility and the number of employees. The source from which the expenditure data are constructed is also provided. Total Industry Output (TIO), an IMPLAN term, represents the annual dollar value of production of an industry. It is calculated simply as price x quantity (for example, price of ethanol per gallon...

Enzymatic Breakdown

Significant progress has been made in improving this process recently. In October of 2004, two firms working independently but both with support from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a genetically modified organism that produce large amounts of cellulose enzymes that digest cellulose efficiently. These companies were Novozymes a Denmark based company and Genecor a firm based in California. This development marked a milestone, because these enzymes were able to reduce the cost cellulose-digesting enzymes from 5 dollars per gallon in 2001 to 10-18 cents per gallon of ethanol reducing the gap between the total cost of cellulosic ethanol and that of corn grain ethanol to 50 cents per gallons, given comparable cost of feedstock.

Polysys

Ibsen, and R. Wooley. 2000. Determining the Cost of Producing Ethanol from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL TP-580-28893). Joint study sponsored by USDA and DOE e-mail correspondence from Dr. Vernon R. Eidman Aden, A., M. Ruth, K. Ibsen, J. Jechura, K. Neeves, J. Sheehan, B. Wallance, L. Montague, A. Slayton, and J. Lukas. 2002. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover. National Renewable Energy Laboratory & Harris Group (NREL TP-510-32438). Aden, A., M. Ruth, K. Ibsen, J. Jechura, K. Neeves, J. Sheehan, B. Wallance, L. Montague, A. Slayton, and J. Lukas. 2002. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover. National Renewable Energy Laboratory & Harris Group (NREL TP-510-32438).

Costs and Benefits of Ethanol Production

Although from time to time the government may provide tax incentives to jump-start an interest in renewable energy resources which in practice is synonymous with ethanol from biomass, the production process must be inherently competitive for it to be sustained in the long run. Table 8 shows a study of ethanol production in California. It gives the price of different feedstocks at near-term and midterm operation at a large scale. The target price takes into account the operating costs, the debt, and return on investment. The target price decreases from near-term to mid-term, as the technology improves and forces down the production cost. Even when the cellulosic feedstock is inexpensive, conversion into ethanol may be costly. Cellulase enzymes cost 45 cents gal of ethanol and are, therefore, too expensive at the commercial level.

Future study requirements

Detailed survey work of the colonisation and succession of species on a range of scour protection materials, in the field, will assist in demonstrating the potential that offshore wind farms have in creating viable habitat, as well as allowing countries to reach their renewable energy targets.

Frameworks for Rural Development Policies

In this manner, priorities can be defined along each of the five paths, and the needs of each rural area can be assessed against those priorities. Policies and programs can then be developed accordingly. Education might become a priority in some villages, while organizing groups of women for marketing and credit management (social capital) could be a priority in another one, depending on how far each village had already advanced along each of the paths. Putting in internet communications, with solar power for the energy source, might become a priority in other villages, as has been the case in parts of India.

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We certainly don't mind substituting the syrup season for an early spring. I can't object to feeding the woodstove once every few days to keep the farmhouse warm instead of twice daily in an extended winter. And once those solar panels started generating heat, it helped offset the wood burning. When the sap begins to run milky and miller moths come out, Susan and I shut down the syrup production and begin to scour the seed catalogs, mentally preparing for another lovely spring.

Wagner C Valenti Michael B New KR Salin and Jinyun Ye

Figure 9.1 summarises the energy inputs and outputs of prawn ponds. Solar energy mainly controls photosynthesis and water temperature, which directly affects the metabolic rate of the organisms present. Wind promotes the circulation of the mass of water, preventing stratification, increasing gas exchange with the atmosphere and returning nutrients deposited on the bottom to the water column. Organic detritus originates from the intake water and the air (dust, leaves, etc.). The immigrant organisms are represented mainly by phytoplankton and zooplankton, fish and insects. These reach the ponds carried by the intake water as cysts, eggs, larvae, juveniles and some adults. They are also dispersed through adherence to the bodies of aquatic birds, and to nets and other equipment, or as the eggs of terrestrial or flying animals with aquatic larvae, mainly insects. Fertilisers, artificial feeds and prawns are introduced by the farmer and their characteristics are discussed in other chapters...

Water Availability The Concept

Availability in terms of the thermodynamics of systems, and considers the movement of water along gradients of potential energy. The term water potential is actually an abbreviation of potential energy of water and is defined as the free energy of water in a system relative to the free energy of a reference pool of pure free water having a specified mass or volume, and is measured in J m3 or Pa (Papendick and Mulla 1985). The reference state of pure free water is assigned zero. Water which is constrained in a system, i.e., the constitutive, adsorbed and (to a lesser extent) absorbed water is, therefore, at a lower (negative) water potential, and any microorganism must expend energy to lower internal water potential values relative to the exterior to make water available. The numerical value of water potential may be related to water activity using the formula

The Origin of the Ranet Program

Inspired by the potential that drought monitoring and prediction technologies hold for improving the quality of life in rural Africa, the meteorologist Mohammed Boulahya (one of the authors of this chapter, who later became the Founder and Director of ACMAD) worked with herders and farmers to design the RANET system (NOAA, 2003). Ten years after his encounter with the nomad, the Freeplay wind-up radio (http www. freeplayfoundation.org) was designed to operate without batteries. Subsequently modified to incorporate a solar panel and other improvements suggested by rural listeners, the Freeplay radio was to become the front line of the RANET communications interface for remote communities. The RANET program, which soon will be established in five other African countries, is managed by ACMAD staff and faculty at the University of Oklahoma. Management of national-level content is the responsibility of each country's national meteorological service, which may in turn collaborate with other...

The Main Components Of

Nga Gps Monitor Stations

GPS satellites are powered by solar energy. During the solar eclipses, they use the backup batteries carried onboard. Because the satellites tend to drift from their assigned orbital positions, primarily due to orbit perturbations caused by Earth, the Moon, and planets' gravitational pull, solar radiation pressure, and so forth, they have to be constantly monitored by the Control Segment to determine their exact location in space. In order to keep the satellites as close as possible to the predesigned orbits, each satellite is equipped with small rocket boosters that can be fired when the orbit correction is needed. The Control Segment consists of 11 monitoring stations, each checking the exact altitude, position, speed, and overall health of the orbiting satellites 24 hours a day. In 2005 the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) added six more stations to the initial network of five. Based on these observations, the position coordinates and clock bias, drift, and drift rate...

Growing Food in Communities

In The Economy of Cities, Jane Jacobs chronicled the genesis of i major agricultural innovations over the past ten-thousand years. Contr to what is generally assumed, many of the most dramatic changes is far ing including the selection of grains, the domestication of animals, mecha ization of culture methods, or even recent hybrids of the Green Revolution, originated in urban centers and spread outward to the countryside. The newest agricultural development promises to be no exception. It is characterized both by an urban emphasis and ecological underpinnings. New biotechnologies, information, and biological components are being assembled into ecosystems capable of producing a diversity of foods in relatively small spaces. These can replace the fuel-powered agricultural hardware we are dependent on now and will be powered by renewable energy sources. In this way, one day, towns and cities can add farming to their repertoire of functions. Instead of farmers selling out to huge...

Potential habitat enhancement by offshore wind farms

A further aspect of the habitat-creation benefits of offshore wind farms which must be considered is the deliberate targeting of scour protection and the materials deployed to directly benefit specific populations. On a simple level, this may involve using boulder protection in an area where there is an established lobster or crab fishery, in order to provide additional habitat, and improve productivity, as demonstrated by Linanane et al. (2000). By making deliberate attempts to increase the number of juveniles settling in an area, and ensuring the correct habitat type is available for adult lobsters, this has the relatively rare effect of encouraging both ecological and commercial benefits, in addition to the environmental gains of the renewable energy generated from the wind farm itself. Taking this further, there are a number of specially-designed materials which could be easily adapted to be suitable for scour protection. One such example is the reef ball, designed and marketed by...

Agricultural Waste Utilization

Agricultural waste utilization is of comparatively recent origin. Agricultural solid wastes are widely recognized as potential sources of nutrients for direct or indirect use in animal agricultural production. Based on the nutrient status of the wastes, some portion of animal wastes is used as a feed supplement for livestock however, caution is warranted for some unknown compounds that are likely to be present in the wastes in trace amounts, such as drugs fed to animals through feed additives or administered to the body of the animals during production to treat them during diseases. Agricultural waste derived from animal production facilities around the world can act as various sources for renewable energy, carbon sequestration, and reduction of emission of greenhouse gases. In the following section various benefits of agriculturally derived waste are briefly discussed.

Technical Configuration

In the second step, the information processed by the network of scientists is delivered to a WorldSpace uplink station via internet and loaded to the WDS radio. A partner can send a contribution by an e-mail or can post it to FTP sites on the server. At the top of every hour, the uplink station sends the most current RANET information to the WDS radio for broadcast over all of Africa. In the third step, field sites download RANET information using a WDS radio receiver, adapter card, and computer, frequently powered by solar energy. Staff at RANET field sites (including extension agents, development practitioners, and trained members of the community) interpret RANET information (including drought warnings) according to the local context and translate it into local languages.

Physical plant

The building housing the hatchery facility can be a greenhouse or a more permanent structure. In temperate and subtropical regions, hatcheries are enclosed in concrete tile or insulated metal buildings (Valenti & Tidwell 2006), while in tropical regions hatcheries can also be of tile construction (Valenti 2007) or can be built of wood and roofed with leaves (Correia et al. 1988). With recirculation systems, excessive solar energy and light produces excessive heat during warmer months and encourages growth of algae, which can foul the tanks and biofilters. When production occurs in a greenhouse, the area above the culture tank should be shaded to provide a good indirect light and the biofilters and live food production areas should be covered completely. In more permanent structures, adequate windows should be made to provide proper lighting, such as presented in the layout by Aquacop (1983) and Valenti et al. (1998). Provisions for the availability of intense artificial light as...

Some Limitations

RANET's powerful radio-Internet communication system risks breaking down at two critical junctures the computer-enabled multimedia link with the outside world (the main challenge for Niger) and the dissemination of climate information by word of mouth and radio (the main challenge for Uganda). In Niger, RANET's efficiency is hindered by the difficulty of installing and maintaining computer systems in hot and dusty conditions. Technical problems frequently include insufficient knowledge to hook up parts of the solar power systems, inadequate battery storage, power surges that burn up computers, sudden losses of power that unexpectedly shut down the computers, necessitating reinstallation of the WorldSpace software, and minor malfunctions in FM station equipment such as tape recorders, microphones, and lights. Although the RANET field sites in Uganda have had much more success in installing rural computer systems and maintaining multimedia capabilities, about 20-30 of the multimedia...

Bioshelters

Recently, John Todd received support from the National Endowment for the Arts and two private foundations to design and develop a second generation bioshelter that would be long-lived, light and portable, capable of withstanding severe storms, exclusively solar-powered, adapted to extreme environments, including the Mediterranean, and cost-effective for food culture in the U.S.A. In this project these bioshelters will be the embryos and epicenters of the overall restoration project. Highly water-conserving, they will be used for plant propagation, for the hatching and culture of young fishes, and for the growing of myriads of beneficial microorganisms. Without them a ten-year time frame for each project would not be possible.

Climate Models

An important factor is the extent to which solar radiation that reaches the earth is trapped in the atmosphere and the extent to which it is reflected or reradiated to outer space. Various atmospheric constituents, most notably water vapor and carbon dioxide, act in much the same way as the glass in a greenhouse and cause solar energy to be trapped this is commonly referred to as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect thus causes the atmosphere to be considerably warmer than it would be if these materials were not present in the atmosphere.

Stabilization Ponds

Sewage Treatment Tile Field Depth Design

One of the ancient wastewater treatment technologies, the stabilization pond (also referred to as a lagoon), has been used continuously as a method of sewage disposal. In some cases, these ponds were also utilized for aquaculture. Stabilization ponds are used for both municipal waste-water treatment and industrial wastewater treatment, particularly for wastewaters from small communities and seasonal industrial wastewaters as well as less affluent communities throughout the world (Fig. 6.1). Although stabilization ponds can be used in most regions of human habitation, their performances in treating wastes are at best in warm climates with adequate sunlight. The current interest in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is a result of the accidental discovery of their capabilities when WSPs were used initially as simple sedimentation basins or emergence holding ponds at wastewater treatment plants. A WSP is a relatively shallow body of wastewater contained in an earthen man-made basin into...

Summary

The expansion of offshore wind farm development has the potential to bring about great benefits. Not only will the increase in renewable energy generation help in the fight against climate change, but through the introduction of new habitats into the marine environment, turbines can also act as artificial reefs, potentially increasing both species and habitat diversity.

Soil Water Potential

Scale of energy, but rather they are referred to a standard reference state. This standard reference state usually is considered as the energy of the unit quantity of pure water (no solutes), free (contained in a hypothetical reservoir and subject to the force of gravity only), at atmospheric pressure, at the same temperature of water in the soil (or at a different, specified temperature), and at a fixed reference elevation. The concept of soil water potential is of fundamental importance for studies of transport processes in soil and provides a unified way of evaluating the energy state of water within the soil-plant-atmosphere system. To consider the different field forces acting upon soil water separately, the potential is used, defined thermodynamically as the difference in free energy between soil water and water at the reference condition.

Solar Radiation

Incoming solar radiation is the primary source of energy for plant photosynthesis. Solar radiation also plays a key role in evapotranspiration. Visible observations from satellites provide an excellent source of information about the amount of solar radiation reaching the plant canopy. A measurement of solar energy reflected to space from earth-atmosphere system immediately specifies the maximum amount of solar energy that can be absorbed at the surface. Incoming solar radiation can be known by adjusting the amount absorbed. Hence, for the computation of downwelling solar radiation, the albedo of the surface must be known. This is especially important over the regions of high reflectivity such as snow and desert. Tarpley (1979) used a statistical regression technique to obtain surface fluxes over the land from Visible channel observations from geostationary satellites. In this model, cloud amount is estimated for a given location from satellite visible data. Three separate regression...

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