Turning Tools Ebook
Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips
There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.
Woodcarving in relief is a technique of using gouges and chisels to variously incise, cut, excavate and model the surface of the wood to a relatively shallow depth. The technique involves drawing the pattern or design out on the wood, edging the design with a V-scction trench, making decisions as to the various levels of the design and then wasting areas in and around the design with gouges.
Generally speaking, the sharpening of woodworking tools is carried out in a similar manner to that employed for metalworking tools. The same abrasive materials, in the form of grinding wheels and bench or hand stones, serve for either purpose, whilst grinding and honing appliances are essentially alike in principle. Furthermore, the object aimed at in either case is identical, namely, to produce a sharp cutting edge of the proper angle in the right place. The Block Plane. Before dealing with the actual sharpening process, it will be advisable to consider the construction of the planes in general use, in order to ensure that the various forms of the cutting irons used are fully understood. The simplest type of plane is the block plane, illustrated in Fig. 62, where it will be seen that a single cutting iron is used. This blade is so positioned that its flat face is towards the work and the bevelled edge, which is stoned to sharpen the iron, faces in the upward and forward direction....
Known variously as a compound miter saw, a compound miter box, a saw miter-box and an adjustable miter box, this is the best tool for woodworkers who are involved in cutting miters. It is perfect for making picture frames and for cutting moldings for panel, door and window surrounds. In essence, it is simply a miter box with a built-in saw or at least a track for a saw. There arc any number of slightly different designs, but with most the procedure is the same. The workpicce is set against a fence and damped in place, the saw in its integral frame is swung around and set at the chosen angle, and then the saw is pushed backwards and forwards in its tracks. This tool wins on two counts The angle of the cut is fixed and sure and the saw blade is held at right angles to the face of the workpiecc. All these features add up to a tool that takes the sweat and aggravation out of cutting miters. above The compound miter saw is the ideal tool for cutting perfect miters every time for items such...
While a quick flick through a current tool catalog will show you that woodcarving gouges arc very expensive, a visit to the average flea market will show you that gouges can be had for pennies. Now, the second-hand gouge might well be in a mess, but no matter, it can be brought back to life. Start by wiping the blade with beeswax polish and rubbing it down with the finest grade wire wool. Do both the inside and outside curves. Square the end of the blade off on an oilstone - not too much, just enough to remove rhc nicks. 1 lold the gouge up to the light and hone the bevel to a high-shine finish. Finally, use metal polish to clean the brass ferrule and wax polish the handle.
Wood chisels may be classified as socket type or tang type, according to the method of attaching the handle. On the socket type, the wooden handle fits into a steel socket on the driving end of the chisel. The tang type has a steel tang, much like the tang on the end of a file, which fits into the wooden handle. Tang chisels are preferred by some workmen for paring, because of their light weight and better balance, but they are not adapted to heavy chiseling with a mallet. For the farm shop, a medium-weight socket chisel is usually preferred. Fro. 49. Types of wood chisels A, tang type B, socket type. The socket type ia usually Chisels are made in various sizes, ranging from to 2 in. wide. Fro. 49. Types of wood chisels A, tang type B, socket type. The socket type ia usually 44. (a) What are the common types of wood chisels (6) Which is preferred for the farm shop Why (c) How is the size of a chisel designated
No bellows the master, Trying plane and jointer are just noises This is not a noise Here is what this is The master grabs the tool, turns to his bench and makes a single long shaving down the edge of a ten-foot cypress board. There's an overlap between the names for planes in the 20- to 30-inch range, but the master's last act makes the plane a jointer. Jointing refers to making the narrow edge of a board perfectly straight in preparation for edge-to-edge joints. You don't think of jointing a broad surface, but trying fits the job just fine. To me, then, it's a jointer when jointing the edge, and a trying plane when leveling the corrugations left by the jack plane. because the wood is easier to cut at the beginning, and the right hand grasping the handle of the jointer pushes down on the part of the plane which overhangs the end of the board. In the same way, when one pushes the jointer to the other end, it is the left hand pressing on the fore end, which...
Woodturning gouges arc U-section tools that have a bevel on the outside convex edge. Though gouges come in various lengths and section sizes, with all manner of handle lengths, weights and profiles, there are in fact two types the square-ended, which is ground straight across at the cutting edge, and the round-ended or round-nosed, which is rounded at the cutting edge.
Left The jointer plane, sometimes known as a try plane, is used for truing up the edge of boards. left The jointer plane, sometimes known as a try plane, is used for truing up the edge of boards. The jointer plane, sometimes also called a long plane, is designed specifically to prepare the edges of boards that arc to be glued or othcrways butted and joined together. The obvious difference between the jointer and other large planes is that the sole of the jointer is impressively long at 22-36 inches. The not so obvious difference is that the jointer cutter iron is ground square. The cutters of the other large planes are variously ground with a slight crown or camber, or rounded at the corners so that they can be used to face large boards without the worry about the corners of the cutter scoring the wood. Certainly you can use the other large planes for jointing and vice versa, but only if the cutters arc correctly ground.
Above Low-angle block plane for use on laminates and end grain. Designed originally for trimming up the end-grain surface of butcher blocks, block planes arc different from the large bench planes in just about ever)' respect. For example, a block plane has a single blade rather than a paircd-up cutter and cap iron, and the block plane cutter is reversed so that the bevel is facing up and set at a low angle. The most obvious difference of all is that the block plane at about 5 ' .* 6 inchcs long is small enough to fit into the hand. All this adds up to a precision tool that is designed specifically to plane end grain. Though the beginner might well be confused bv the number and type of block planes on the market, the main differences between models has to do with ease of adjustment rather than above Holding the block plane. above Holding the block plane. function. Certainly a screw adjustment for blade advancement is a good idea, and a lever for lateral control makes it that much...
End grain is challenging to cut with an iron bedded at 45 degrees. On end grain, there's no chance of grain splitting out ahead of the edge. But even when the edge is sharp and finely set, a common plane can still dig in, pull out fibers, and chatter across the wood. You need an iron with a lower attack angle, more perpendicular to the end grain surface. You need a block plane. Perhaps block planes got their name from working the end grain of butcher blocks, or perhaps from blocking in the ends of boards, cutting them to fit in a given space. In any case, the old wooden strike block planes lowered the pitch of the iron but consequently had to use a longer, thinner, and more fragile bevel to maintain clearance. When iron-bodied planes came along, however, someone realized they could make a plane with an iron bedded all the way down to 15 degrees or less by turning the iron bevel up. It's odd, though, with a 30-degree upward-facing bevel and 15-degree bed, you're back up at the...
Just about the first thing you will see when you itart raking through the bargain box arc old chisels. Don't worry too much about the handles, because they can be replaced, but rather concentrate your attention on the length and quality of the blade. First and foremost, see if you can find a name. Best go for chisels made in Britain or America. Having selected named British and American chisels, then weed out anything that looks to be bent, broken, burnt, deeply pitted with rust or in any way crackcd. When you have selected your chisels, then fit them with handles and grind, hone and polish the bevels as already described.
The second point in fitting a hand saw is setting the saw. This should be done before filing it. All teeth must have an equal amount of set to make all do the same amount of work. The set should not go below half the length of the tooth. Soft and wet woods require more set than dry or hard woods. Setting a saw consists of bending the teeth outward, every alternate tooth to the same side. In cross cut saws the teeth are bent away from the bevel side of the teeth. The third operation in fitting a hand saw is that of filing the teeth. Care should be taken when filing to keep the teeth of a uniform size and shape. This is accomplished by bringing the pressure of the file to bear on the large tooth and not on the small ones. In sharpening a cross cut saw the point of the file should point toward the handle of the saw and be held at an angle of about 45 degrees. The filer works against the front or cutting edge of the teeth. Every alternate tooth is filed the whole length of the saw, then...
In use, straight gouges arc held in both hands and pushed, or held in one hand and struck with the mallet. Bent, curved and spoon gouges are generally pushed and levered. If you are a beginner to woodwork and want 10 try your hand at woodcarving, then the best idea is to get yourself an casv-to-carve wood like basswood and just a couple of tools - say a ' r-inch-wide shallow U-curve straight gouge, and a ' -inch-wide deep U-curve spoon gouge. You can then get more specific gouge types when you understand your needs.
Edged-tools such as wood chisels and plane irons, and also scrapers used for metal work, have their cutting edges formed by grinding away the tip of the tool to an angle. This angle varies with the use to which the tool is put, and although it should be as acute as possible to. promote free-cutting, it must at the same time afford sufficient strength for the cutting edge to stand up to the work imposed. Thus, a greater or more obtuse angle is required for a firmer wood chisel, which is struck by a mallet, than is necessary for a paring chisel worked only by hand pressure. Again, the angle given to the metal scraping tool Ziould be such that it does not tend to dig into the surface when applied to the work. for sharpening plane irons and wood chisels, and Fig. 8 illustrates the method of using the jig on the bench stone.
In the small workshop the sharpening of the turning tools is a matter of the greatest importance, and one which the tyro often finds the most difficult nevertheless, on it very largely depends the accuracy and the general quality of the lathe work undertaken. Although in factories a high rate of output must be maintained by working robust tools up to their maximum capacity consistent with accuracy, in the small workshop the operator may seek rather to obtain results of high quality irrespective of the time spent, and for this reason he forms his turning tools to give free-cutting and a good surface finish.
Although the vise is great for holding short end-grain work, especially when using a block plane, care has to be taken that the plane doesn't split otT fibers at the end of its run. The best procedure is to clamp a sacrificial waster in the vise alongside the workpiccc and flush with the top of the workpiccc. Thar way the plane skims first across the workpiccc and then across the waste. What happens, of course, is that the waste is damaged rather than the workpiece.
The ripsaw is designed specifically for cutting along the length of the grain. The teeth are filed at 90 degrees across the blade, so that each tooth is square-cut, meaning without a bevel on the side face. In use, the teeth act just like a series of chisels, with each tooth cutting directly into the grain and removing the waste as shavings or strands of fiber in much the same way as a paring chisel. If you intend to cut parallel with the fibers of the wood - down a plank, or down a block - then a ripsaw is the too for the job.
Must be careful to make the file rest flat on the bit as illustrated. To raise it would result in a bevel which would cut a hole smaller than the bit. Second, file the spur to an edge. This is done by-holding it as shown in Figure 43A, filing the inside of the spur at the front or cutting edge. By examining the cutting lip of a new auger bit, it will be observed that the cutting lips are shaped like wood chisels, one side being straight and the other beveled.
Trowel-shank beveled edge chisels - also known as crank-necked cabinet or pattern-makers chisels - arc different from their straight-shanked buddies only in the shape of the neck, which comes out at an angle so that the handle is offset - like a trowel. These chisels are designed specifically for clearing shallow housing
Most beginners to woodturning tend to start out with scraper chisels for the simple-reason that they arc so easy to use. After first using a gouge to turn the wood down to a clean round section, the scraper is held flat down on the tool rest with the cutting edge held level with the center of the work, and then it is advanced in much the same way as when using the chisel. The main difference - the reason why scrapers arc the beginners first choice - is that its very difficult to make a mistake. Certainly the scraped finish isn't as clean as a cut finish, but f rom the beginner's viewpoint it does at least get them there. Old tool catalogs show boxed sets of 100 different scrapers -each and every one of them designed to cut a particular profile.
The round-nosed gouge comes in the same size and section as the square-nosed gouge. The only difference is that the cutting edge is rounded rather than square. This is the tool ro use for run-of-the-mill hollow work like spindles and bowls. The tool is set down on the T-rest, advanced and maneuvered in much the same way as the square-ended gouge, but this tool is much easier to use. There arc no corners to dig in and damage the workpiece. In fact, many beginners to woodturning start out by grinding the square-ended gouges down to a round nose, and then they grind them back to square when they get the hang of things.
Until you have what you consider is a fairly true edge. When you have cleared the obvious peaks, secure the board in the vise and use the jointer plane to plane the edge. If you work at it slowly and carefully, the jointer plane will ride very nicely on the remaining peaks so that you only skim awav the remaining high spots. Finally, test the edge with straight edge and square.
A tool called a saw jointer, or crosscut-saw fitting tool, is very desirable, and almost necessary for jointing the saw and for filing down the rakers. The use of such a tool in jointing a saw is shown in Figure 72. A flat file is held in the tool at right angles to the side of the saw, and is run over the teeth with forward strokes of the, file until all the
Though it's plain to see that most traditional woodworkers prefer to avoid power tool options, the bench drill press is the main exception to the rule. The bench drill press has been around for so long, and it is so beautifully unobtrusively efficient, that it might almost be thought of as being a hand tooL If you need to bore a large number of crisp, smooth-sided, flat-bottomed blind holes, then you can't do better than to use a Forstner bit in a drill press.
A wide range of implements can be clamped to the toolbar assembly. Basic equipment like the plow, planter, cultivator, ridger, and harrow accomplish the usual agricultural tasks while additional features such as a sprayer, circular saw, hammermill, water pump, overhead sprinkler system for up to four hectares, sawbench, and electrical generator make a useful contribution to the general chores that are needed to be done around the farm on a daily basis. As of May 1977, Tinkabi will do all this for about 2,000.
Ferrari carries three models of walking tractors with air-cooled diesel engines ranging from 7 to 21 h.p. The fuel injection system means there are no plugs, points, magneto, or carburetor. Direct gear-drive replaces the need for chains or belts. The middle range, 14 h.p. model has four forward and two reverse speeds, and power take-offs, each with two speeds. The tilling width is about 30 inches and the unit readily accommodates a sickle bar, snow blower, trailer, sprayer, plows, and even a table saw.
Carpenters hardly ever see double-beveled chisels now, but when steel was more expensive and less reliable, it was a good idea to have it sandwiched between layers of iron. These days, what we call firmer chisels are single beveled. If they are laminated, the steel is on the flat face, just as with paring and mortising chisels. Sculptors and carvers still use the double-bevel chisel, but it is all steel. In any case, after chopping something like a bowl to rough shape, you can finish the convex outside surface with a firmer chisel and mallet.
This French mill is designed for crushing wheat, barley, corn, millet, and coffee. It mounts on a table or workbench with two screws and has a 350-millimeter diameter wheel with a handle for manual operation the flat wheel rim will accommodate a belt drive to a small electric motor. This mill has interchangeable 90-millimeter grinding wheels made of cast iron. An adjustment screw varies e separation between the wheels to provide foj coarse or fine grinding.
Substituting bicycle sprockets and chains for the gear system provides a simple answer to the problem of gears. Beatings from the bicycle pedal shaft are also easily obtained and are adequate for both the drum and the large sprocket shaft. The only sophisticated tools needed to build this thresher are an electric welder and a drill press. Most of the operations can be done with simple hand tools.
Always lift the snapline in the same plane that you are defining. On a perfect cylinder or perfect plane surface, you could snap any way you want, but the irregularity in a tree will cause the line to waver. To define a vertical surface, lift the string vertically. Your first snap may be just a guide for your drawknife as you remove a strip of bark to get a clear line on the second snap. The snapline is still the best way to get accurate lines on a piece longer than your two-foot square. Timber the size of a workbench top can't be laid out without it.
I very much like this knock-down workbench from Hasluck's Handyman's Book. It's sturdy but easily knocks apart for moving. The vises are simple but can clamp wood both in their jaws and on the bench top. Unlike the Roubo-style bench, this one is constructed like a table. The top is separate and drops down onto the base. The top may be only two inches thick, but it derives some stiffening from the skirt dovetailed around it.
Whether a farmer can afford a forge and anvil will depend upon the distance to a blacksmith shop, the amount of machinery repair work he needs to do or have done, and his ability as a mechanic. Although not every farmer can profitably own blacksmithing equipment, many farmers can. If a farmer cannot, he should remember that a great deal of repair work can be done with cold metal, if he has a few simple tools like a vise, a hack saw, files, cold chisels, and drill . Rounded edge for .Pritchei chisels V i- general hammering. The flat depressed surface near the horn is the chipping block, and here all cutting with cold chisels and similar tools should be done, rather than on the face of the anvil. The chipping block is soft and will not damage the chisel if it cuts through. The face is hardened and cutting into it with a chisel would damage both the chisel and the face, which should be kept smooth for good blacksmithing. 280. Hardy, Chisels, Punches. There should be a hardy to fit the...
In addition to the above list this man, Frank Ruhlen, has chisels, pinchers, fullers and other small tools, all of which he has made out of old pieces of steel taken from old worn-out machines. By figuring and planning just a little, any farmer can make the greater part of his own tools and at a very small cost for materials and labor.
Cold-metal work constitutes one of the most important phases of farm shopwork. Most farm machinery and many small appliances used on the farm are made of metal. Many valuable repair jobs can be done with only a few simple hand tools, such as a vise, a hack saw, a hammer, cold chisels and punches, and a few files, drills, and threading tools. well sharpened and used properly (see page 103 for methods of grinding the cold chisel). Good cold chisels may be bought, or, if a blacksmith's forge is included in the shop equipment, they may be made and tempered at home. The size of the chisel should be suitable for the work being done. Use heavy chisels for heavy cutting and smaller chisels for light cutting. If the chisel is too small for the work, there is not only danger of breaking it, but it may vibrate and sting the hands when struck, and of course it will not cut so fast as a larger one. 191. Cutting Slots and Grooves. Other special chisels, such as those illustrated in Fig. 170, will...
Sometimes necessary to crawl under the workbench and get a pair of pliers on the carriage bolts that secure the vise. All this adds up to the fact that a good quality wrench is a sound idea NOTE if you want to use pliers on a shaft without making marks, then protect or pad the shaft with several winds of masking tape.
Although there is an increase in the amount, of steel and other metals used in farm machinerjr and equipment, there will always be a need for the farmer to make repairs and construct appliances involving the use of wood. It is a simple matter to become reasonably proficient in the use of woodworking tools, bccause woodworking, like most other kinds of mechanical work, is based upon a comparatively few fundamental tool processes or operations, like sawing and planing. Once these are mastered, one is well on his way toward becoming a proficient woodworker. 3. The try square is used mostly at the workbench for (1) measuring short distances, (2) laying out lines perixmdicular to an edge or side of a board, (3) checking edges and ends of boards to see if they are square with adjoining surfaces, and (4) checking the width or thickness of narrow boards. In order to keep the try square accurate, care should be taken not to drop it. The try square should never be used for hammering or prying.
The classic all-metal edge trimmer plane is the perfect follow-up tool to be used after the jointer plane. The board is set flat-down on the bench so that the edge to be worked is overhanging the top. The plane is set down on the board so that the vertical part of the sole is bearing hard up against the edge to be worked and then the stroke is made. As with most planes that have a fence, the whole success of the technique
To joint a pair of boards First set the boards down on the bench and decide how you want them to be arranged. Set the mating edges together and pencil mark the best face. Next, fold the two boards back-to-back so that the best faces arc looking outwards like the cover of a book and so that the mating edges arc together and uppermost, then secure them in the vise. Now run the jointer along the paired boards and plane the edges square and true. Finally, open out the book so that the planed edges are together. The clever thing about this technique is that if the edges arc something less than square - and they nearly always are - then the book procedure very nicely compensates and remedies the problem.
FITTING A CIRCULAR SAW USED FOR CORDWOOD, In fitting a circular saw, the first thing to do is to true it up if it is out of round. This is done by holding a piece of emery wheel or grindstone, or a flat file fastened to a board, squarely across the points while the saw is rotated by hand. Because of the hook of the teeth, the saw should be rotated backward. This brings all of the points of the saw an equal distance from the center, so that when .sharpened, each tooth will do the same amount of work. This method, however, is not as accurate as is possible by taking the saw from the mandrel and rotating it against an emery wheel while the saw is in a horizontal position. To do this, requires a special jig, as shown in Figure 80. By the use of the jig any one of the circular saws ordinarily used can be accurately trued in a few minutes.
This little tool is designed to find the center of a round blank. Simply set the tool on the end of the blank and draw a line, turn the tool slightly and draw another line and so on three or four times. The intersection of the lines pinpoints the center. If you enjoy woodturning, then this is a handv tool.
One of the main advantages of having a forge in the farm shop is to be able to redress and make and temper tools like cold chisels, punches, screw drivers, picks, wrecking bars, etc. Tool steel for making cold chisels arid punches and similar tools may be bought from a blacksmith or ordered through a hardware store or it may be secured from parts of old machines, such as hay rake teeth, pitchfork tines, axles and drive shafts from old automobiles.
The texture of this form of oilstone varies greatly the hardest stones are capable of producing a very fine cutting edge, whilst the softer qualities cut more rapidly but are too readily grooved to be suitable for sharpening tools such as gravers and small chisels.
Above Traditional woodcarving mallet Woodcarving mallets come in many shapes and sizes, everything from carefully shaped billets of wood bound around with rawhide, through to very fancy items made variously from brass, ebony, and lignum vitae. The carver's mallet is designed so that it can be easily held and controlled without the need for the carver to worry about the impact angle (the angle that the face of the mallet meets the tool). In use, the workpiecc is sccurcd in the vise or clamped to the bench, the gouge is held and directed with one hand and the mallet is swung with the other. The idea is not to make big heavy blows as with a hammer, but rather to tap-tap-tap with the mallet, while at the same time guiding and maneuvering the gouge. The mallet is never ever used to deliver a single blow. Think of the little-by-little approach of the woodpecker, and you won't go far wrong. A mallet needs to be carefully selected for weight, grip and size. The handle needs to be shaped for...
There are basically two types of power carving tools those that cut with a rotary action - like holding a sanding head in a drill - and those that work with a reciprocating action - like a fast vibrating pecking. Many woodcarvers claim that the small rotary tools are wonderful for fine detailing in hard wood, while the reciprocating type are great for roughing out massive carving when there is a lot of waste to be cut away.
The smoothing or smooth plane has been described variously as a good starter plane, a good all-purpose plane and the plane to buy if you plan to get just one large plane. Although the smooth plane won't finish an edge as well as a jointer plane, and it won't handle end grain as well as a block plane, it is still more versatile than any other single plane. The metal smooth plane has a sole 9-10 inches long and a cutter that is ground square. However, there is some dispute about how precisely a smoothing plane iron ought to Lk-ground and honed. Some woodworkers prefer the edge to be straight with the corners sharp and at right angles, while others opt for having the edge straight but the corners slightly rounded. Thev maintain that the round corners avoid making scratches and ridges in the workpiece. If you are a beginner, the best approach is to start out with the straight edge and then if you run into problems try rounding the corncrs.The one sure-fire rule about using a smoothing...
If circular saws are to be filed when off the machine, it is very desirable to have a clamp that will hold the saw at a height convenient for the worker and in such a way that little or no vibration occurs at the point where the filing is being done. It is also very desirable to have a clamp that is readily portable, in order to be independent of shop facilities. A satisfactory circular-saw clamp is shown in Figure 78. It consists of a piece of 2 by 4, 48 in. long, which is used as a post, and a piece of board, 1 by 4 by 34 in., which serves as a clamp, and is drawn against the post with a by 4-in. bolt. A number of holes are bored through both post and clamp on a center line, and the bolt is placed in the hole as determined by the diameter of the saw. Two pieces of board, 1 by 4 by 4 in.,
The woodworker is forever needing to make holes in wood for screws, dowels, nails, bolts and for many other reasons besides. The traditional hand brace has, to some extent, been dropped in favor of the portable power drill, and certainly the electric drill press is good for boring large diameter holes. But that said, just about every other hole-boring operation that you can think of can be performed with more accuracy, sensitivity and speed with one of the hand drill options. If you want to achieve maximum control with minimum effort, then you need to get yourself one or two inexpensive hand drills and bone up on a few easily learned techniques.
Whatever wood you cut, eventually you'll need to sharpen your tools. The bevel on the bowl turning gouge is shorter than for spindle turning, and the nose is usually square across. Otherwise they are sharpened in the same way. Grind the bevel on a sandstone wheel or a tool grinder that lets you work on the flat side of the stone. On a spindle turning chisel with a longer nose, you need to swing the back end of the handle around as you rotate the gouge on its long axis. I want to tell you a specific angle for grinding, but a wide range works. Looking at the bevels on my chisels and gouges, they seem to run from 30 to 50 degrees. Each different bevel requires that I hold the tool at a different inclination to get the flat of the bevel rubbing, but they all cut.
A rip saw, a crosscut saw, a back saw, and a compass saw a jack plane, a fore plane, and a smoothing plane a shave or drawing knife two or three chisels of different sizes for woodworking and a cold chisel for metal a gouge or two a good hatchet two or three hammers, including a tack hammer and a bell-faced claw hammer a brace or bit stock with a set of half a dozen or more bits of different sizes one or more gimlets a mallet a nail set, a large screw driver and a small one a gauge a spirit level a miter box a good carpenter's square No. 100 is a good standard size
Coopers rightly frown if you call them barrel makers. Staved containers come in all sizes, from firkins to hogsheads, with barrels somewhere in between. Coopers have the longest plane of all (as they are quick to tell you). The five- or six-foot-long cooper's jointer inverts the relationship between work piece and plane. The cutting edge of the cooper's jointer faces upward, with one end of the plane resting on the floor while the other end is elevated on two legs. The cooper stands beside his inclined plane and pushes the stave down it. The cooper works by eye, holding each stave at the precise bevel that, when repeated on the other staves, adds up to a perfect cask. In one sense, the cooper has it easier than the rest of us. The angle of the edge of each stave is always the same 90 degrees. Before taking a stave to the jointer, the cooper first backs it with the drawknife to the contour of the cask. The back of the stave is a segment of a circle, and the correct angle for the edge...
Above Low-angle block plane for use on laminates and end grain. There is something special about a well-tuned block plane. Maybe it's the small size, or the feet that it feels like an extension of the arm. or perhaps its simply that the block plane gets the job done. No matter - suffice it to say that many woodworkers are fascinated by block planes - especially the old. out-of-production types. Many of these old planes are better made and less expensive than new models. The Union No. 101. called a toy block plane because of its 3-inch length.
The common workbench of Andr Roubo's time was a single massive plank sprouting four legs. I say sprouting rather than supported by because this form of bench uses stool rather than frame construction more like a Windsor chair than a table. The version I describe here, fitted with a toolbox with a locking lid set between the stretchers, is based on one I saw in the town of Isle sur la Sorgue in southern France. Simple as it is, this is a challenging bench to make. The timbers are big hard to find and hard to work. The joints are big too, yet require precise fitting. Done right, though, it's a workbench beyond compare. A flat workbench top is the foundation of everything that you make upon it. In this case, the flat bench top is also the starting point for everything made below it. You level the top, true the front edge, and build on from there. Leveling a great, wide piece of rough-cut hard maple is no joke. You may need a good bit of adze work before using the planes as I describe in...
Clamping two boards together and jointing them at the same time is another error-canceling practice. Set the boards together, face to face, with the edges you're joining facing upward. If you now shoot these edges simultaneously with the jointer, any tilt of the plane will place identical slopes on both pieces. Folding this joint together will make the edge slopes cancel each other out and the broad faces lie flat. This practice has a price. Planing two boards at once cancels out angular error but doubles crown error.
So, it seems, there are times when you need a scraper. Sets of turning tools include scrapers, and there are times in spindle turning when you're glad to have them. Perhaps when turning a boxwood flute you need a sharp corner. The scraper works brilliantly on box and other very hard woods if it's sharp and held at the proper angle to the surface.
Probably the most common and most useful woodworking tool on the farm is the handsaw. The proper method of using t he saw is not difficult to learn, and everyone studying farm shopwork should early master the art of sa wing. The block plane is better for end planing than other planes. 39. The Block Plane. The block plane is a small plane about 6 in. long. It is used mostly for planing across end grain and for planing small pieces where it is not convenient to hold them in a vise. The plane, being small, can be used with one hand while the other hand holds the stock. The plane bit is mounted in the body of the plane at a much lower angle than in the jack plane. This makes it better adapted for cutting across end grain. There are three adjustments on the block plane. In addition to the depth adjustment and the lateral adjustment of the blade as in the jack plane and other standard planes, there is a small lever at the front of the plane for adjusting the width of the throat opening. The...
Before leaving the subject of sharpening lathe tools, two tools commonly used in hand turning should be mentioned, namely the graver and the thread-chasing tool. Finally, it is necessary to emphasise that turning tools should always be kept really sharp, that is to say in the sense that a knife capable of free-cutting is said to be sharp.
Axes, saws, and augers are tempered so that you can sharpen them with a file. On most chisels, gouges, adzes, shaves, and knives, however, a file will skate off the hard edge. These hard-tempered tools must be sharpened with a stone, and even those tools that a file can cut will benefit from the finer edge produced by the whetstone. The whetstone gives the final polish to the edge, but the work begins with the coarse grit of the sandstone wheel. Grinding is reserved for the bevel side, but check the flat face to see if it is rounded over. In planes and chisels, you can't get a proper edge until the flat face is flat all the way to the edge. If the flat is badly rounded over, grind from the bevel side until you cut back to a level surface. In rare cases where a tool is heavily corrosion-pitted on the flat face, you might try to save it by grinding the flat. The flat face is the side with the hard layer of steel that forms the edge grind it away, and you have a paint can opener.
We want to move the trees as little as possible, and we want to fell them so they'll be easy to limb and buck into loading-sized logs. We'll start cutting at the edge of the trees closest to the road, and we'll use one or more of the trees as a workbench for limbing all the trees that come later. For a workbench, fell a tree diagonally across the center of your start of operation. Then felt tree number one so that it falls across the workbench. This lifts the trunk up off the ground and makes limbing and bucking easier. Limb the whole tree, from trunk to top. It helps to mark the tree for bucking while you're limbing it. With the tree limbed, it's easy to roll or see-saw the tree across the workbench to one side. Then you can buck it into lengths to be rolled downhill to the road. This method quickly leads to piles of bucked logs, ready for loading. When you follow an organized felling procedure like this, save the side trees for last. You can use your Accumulated piles of timber for...
Though the all-metal hand vise - also called a drill press vise or a machinist s vise - is bv rights a metal working tool, many woodworkers consider them a usehil The hand vise is an essential tool tor drilling large-diameter holes on the bench drill press. If you want to drill holes larger than ' .-inch diameter, then securing the workpiece in the hand vise is the safest way to go. especially if the workpiece is small and difficult to hold. For example, if you wanted to bore a 2-inch-diameter hole through a component that is not much bigger than the hole - say about 4 inches across - then the hand vise is the tl tor the job. WARNING - Never attempt to drill a large hole on the drill press without first securing the workpiece in a handvise and then clamping the handvise to the drill press table. Most vises are fitted with bolt slots for easy mounting and alignment
The mortise and tenon joint is founded on the width of the chisel, because all the work of mortising is repeated cross-grain chopping, taking out chips until the mortise reaches its final size. For smaller joints, there are specific mortising chisels, but in carpentry, it's another job for the framing chisel.
Circular saws should be gummed to prevent them from cracking at the rim and to make large, round gullets, which provide ample chambers for holding the sawdust and thus prevent the saws from binding. Gumming a saw consists in grinding or filing out the throat of each tooth to a uniform depth. If an emery grinder is not available, a round file, or a round-back file, which is especially made for this work, should be used to keep the gullets round, smooth, and of the proper depth at each filing. A table should be provided for the saw to rest on while it is being gummed so that it may be fed straight against the grinder. Such or by using the circular-saw jointing jig (Fig. 80). It will be noted that this rest (B, Fig. 69) is fitted wTith pegs which fit into the holes near the end of the platform and is much superior to a loose piece, as shown in Figure 82. The hinged table, Figure 79, is shown in use with the bench grinder and stand in Figure 83. FIG. 83. GUMMING A CIRCULAR SAW, USING THE...
Main tool storage, and a smaller more portable box for outside jobs. Most of these traditional chcsts have a deep lift-up lid with storage for T-squares and or winding sticks, sliding trays for small tools like bevels and squares, drawers with little compartments for the chisels and gouges, and clips and turn-catches for holding the saws. Tool chcsts arc a wonderful idea on two counts The woodworker is able to spend time designing and building an item that is bv its very nature a skill-testing challenge, and l ettcr yet, it is the best way of ensuring that a tool collection is stored, protected and shown to best advantage. This means, if the tool collection is heavy on planes, or gouges, or woodturning tools, or whatever, then the woodworker can tailor the size and shape of the chest to suit.
As it is now, the piece may be just roughly rounded and out of balance. If turned at full speed, the wobbling and shaking would waste energy and could throw off the centering at the tail, enlarging it and making it run loose. You need to bring the whole length to a cylinder before doing anything else. This is turning, but not woodturning like you'll be doing once the piece is balanced.
Cutting wooden threads is always associated with woodturning. At the very least, the screws begin as cylinders before threading with hand screw boxes. Eighteenth-century woodturning manuals give thorough instructions on making screw boxes and other devices for cutting both large and small screws. I have included translations of these in the Appendix as Plans A and B. The five scraping cutters create beaucoup drag, but the spring-pole lathe has the power to roll a dried hickory blank right through it, sliding the chase down the tool rest with every turn. In theory, you can strike the first thread with that single deft sweep of the tool. I don't even try, and give the first few inches of the screw a hand-sawn and -rasped starter thread as explained in the translation of Salivet's description of cutting large screws. Once the chase gets a purchase in the first spiral, every turn pushes the chase to the left, duplicating the first thread. Held lightly at an angle, the teeth to the left...
Rifflers are small double-ended rasps. At about 7-8 inches long, with both ends being the same shape, section and cut, thev arc perfect for woodcarving. The hooked and pointed shape of the end allows you to work in small, tight, otherwise inaccessible areas. They are particularly useful in relief woodcarving for cutting the lowered ground down to a uniform texture.
The spring circular-saw set is shown in operation in Figure 85. The distance from the point of the tooth at which the tooth is bent out is regulated by setting the anvil as determined by the length of set desired. The minimum length is about in- and the maximum in. The angle of offset or the amount of set is regulated by the setscrew below the anvil. Turning it in, increases
Rip teeth work like chisels. But this won't work along the length of the fibers. Instead of slicing them, knifelike teeth would ride along, and on either side of, the fibers. To cut this bundle along their length, you need to chop at them with a series of chisels, not slash at them with knives. A ripsaw is simply this, a series of chisels oriented so that they continually chop off the ends of the fibers as you work. Crosscut teeth are like knives rip teeth are like chisels. The rip teeth on a pit saw are one hundred 1 16-inch-wide chisels. Mount the saw on a bench with the teeth upright at about elbow height. Joint the teeth by drawing a six-inch file down the length of the saw until the tips of all the teeth are brightened.