List of Figures

2.1. Changes in gross agricultural output (GAO) index during first 10 years of reform in transition countries 16

2.2. Changes in agricultural labour productivity (output per farm worker, ALP) index during first 10 years of reform in transition countries 17

2.3. Changes in agricultural labour use index during first

10 years in transition countries 19

2.4. Changes in agricultural yield index during first

10 years of reform in transition countries 21

3.1. Reforms, initial conditions, and production allocations during transition 31

3.2. Reforms, initial conditions, and average productivity during transition 36

3.3. Production allocations with strong production disruptions and weak incentive effects 40

3.4. Production allocations with weak production disruptions and strong incentive effects 41

3.5. Production allocations with market disruptions 43

3.6. Production allocations with a combination of various reforms and disruptions 45

3.7. Output changes during transition with a combination of reforms and disruptions 46

4.1. Change in agricultural terms of trade index (grain to fertilizer price ratio) during first 10 years of reform in transition countries 51

4.2. Share of agricultural land used by individual farms 58

4.3. Agriculture output by farm organization in Russia,

1989-2002 64

5.1. The impact of technology on the costs and benefits of the shift to individual farming 82

5.2. Pre-reform technology and the growth of individual farming 83

8.1. Political reforms and agricultural reforms in

Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union 132

9.1. Schematic diagram of land reform choices in transition 135

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