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Socioeconomic significance

In these predominantly agrarian regions of South Asia, the booming groundwater economies have assumed growing significance from viewpoints of livelihood and food security however, their significance as engines of rural and regional economic growth has remained understudied. There are several ways to consider the scale of the groundwater economy but one practical measure is the economic value of the groundwater production. An unpublished report for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the early 1990s placed the contribution of groundwater irrigation to India's gross domestic product (GDP) at around 10 (Daines and Pawar, 1987) if the same proportion holds now, the size of the groundwater irrigation economy of India would be approximately 50-55 billion. In Table 2.1, we attempt a rough estimation of the market value of groundwater use in the Indian subcontinent. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh have active markets in pump irrigation service in which tube well...

Protecting Intellectual Property

There is a view that IPP may slow down technology diffusion by limiting the use of key technologies through restrictive licensing arrangements (Vaitsos, 1972 Gadbaw and Richards, 1988 UNCTAD, 1996a). Alternatively, it has also been reported that there does exist a high correlation between stronger IPR regime and product innovation and technology diffusion (Rockett, 1990 Taylor, 1994 Vishwasrao, 1994 Lai, 1998 G. Yang and K.E. Maskus, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 1998, unpublished data). Recently, Goldsmith (2006) showed how under certain conditions the diffusion of seed technology was actually harmed, and not aided, by weak IPR, in the case of Argentina. A study of 100 major US firms, representing six industries, concluded that IPRs have varying degrees of importance among different sectors in terms of encouraging FDI (Mansfield, 1994). Investment in low-tech goods and services, such as textiles and apparel, electronic assembly, distribution and hotels, depends far less...

Groundwater Resources of Sub Saharan Africa

To exemplify the low-yielding aquifers in many parts of SSA, Table 5.1 shows the typical yields in the main aquifers found in South Africa where groundwater studies have been more rigorous than elsewhere in SSA. In Botswana, yields of up to 27 l s (Table 5.2) have been reported, but generally yields are less than 5 l s. Where high yields have been found, these have been unsustainable in the long term as they decline rapidly due to limited storage in lower layers of the aquifers (Water Surveys Botswana, Colombo, 2003, unpublished data). In

Genome Organization And Reproduction

One of the major difficulties with Trichoderma biocontrol strains is their genetic instability, whose reason is only poorly understood at present. This is in part due to the fact that only little is known about the genome organization and its plasticity of Trichoderma. Not even the number of chromosomes is known with certainty Fekete et al. (1996) separated six chromosomes in five Trichoderma biocontrol strains with sizes ranging from 3.7 to 7.7 Mb estimated genome sizes were between 30.5 and 35.8Mb. When fractionated chromosomes of the five species were probed with a fragment of the ech42 (endochitinase-encoding) gene, strong hybridization signals developed, but their physical position varied among species indicating a polymorphic chromosomal location. Herrera-Estrella et al. (1993) compared the molecular karyotype of T. reesei with that of T. atroviride (named erroneously T. harzianum in their study), and T. viride, and detected largely similar chromosomal organization of genes in...

Overexpressionrepression Of Enzymes Regulating Carbon Flux

Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex catalyzes the first committed step in respiratory carbon metabolism and represents a link between glycolytic carbon metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Seed-specific antisense repression of the gene encoding mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK), a negative regulator of the mitochondrial PDH complex, has been shown to result in increased seed oil content and average seed weight in Arabidopsis (Zou et al. 1999a, Marillia et al. 2003). Identical experiments conducted with B. napus produced similar results, and in preliminary field trials, the seed oil contents of B. napus antisense mitochondrial PDHK transgenics were increased by 3 -5 (Marillia and Taylor, unpublished data). Feeding studies with 3-14C pyruvate, using siliques of transgenic Arabidopsis, supported the hypothesis that the observed increase in seed oil accumulation was attributable to an increased supply of acetyl-CoA from the mitochondria due to the...

Biocontrol of Leaf and Stem Blights

Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm (anamorph Phoma cucurbitacearum Fr. Fr.) Sacc. is an important pathogen on greenhouse- and field-grown cucumbers and other cucurbits, and causes the disease gummy stem blight. The disease is favored by warm, humid conditions and the pathogen infects stems, fruit, leaves, and flowers of susceptible plants, especially through wounded or senescing tissues, and natural openings such as stomata and hydathodes. There are few reports on the potential of using biological control agents to control this disease. Utkhede and Coch (unpublished) applied the yeast R. diobovatum and the biocontrol agent

Pathogens Targeted For Bcpd Of Fruits

Significant successes were achieved with biocontrol of latent infections caused by Colletotrichum spp. on mango and avocado (Korsten and Jeffries 2000), and to a lesser extent by B. cinerea on strawberries (Helbig 2002 Ippolito et al. 1998 Peng and Sutton 1990 Takeda and Janisiewicz, unpublished results). Biological control of these diseases must start in the field, relies on multiple application of the antagonist, and is generally more difficult to achieve.

Living standards and food security

For the food insecure, the possible presence of mycotoxins in their food only gets attention when the consumption of that food leads to death sooner than the rejection of that food -and most mycotoxins do not kill their victims that quickly. Food insecurity, associated with a poor harvest, contributed to the 2004 and 2005 outbreaks of acute poisoning in Kenya (Okioma, Chapter 11). Economic stress also increases chronic exposure. In Ghana, AF-albumin levels increase with the number of children in high school (Jolly, unpublished data). The number of children in high school is an indicator of economic stress, since families must pay for school fees and books. Thus poverty is clearly a factor in determining the exposure of people to aflatoxin in the developing world. Lower quality grain with more risk of mycotoxin contamination at dangerous levels is purchased by those with limited incomes since their hunger overrides their preference for higher quality foods.

Nonstarch Polysaccharides NSP

Starch that escapes amylolytic digestion in the small intestine, together with the oligosaccharides, fructans and NSP, will proceed to the large intestine for fermentation by hind-gut microflora. If present to excess, sufficient lactic acid will be produced to lower the pH in the hind-gut, possibly causing colic or laminitis. Up to about 15 of the NSP has been found to disappear pre-caecally, and is therefore unavailable for microbial breakdown and absorption of nutrients in the lumen of the hind-gut (Moore-Colyer et al., 1997a, b). The determination of the different classes of carbohydrates in the feed will help in the correct formulation of horse rations (Longland, 2001, unpublished).

Fusarium head blight hostplant resistance in wheat

Silico expressed sequence tag mapping that takes advantage of the synteny of the short arm of wheat chromosome 2D with that of rice chromosomes 4 and 7 (T. Ban, unpublished). Scab screening with a spike inoculation test remains complex, unstable and low throughput. Easy, stable assessment methods for wheat breeders are being developed at CIMMYT that use the primary leaf. When a drop of a conidial suspension is placed on the wounded portion ( 1 mm in diameter) of a leaf, the pathogen can infect and produce an oval lesion. This assay can distinguish resistant and susceptible cultivars (J. Murakami, unpublished). This new screening method, when coupled with the advances in genetic enhancement, should lead to novel resistance sources that carry genetically characterized R-loci. It also should be possible to assess transgressive R-segregating genotypes that combine distinct resistance genes, with the aim of pyramiding disease resistance genes in locally adapted wheat germplasm.

Commercial Analytical Services

It is difficult to determine the validity of the wide range of methods and interpretations, claimed to be based on the Albrecht system, that are provided by commercial laboratories while they remain unpublished. Albrecht worked with US soils and a limited range of crops, and agronomic advice can only be effective if backed up by field trials under conditions prevailing in one's own country. Loveland admits that one area where the BCSR method is undoubtedly right is in its advocacy of the use of organic matter in crop rotations, even if the benefits are hard to quantify (P.J. Loveland, Cranfield University, Silsoe, 2000, personal communication. See http www.silsoe. cranfield.ac.uk). For views favouring the Albrecht-BCSR system and details of analytical services in the USA based on this method, see the soil management page of the Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas website at

The Nature of Public Private Sector Cooperation

The scientific base for impact assessment is not strong in Asia. Although it is possible to use generic global principles for risk assessment, benefit assessment has to be site specific because it requires that farm and farmer factors be incorporated into the analyses. The private sector has much published and unpublished information on impact assessment as it pertains to the less diverse cropping systems of the industrialized world. The complex ecosystems of Asian smallholder farmers require that there be a pooling of resources to allow adequate coverage of issues.

Mycorrhizae And Biotechnology

Large investments are being made in developing trans-genic crops. However, no efforts are underway to even determine if compatibilities or response matches are even important Kaldorf et al. (2001) have shown that genetically-modified hybrid aspen showed no differences from non-transgenic races in AM or EM infection, and only marginal changes in the fungal community composition were observed. We have also found that transgenic corn had no effect on the species composition or AM infection (Snyder and Allen, unpublished data). Hiremath and Podila (2000) reviewed efforts that demonstrate that genetic transformations of mycorrhizal fungi are possible. Certainly, genes are rapidly being identified and studied (Maldonado-Mendoza et al. 2001) and genes can be added to individual fungi. However, to our knowledge, no transgenic mycorrhizal fungi have been successfully tested and no effects of differing fungi on host responses, either positive or negative, have been evaluated.

Weed patchiness and uncertainty the challenge to improving weed management

In many tropical countries, the standardized, high-input approach to increased crop yields has not fit productively with the complex landscapes, incipient infrastructure, and the diverse human cultures and cropping systems of smallholders (Pretty, 1995, pp. 31-3). As a result, input use has generally been irregular and crop yield responses modest and inconsistent. In the countries of Central America, Phaseolus bean yields have not increased consistently during the past 30 years (FAOSTAT, 1999). In Nicaragua, for example, since 1965 bean yields have fluctuated from 0.5 to 0.9 Mg ha but the long-term yield has increased only slightly (unpublished Nicaraguan Central Bank files, 1998). Similarly, coffee yields have fluctuated from 0.3 to 0.8 Mg ha

Cis and Trans Acting Genetic Factors Relevant to the Expression of Biocontrol Genes

Another cis-acting element was recently identified that may contribute to the regulation of ech42 gene expression the ech42 promoter sequence contains two short nucleotide sequences which resemble the consensus for binding of the Aspergillus nidulans brlA (bristle) regulator (5'-MRAGGGR-3' Chang and Timberlake 1992). The encoded BrlA protein is a general regulator of conidial development, which itself responds to carbon starvation (Skromne et al. 1995). Cell-free extracts of T. atroviride, prepared from mycelia subjected to carbon starvation, form a specific, consensus-dependent complex with BrlA site-containing oligonucleotide fragments of the ech42 promoter (K Brunner, CK Peterbauer, and CP Kubicek, unpublished data). Deletion of the promoter areas containing the BrlA sites in vivo resulted in a derepression of the starvation induced expression of ech42, but had no effect on the expression of ech42 during sporulation. This motif therefore likely binds a new repressor of Trichoderma...

The Biosynthetic Pathways of Aflatoxins and Sterigmatocystin

Aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway gene cluster (Figure 1, panel A). Sequence analyses have shown that there are two large genes, fas-1A and fas-2A, encoding for beta- and alpha-subunit of FAS, respectively (Mahanti et al. 1996, unpublished, personal communication). The gene fas-1A and fas-2A were renamed fas-1 and fas-2 in the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster encoding for FAS-1 (FASa) and FAS-2 (FASp), respectively (Payne and Brown 1998). Brown et al. (1996a) proposed the involvement of FAS in ST biosynthesis in A. nidulans. They identified two genes, stcJ and stcK in the ST cluster, that are homologous to FASs, fas-2 and fas-1 of aflatoxin pathway genes, respectively. Disruption of stcJ and stcK encoding FASa and FASb subunits (FAS-2 and FAS-1), respectively in A. nidulans, stopped ST synthesis. Watanabe et al. (1996) provided the biochemical evidence for the role of a FASs and PKSs in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin. The N-acetylcysteamine thioester of hexanoic acid could be incorporated...

Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Genes As Targets for Detection of Fungi

Patulin is an unsaturated lactone produced by a number of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Byssochlamys (Paecilomyces) species. Representatives of other fungal genera, such as Mucor, Mortierella, Alternaria, Chrysosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were also found to produce this mycotoxin (Steiman et al. 1989). The economically most important producer of patulin is Penicillium expansum, the causative agent of soft rot of apples and other pomaceous fruits. Patulin is receiving worldwide attention because of its occurrence in unfermented apple juice. The biosynthesis of patulin is well known (Paterson et al. 2000). Two genes of the biosynthetic pathway, the polyketide synthase gene, and an iso-epoxydon dehydrogenase (IDH) gene have been cloned and characterized to date (Beck et al. 1990 Wang et al. 1991 Gaucher GM, and Fedeschko RW, unpublished results). The IDH gene product catalyzes the epoxydon-phyllostine oxidation step of patulin biosynthesis (Sekiguchi and Gaucher 1979). Recently, a...

Novel Strategies for Biopesticide

Development of biopesticides for social insects has been problematic because the method by which social insects defend against disease is mainly behaviorally-based rather than biologically-based. For example, hymenopteran wasps such as Vespula spp. have well-developed hygienic behaviour which includes removing all suspected material from a nest before contamination of nestmates occurs. Vespula do not reuse nests and, therefore, disease in one season does not result in disease in another season. Behavioral defense against disease requires novel application and formulation methods for any chance of success for entomopathogenic fungi. Similarly, termites are highly susceptible to entomopatho-genic fungi, including M. anisopliae and B. bassiana but many factors such as avoidance of conidia, the removal and burial of fungus-killed termites, together with defensive secretions and inhibitory components in termite frass (Rath 2000), and grooming to remove spores (Milner and Glare, unpublished...

Factors Affecting AflatoxinST Biosynthesis

The aflR gene, coding for a sequence specific zinc binuclear DNA-binding protein, a Gal 4-type 47 kDa polypeptide, has been shown to be required for transcriptional activation of most, if not all, the structural genes (Chang et al. 1993 1995b 1999a,b Ehrlich et al. 1998 Flaherty and Payne 1997 Payne et al. 1993 Yu et al. 1997 Woloshuk et al. 1994) by binding to the palindromic sequence 5'-TCGN5CGA-3' in the promoter region of the structural genes (Ehrlich et al. 1999a,b Fernandes et al. 1998) in A parasiticus, A.flavus, and A. nidulans (Yu et al. 1996). In A. sojae, a nontoxigenic strain used in industrial fermentations, was found to contain a defective aflR gene in addition to potential other defects (Matsushima et al. 2001a,b Takahashi et al. 2002). Thus, with the absence of the functional regulatory protein, no induction of aflatoxin can occur in this food grade Aspergillus. Additional factors involved in regulation of aflatoxin synthesis were evidenced by Flaherty and Payne...

Production Formulation and Application

Production of entomopathogenic fungi has not advanced greatly beyond the use of simple grains as substrates for the Deuteromycete fungi, such as Metarhizium and Beauveria. For many other entomopathogenic fungi, especially among the Entomophthorales, growth in culture is difficult or has yet to be achieved. Both liquid and solid substrates have been substantially investigated (Burgess 1998). Two-stage systems, where both liquid and solid substrates are used, have occasionally proved successful. For example, fermentation to produce hyphae to use as starter cultures is now a widespread practice. There are number of advantages to using liquid cultures as starter cultures (a) the competitive ability of the fungus is enhanced, reducing the risk of contamination from other microbes, (b) growth is more rapid in the early stages, (c) the liquid culture can be screened for contamination prior to use, and (d) the liquid ensures even coverage of the solid substrate (Jenkins et al. 1998). Liquid...

Risk assessment of mycotoxins in animal feed materials

Tific rationale for setting guidance levels for these mycotoxins in animal feed materials that are produced in, or enter the European market. These evaluations confirm that the exposure of human consumers to mycotoxin residues in edible products of farm animals is very low. At the same time, they also clearly indicate that current knowledge of exposure and of dose-effect relationships in farm animals is limited. Data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in feed materials reported officially to the EU are scarce, and in many cases it was not clear whether the commodities evaluated were intended for human consumption or for animal feed(s). Data from the feed industry (voluntary quality control programs) generally remain unpublished. A recent survey demonstrated the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in animal feeds (Binder et al., 2007), but the number of samples analyzed is too small for detailed exposure assessments for individual animal species.

The Clustering of Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Pathway Genes

It has been long proposed that the aflatoxin pathway genes may be clustered with a common regulator (Cleveland and Bhatnagar 1991). The first experimental evidence showing the potential clustering of aflatoxin pathway genes was, however, demonstrated by Trail et al. (1995b) when they found that the nor-1 and ver-1 genes were linked in a cosmid clone (NorA) with the regulatory gene aflR and a putative aflatoxin pathway gene, uvm8 (now named fas-1) in between. This observation provided evidence that at least the early stages of the pathway may be linked. By mapping overlapping cosmid clones in A. parasiticus and A. flavus (Yu et al. 1995a), a linkage of genes involved in aflatoxin formation, from early stage nor-1 gene to later stage omtA, was established indicating that the entire aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes may be clustered. This observation and subsequent discoveries of pathway genes led to a consensus cluster map consisting of at least nine aflatoxin pathway genes pksA,...

Prevalence of Disability Within Agriculture

Previous rough estimates of the total number of workers with disabilities participating in agricultural work in the United States range from an unpublished figure of 288,000 to 500,000 reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's AgrAbility Program. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) also reported that over 13 million Americans living in rural areas have chronic or permanent disabilities. These data are considered conservative considering the increased risk of injury for those employed in agriculture (14).

Marker Assisted Breeding and Map Based Cloning of Genes

Exploitation of the multitude of novel genotypes found in plant germplasm now available in gene banks will often require the methods of molecular mapping and candidate gene isolation described above to identify the genes that contribute to these unique phenotypes (Fulton et al. 1997 Tanksley and McCouch 1997 Xiao et al. 1998). This is true even for plant genomes for which the entire genome sequence is known, thus allowing candidate genes to be isolated in related genomes. For example, the short stature mutation sg1 found in green revolution rice variety IR8 encodes a mutant biosynthetic gene for gibberellin while the semidwarf phenotype in green revolution varieties of wheat is conferred by mutations in the gibberellin signaling pathway (Sasaki et al. 2002). In addition, many previously unidentified genes have been found in every genome that has been sequenced (Goff et al. 2002 Yu et al. 2002). In the case of disease resistance genes, the functions of only a few are known in each...

Controlling mycotoxins in maize

Aflatoxin contamination is widespread in Africa in Benin and Togo, aflatoxin levels in maize averaged five times the safe limit of 20 ng g in up to 50 of the household grain stores surveyed (Egal et al., 2005 Gong et al., 2002). As a result, people, especially children (Gong et al., 2002), are being exposed to high levels of mycotoxins, often in mixtures, and the consequences have been largely ignored. For example, 99 of fully weaned children had 2-fold higher aflatoxin-albumin adduct levels in their blood than do those receiving a mixture of breast milk and solid foods (Gong et al., 2003, 2004). Surveys also indicate that Fusarium infection is prevalent in field and stored maize at many African locations. Fusarium spp. are found in all agroecological zones of Benin, but their prevalence is higher in the South than the North. The incidence of Fusarium infection is higher in the field than in storage (K. Hell, unpublished). Fusarium infection usually is reduced during storage. The most...

Phenotypic Plasticity

In general, weeds are thought to have a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, although there are relative few studies that clearly demonstrate this (D.R. Clements et al., unpublished observations). Pheno-typically plastic weeds are able to mature and reproduce under a broad range of environmental conditions. For example, showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectablis) can reproduce in heavy shade even though it is substantially smaller in the shade (Patterson, 1982). This species can also produce seed under a range of temperatures in spite of decreased size and biomass. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) showed extreme plasticity among six cohorts planted from March to September. While vegetative biomass was over 3000 g in early cohorts and less than 25 g in a later cohort, late cohorts still flowered - although the number of flowers plant was reduced from 10,000 to less than 100. Although the allocation of resources to reproduction may be genetically controlled, it is influenced...

Acknowledgements

Our thanks also go to the many friends and colleagues who provided essential and previously unpublished information for Chapter 17 (see below). Additional aquaculture colleagues and friends assisted us with other chapters ofthe book in many ways. Last but not least, we wish to thank the staff of our publishers, whose co-operation brought all our efforts to fruition.

Genetics

A Based on an analysis of 27 published enzyme surveys plus three surveys of septoria pathogens (G. Zhang and S. B. Goodwin, unpublished). The published surveys were those of Altomare et al. (1997) Andrews et al. (1988) Burdon and Roelfs (1985a) Damaj et al. (1993) Gaur et al. (1991) Goodwin et al. (1993) Huss (1996) Leuchtmann and Clay (1989) (1990) Leung and Williams (1986) Linde et al. (1990) Nyasse et al. (1999) Old et al. (1984) Otrosina and Cobb (1987) Otrosina et al. (1992) Oudemans and Coffey (1991a) Riley et al. (1998) Royse and May (1982a) Six and Paine (1999) Surve-Iyer et al. (1995) Tooley and Fry (1985) Tuskan and Walla (1989) Vogler et al. (1991) Welz et al. (1994) Yoon et al. (1990) Zambino and Harrington (1989) Zhu et al. (1988). bEnzyme Commission number. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (1992). Enzyme Nomenclature. Academic Press, Inc. c Ascomycates. d Basidiomycetes. e Deuteromycetes. a Based on an analysis of 27 published enzyme surveys plus...

Fossil groundwater

Past rainfall regimes over the Sahara and the Arabian peninsula have left in place substantial reserves of groundwater with estimates of their age of between 12,000 and 30,000 years (Wright and Edmunds, 1971 Wright, 1986). Much of the ancient water is of usable quality (Edmunds and Wright, 1979). This water is often at accessible depths in terms of pumping costs, but it is located hundreds of kilometres away from potential users. An exception is the rapidly expanding capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. It lies close to 'fossil' groundwater but perversely the national government decided to devote almost all the 'fossil' water to agriculture rather than to supplying the city. In 2005 the city was mainly supplied by desalinated water pumped 450 km from the Gulf and lifted 600 m, costing 1.4 m3, to deliver to Riyadh. In the first few years of the new millennium the city used only 145 million cubic metres of local deep groundwater at a cost of about 0.44 m3 and 261 million cubic metres...

Livestock production

In these arid areas, groundwater plays a critical role in the maintenance of the livestock economy, which is itself the basis of human survival of the poorest segments. In Somalia, for example, the only agricultural use of groundwater is for livestock watering (Ndiritu, 2004, unpublished data). In Botswana, a major livestock-producing country in southern Africa, groundwater is the main source of stock water. For Ghana, it is estimated that 70 of cattle and 40 of other livestock production account for 4.5 of agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and all depend entirely on groundwater use (Obuobie and Barry, forthcoming). As a general indication of the role of livestock in rural livelihood and the role of groundwater in sustaining those livelihoods, the FAO (1986, p. 137) states that 'groundwater is more widespread than surface water in the Sahel, although it is at present exploited mainly for domestic and livestock purposes, from traditional wells with yields too low for...

Water treatment

Several problems caused by residual chlorine and ozoni-sation have been observed. Thus, the use of ultraviolet (UV) sterilisation has been the best choice. However, chlorination is more frequently used. In such cases water is typically chlorinated for 1 day with 20 to 50 mg L of sodium hypochlorite (2-5 mg L of active chlorine) or calcium hypochlorite with the same concentration of active chlorine. Sodium hypochlorite is more persistent and not so easily removed by aeration, therefore calcium hypochlorite is preferred. The residual chlorine is removed by aeration for at least 6 hours. If chlorine persists or in case of emergency, residual chlorine may be removed within a few minutes by adding sodium thiosulphate in the mixing tanks at a concentration of 3 mg L for each 1 mg L of chlorine. Caution should be exercised in the use of sodium thiosulphate because it has been shown to be toxic. Stage I freshwaterprawn larvae have exhibited mortality at levels of 100 mg L sodium thiosul-phate...

Artificial seawater

Bidwell & Spotte (1985) presented several formulae for artificial seawaterpreparation. Complete formulations containing all the ions are expensive, difficult to obtain and non-feasible for commercial hatcheries. Suitable formulae with an incomplete ionic composition need to be species-specific. The use of artificial salt mixtures is not always successful (Daniels et al. 1992 New 1995). Research at Mississippi State University (W. Daniels, unpublished data) suggests that not all commercially available salt formulations are equally efficacious or properly formulated for larval crustacean production. Therefore, caution should be used in selecting one for hatchery production. Ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Br-, HCO3- and possibly SO42- are essential for M. rosenbergii larval rearing (Zang etal. 1995 Mallasen & Valenti 1998b). The Mg2+ Ca2+ ratio seems to be important and should be between 1.8 and 2.0 (Zang et al. 1995). On the other hand, the ions Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+, Cu2+,...

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