Home Remedies For Chronic Hives Treatment
Acute and chronic urticaria and angioedema can result from exposure to a number of agricultural products. They may be caused by immunologic and nonimmunologic histamine releasers. Immunologic mechanisms involve type I (immunoglobulin G IgG -mediated), type II (cytotoxic antibody-mediated), or type III (immune complex-mediated) reactions. Nonimmunologic mechanisms usually involve substances such as aspirin that directly incite the release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells. Medications, foods, food additives, and the bites of insects and snakes have been implicated. Common food allergies include shellfish, fish, eggs, nuts, chocolate, berries, tomatoes, cheese, and milk (27). There are four categories of urticaria 2. Angioedema a generalized urticaria over the entire body Treatment for urticaria includes antihistamines, tricyclics, and systemic steroids (27). Latex hypersensitivity reactions are categorized into two main types (1) type IV or delayed (cell-mediated)...
Regulatory frameworks exist to address vital issues related to food safety and environmental protection in regard to GMO applications. However, little research or regulatory oversight currently exists addressing the potential impact of genetically modified engineered crops on the health and safety of agricultural workers. Some studies have evaluated the health effects of Bt in agricultural workers. In a public health survey, a large number of individuals were exposed to a massive Bt pesticide spraying program. Some of the symptoms reported included rash and angioedema. One of the spray workers developed dermatitis, pruritus, swelling, and erythema with conjunctival injection. Bt was cultured from the conjunctiva in this case. In 1992 the use of Bt as part of an Asian gypsy moth control program was associated with symptoms of allergic rhinitis, exacerbations of asthma, and skin reactions among individuals exposed to the spraying operations. However, no follow-up was performed to...
Clinical forms of occupational Irritant contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis Chemical skin burns Allergic contact dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis Acute and chronic urticaria Latex allergy Photodermatitis Phototoxic Photoallergic Follicular and acneiform dermatoses Pigmentation disturbance Hyperpigmentation Hypopigmentation Neoplasms
Fulminant hepatitis may develop, especially in pregnant women. The overall mortality ranges from 1 to 3 but may be as high as 25 (higher in some studies) during pregnancy. Death of the fetus, abortion, premature delivery, or death of a live-born soon after birth are common complications of hepatitis E infection during pregnancy. Vertical transmission has been reported to occur in 33 to 100 of cases (5-9).
Some special uses to which cement is being put are the making of bee hives, brick for pavement and ordinary foundations, cement shingles for roofing, grain bins in the form of square boxlike and round barrel-like receptacles. The use of this excellent material for farm structures is only just opening up and it is destined to become the most important material for general farm building.
Not all urticariogenic plants contain stinging hairs for example, various urticariogenic fruits, such as kiwi and strawberries, do not. However, kiwi-induced urticaria has been noted as a significant occupational hazard in New Zealand, where the kiwi fruit is a major cash crop (48).
Body lice mainly infest indigent people who remain clothed for extended periods. The lice remain sequestered in the seams and between layers of clothing except when feeding (22). They are transmitted both by direct contact and by exchange of contaminated clothing and bedding. Body louse saliva induces an intensely pruritic, red, maculopapular eruption hours to days after feeding, often resulting in hives complete with flare and wheal formation. Excoriation can yield crusts, regional adenopathy, and bacterial infection. The saliva can itself induce a hemorrhagic reaction. Chronic infestation can incite lichenification with generalized hyperpigmentation, known as vagabond's disease.
Imported fire ants and the stings of bees, hornets, and wasps together cause over half the reported anaphylaxis cases (57). The cardinal signs are bronchial spasm, larangeal spasm, and hypotension. Within minutes of the sting, upper or lower airway obstruction occurs, the latter more frequent in asthmatics. Usually, pruritic wheals with red, raised, curved edges and white centers appear, focal or diffuse, that may become giant hives these usually resolve by the second day. Occasionally, soft tissue swelling, as angioedema, is also present. Shock is often present, with or without a secondary cardiac event. Aspirin, opioids, NSAIDs, and radiocontrast agents must be avoided, as they may worsen matters. Upon recognizing anaphylaxis, inject 0.2 to 0.5 mL of 1 1000 epinephrine subcutaneously. Remove any insect stinger. Initiate an intravenous line to administer at 5 to 10 minute intervals 1 10,000 epi-nephrine and, should hypotension ensue, volume expanders and vasopressor agents. Nasal...
In Poland, bull terrier seminal fluid was found as a source of contact urticaria and rhinoconjunctivitis. In Belgium, contact sensitivity was documented in health care workers, including veterinarians, to penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. In Germany, itching, swelling, and urticaria on the hands on arms of veterinarians were found after contact with amniotic fluid of cows and pigs. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were elevated, radioallergosorbent test (RAST) investigations were positive to amniotic fluid, and skin tests were also positive to amniotic fluid. In all these cases, the use of gloves, either latex or a substitute, was recommended (12-14).
Systemic reactions occur in 16 and anaphylaxis in 2 of patients. The onset occurs within 45 minutes of a sting. It can include urticaria, chest tightness, pruritis, dysphagia, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, wheezing, the changes of anaphylaxis (described later), syncope, convulsions, confusion, mononeuropathy and seizures (46-48). Therapy is directed towards the particular symptoms and signs the patient has. Immunotherapy is in its early stages but shows great promise (49,50).
Necrotic areas narrower than 2 cm may require only pain medicine, anti-histamines, sterile dressings, tetanus prophylaxis, ice, and elevation of the affected limb. Necrotic foci larger than 1 cm require screening for hemolysis, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Mild systemic reactions are usually apparent within 3 days and include leukocytosis, malaise, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, proteinuria, vomiting, diarrhea, and generalized urticaria. Severe reactions include anuria, delirium, shock, hemolysis, and coma. These reactions should prompt consideration of hospitalization.
While numerous plants can cause skin disease following various routes of contact, from the common household chrysanthemum to wild feverfew, only the most relevant families are presented here. Phytodermatitis can generally be classified by the four groups discussed below allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, urticaria, and phytophotodermatitis. For a summary of the various plants and plant families associated with each skin disorder, see Table 26.2 (34-38).
Photoallergy is uncommon and acquired through altered reactivity to an antigen. The immune response may be antigenic or cell mediated and presents with urticaria or eczema. Examples of substances causing photoallergic reactions include musk ambrette (after-shave), hydroxychloroquine, ketopro-fen, and celecoxib. Treatment is removal of the offending substance and systemic steroids (31-33).
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