The development and adoption of computers has provided a very useful problemsolving method. This is the spreadsheet. A spreadsheet is a very powerful data FIGURE 1.2. Columns and rows af a spreadsheet. FIGURE 1.2. Columns and rows af a spreadsheet. management tool that provides a means to enter, manipulate, and plot data and information. There is some variation in the features of different spreadsheets, but they all include several common features. Some of the common features and uses of spreadsheets will be presented in the following sections. To be able to use data in a spreadsheet the computer must know where it is. This is accomplished by setting up a grid or array using columns and rows. It is common for the columns to be identified by letters and the rows to be identified by numbers. The junction of each row and column is called a cell. The labels used for the column and rows gives each cell a unique address or location, see Figure 1.2. In the example spreadsheet shown in Figure...
These are a trio of methods, and are described together. The acid detergent fibre (ADF) can be carried out as a separate analysis, but the ADF residue is required to determine the lignin from the weight loss on oxidation by potassium permanganate. Any tannins would also be removed by KMnO4. The residue from the oxidation step contains mainly cellulose (plus any cutin, which appears as dark flecks in the white cellulose) and mineral ash. The cellulose content is determined as the weight loss on ashing. The method is adapted from that of Van Soest and Wine (1968). The AOAC method for lignin uses highly corrosive 72 v v sulphuric acid instead of permanganate-buffer reagent, and also requires asbestos filter aid, which precludes use of the residue for other determinations. The efficiency of the lignin oxidation depends on the particle size not significantly exceeding the specified mesh. We use 1 mm, but Van Soest and Wine (1968) use 20-30 mesh, approximately 0.5-0.9 mm. It would be worth...
1 Training courses on hardware were concerned with personal computers, servers, Unix machines, networks, maintenance, while training courses on software dealt with operative systems (MS DOS, Unix, Windows, Windows NT), programming languages, spreadsheets, word processors, databases, and statistical software (especially SAS).
Of egg hopper adult etc in the form of spot ratio (Figure 10a, b) as well as meteorological data of selected variable on monthly basis in graphical form. The size of the spot varies proportionately with the value of density. The detailed information of any locust sight could be visualized as a text file using sight-info button. The some of the climate data that could be plotted include temperature, humidity, wind velocity, cloudiness and rainfall in the form of bar or line diagram. For climate data display the EXCEL file must be available in the user's workspace. The package automatically coverts .xls files for corresponding meteorological station into INFO file. In the EXCEL to INFO conversion interface, the user can specify the name of the station along with the year of interest.
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