B National water quality standards

Water quality standards are legally enforceable and set maximum allowable limits of concentration for various pollutant constituents or minimum limits of favorable constituents. Typically, standards relate to water quality in a receiving stream, for example, concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). However, technology-based standards are established for use of the most effective control or treatment technologies available to prevent water pollution. The early water quality standards,...

Swine Waste Management

Swine waste and waste management systems have been widely studied, and much has been reported on swine manure properties. Table 4-11 lists characteristics of as excreted swine manure from feeding and breeding stock. More specific data on manure solids produced by growing swine ranging from 10 to 220 pounds are in figure 4-2. Breeding stock manure characteristics, also shown in table 4-11, are subject to less variation than those for growing animals. Wasted feed also significantly changes manure...

B Excesses of plant nutrients total dissolved solids and trace elements

The tolerance of plants to high levels of elements in plant tissue must also be accounted for in waste application to cropland. Heavy applications of waste can cause elevated levels of nitrates in plant tissue that can lead to nitrate poisoning of livestock consuming that foliage. The ability to accumulate nitrates differs from plant to plant or even within cultivars of a species. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in plant dry matter less than 0.1 percent is considered safe to feed livestock....

Design example 106Aerobic lagoon

John Sims of Greenville, Mississippi, has requested assistance on the development of an agricultural waste management system. He has requested that an alternative be developed that includes an aerobic lagoon to treat the waste from his 50,000 caged layers, which have an average weight of 4 pounds. Completed worksheet 10A-4 shows the calculations to size the lagoon for this design example. Worksheet 10A-4 Aerobic lagoon design Worksheet 10A-4 Aerobic lagoon design 5. Daily volume of daily...

C Temperature and moisture control

Vegetation can alter microclimate and create lower temperatures. By shading the areas below them and through the process of evapotranspiration, trees and shrubs produce a cooling effect. They can also regulate temperature by reducing or increasing wind velocity. The placement of vegetation can help cool buildings in summer and allow heat generating sunlight to penetrate in winter (fig. 8-11). Dairy animals and other livestock seek streams or ponds and the shade of trees for their cooling...

A Dairy waste management systems

Portable Pasture Shade

Dairy operations vary, and each operation presents its own unique problems (fig. 9-3). Many older dairy operations were not designed with sufficient consideration given to waste management. As a result, the design of a waste management system may require major modifications or alterations of existing facilities. The dairy industry generally is concerned with the overall appearance of the dairy farms. Dairy operations require high standards of sanitation and must prevent problems associated with...

Effects of animal waste on the water resource

Animal waste contains a number of contaminants that can adversely affect surface and ground water. In addition, certain of the constituents in animal waste can impact grazing animals, harm terrestrial plants, and impair air quality. However, where animal waste is applied to agricultural land at acceptable rates, crops can receive adequate nutrients without the addition of commercial fertilizer. In addition, soil erosion can be substantially reduced and the water holding capacity of the soil can...

A Field and forage crops

Manure and sewage have been used for centuries as fertilizers and soil amendments to produce food for human and animal consumption. Generally, manure and sludges are applied to crops that are most responsive to nitrogen inputs. Field crops that are responsive include corn, sorghum, cotton, tobacco, sugar beets, and cane. Sewage sludge should not be used on tobacco. The liming effect of the sludge can enhance the incidence of root diseases of tobacco. It can also elevate cadmium levels in...

A Landscape elements

Manipulation of landscape elements, such as structures, landform, water, and vegetation, can improve the operation of an existing AWMS or help to integrate a new AWMS into the farmstead. Each farm can be viewed as a series of spaces used for different operations linked together by roads or paths. The arrangement of structures, landform, water, and vegetation within this system affects aesthetic quality, operational efficiency, energy consumption, runoff, and specific functions on the site....

E Dryingdewatering

Oxidation Ditch Schematic

If the water is removed from freshly excreted manure, the volume to handle can be reduced. The process of removing water is referred to as dewatering. In the arid regions of the United States, most manure is dewatered (dried) by evaporation from sun and wind. Some nutrients may be lost in the drying process. Dried or dewatered manure solids are often sold as a soil conditioner or garden fertilizer. These solids may also be used as fertilizer on agricultural land. They are high in organic matter...

D Aesthetic quality

Aesthetic quality is acknowledged as an integral part of daily life and underlies economic and other decisions about the land (fig. 8-13). Many land management decisions, including those related to planning and design of an AWMS, are made because of a decisionmaker's perception of what will enhance aesthetic quality and reflect a stewardship ethic to neighbors. Highly visible AWMS components, such as storage tanks that are easily identified by their color, and associated conservation practices...

B Liquid and slurry waste storage

Liquid and slurry manure can be stored in waste storage ponds or in aboveground or below-ground tanks. Solids separation of manure and bedding is a problem that must be considered in planning and design. Solids generally can be resuspended with agitation before unloading, but this involves a cost in time, labor, and energy. Another option allows solids to accumulate if the bottom is occasionally cleaned. This requires a paved working surface for equipment. Earthen storage is frequently the...

Direction and hydraulic gradient

If a published water table map is not available for the area, but several wells and springs are nearby, a contour map of the water table may be drawn. Plot on a topographic map (at an appropriate scale) a sufficient number of points of static levels of water wells, observation wells, and test pits. Include spot elevations of perennial streams, ponds, and lakes. Using an appropriate contour interval, contour the data points to produce a useful water table map. Record dates of observations to...

Dead poultry disposal

Because of the large numbers of dead birds associated with large poultry operations, the disposal of dead birds is a resource concern. Poultry facilities must have adequate means for disposal of dead birds in a sanitary manner. To prevent spread of disease, the dead birds are often collected daily by hand. Disposal alternatives include incineration, rendering, burial, dropping into a buried disposal tank, or composting. The dead birds are mixed with litter and straw, composted, and the...

G Food processing waste

Food processing facilities produce large amounts of waste, some of which are suitable for land application. Food processing waste can be either solid, slurry, or liquid. The chemical properties of the waste must be determined before a waste handling system can be designed. If the waste is biological in nature, it can be treated and handled much the same as livestock waste. Waste treatment lagoons can be used for some food processing waste. The material must be analyzed for its volatile solids...

G SCS flood plain and wetland policy

SCS environmental policy in 190-GM, part 410, applies when waste management facilities on flood plains or wetlands are being planned. This policy restricts or requires special provision for certain agricultural waste management structures or activities within flood plains and wetlands. It is SCS policy that flood plains be, to the extent practical, conserved, preserved, and restored to existing natural and beneficial value on base (100 year) flood plains as a part of technical and financial...

GFraction greater than 3 inches in diameterRock fragments stones and boulders

Rock fragments, stones, and boulders are the soil fractions greater than 3 inches and are measured as a weight percent or estimated as a volume percentage of the whole soil. The upper size limit is undefined, but for practical purposes is about 40 inches. Stoniness is a soil surface feature that is defined as the percent of stones and boulders (rock fragments greater than 10 inches in diameter) that cover the soil surface. It is represented as classes 1 through 6. Limitations for agricultural...

Gravity drain gutters

Deep, narrow gutters can be used in swine finishing buildings (fig. 10-7). These gutters are at the lowest elevation of the pen. The animal traffic moves the waste to the gutter. The gutter fills and is periodically emptied. Gutters that have Y, U, V, or rectangular cross sectional shapes are used in farrowing and nursery swine facilities. These gutters can be gravity drained periodically. Reception pit To treatment or storage Reception pit To treatment or storage

H Agricultural chemical waste management

Many agricultural enterprises use large amounts of agricultural chemicals. The use of these chemicals seems to increase as the cost of labor increases. With this increased usage comes the potential for surface and ground water contamination as a result of improper storage of chemical residue, rinse water, and unused chemicals and the improper disposal of empty containers. Considerable research is being conducted in this area however, to date few easily managed, cost-effective alternatives have...

H Synthetic organic compounds

When dealing with municipal sludge, one other constraint to application rates should be addressed. Most sludge has synthetic organic compounds, such as chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, which can be slow to decompose and may be of concern from a human or animal health standpoint. Polychlorinated biphenyls are in many sludges. Federal regulations require soil incorporation of any sludge that has more than 10 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyls wherever animal feed crops are grown. Polychlorinated...

Identifying soils for engineering purposes

Particles have sharp edges and relatively plane sides with unpolished surfaces Particles are similar to angular description, but have rounded edges Subrounded Particles have nearly plane sides, but have well-rounded corners and edges Particles have smoothly curved sides and no edges Table 2 Criteria for describing particle shape (length, width, and thickness refer to the greatest, intermediate, and least dimensions of a particle, respectively) Particles with width thickness > 3 Particles meet...

IEvaluation of the results of the plan

Changing demands, growth, and technological advances create a need to evaluate an AWMS to update objectives and modify plans. Plans developed but not implemented within a few years should be re-evaluated. This requires repeating some or all of the planning elements to maintain a viable plan. The implemented AWMS may need to be fine tuned not only because of technical advances, but because of what the decisionmaker has learned about the system. This planning element gives the planner an...

Interface with other systems

The primary objective of most agricultural enterprises is the production of marketable goods. To be successful the farm manager must balance the demand on limited resources among many complicated and interdependent systems, often including, but not limited to livestock management system irrigation and drainage system resource conservation system equipment maintenance and replacement system produce storage, transport, and marketing system financial management system For an AWMS to be practical,...

Introduction

This chapter focuses on the effects that agricultural wastes can have on water, air, and animal resources. Special emphasis is placed on the reactions of particular contaminants within the aquatic environment (how they change and how they affect aquatic life and human health). The impact of contaminants on designated uses of water is not covered in detail here because it is adequately covered in chapter 1. The pollutant delivery process the movement of pollutants from the source to a stream or...

J Soil pH

Soil pH affects plant nutrient availability, agricultural waste decomposition rates, and adsorption of heavy metals. Soils in which the surface pH is less than 6.5 have lower potential for plant growth and low heavy metal adsorption. Limitations and recommendations are based on the lowest pH value of the surface layer. Limitations for the application of agricultural wastes are slight if the pH in the surface layer is more than 6.5, moderate if it is 3.5 to 6.5, and severe if it is less than...

Level of management

During the inventory phase, the level of management that will or can be provided by the decisionmaker must be assessed. An AWMS must be manageable by the decisionmaker. Some require intensive levels of management and good record keeping ability. Composting and anaerobic digesters are in this category. When a change in the waste handling system is being considered, it is necessary to evaluate any management changes that the desired system might present. For example, if a dairy farmer wants to...

M Slope

Slope is the inclination of the soil surface from the horizontal expressed as a percentage. The slope influences runoff velocity, erosion, and the ease with which machinery can be used. Steep slopes limit application methods and rates and machinery choices. Runoff velocity, soil carrying capacity of runoff, and potential water erosion increase as slopes become steeper. Limitations for the application of agricultural wastes are slight if the slope is less than 8 percent, moderate if it is 8 to...

Management

Contents 651.0500 Introduction 5-1 651.0502 Soil-agricultural waste interaction 5-2 651.0503 Soil-agricultural waste mineralization relationship 5-4 (a) Microbial (c) Phosphate (d) Potassium, calcium, and magnesium 5-6 (e) Heavy metal and trace element 651.0504 Soil characteristics 5-7 (a) Available water (c) Cation-exchange (d) Depth to bedrock or cemented (g) Fraction greater than 3 inches in diameter Rock fragments 5-10 (h) Intake (j) Soil (k) (l) (n) Sodium Tables Table 5-1 Common...

Management Systems

Contents 65l.G9GG Introduction 9-l 651.0902 Interface with other systems 9-2 651.0904 Waste management functions 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-4 9-4 651.0905 Waste management systems design 9-5 651.0906 Typical agricultural waste management systems 9-7 (a) Dairy waste management (b) Beef waste management 9-13 (c) Swine waste management (d) Poultry waste management (e) Other (f) Municipal and industrial sludge and wastewater application systems 9-27 (h) Agricultural chemical waste Figures Figure 9-1 Relative...

Method selection

The composting method must fit the individual farm operation. Highly sophisticated and expensive composting operations are not likely to be a viable option for small farming operations. Some factors to consider when selecting the particular method of composting include (i) Operator management capability The management capability of the operator is an important consideration when selecting the right composting method. Even simple composting methods require that the operator spend additional time...

N Presence of abandoned wells and other relics of past use

The site and its history should be surveyed for evidence of past use that may require special design considerations or AWMS component site relocation. If an abandoned well exists on the site, special efforts are required to determine if the well was sealed according to local requirements. An improperly sealed well can be a direct pathway for contaminants to pollute an aquifer. Other remnants of human activity, such as old foundations, trash pits, or filled-in areas, require special AWMS design...

N Sodium adsorption

Sodium adsorption is represented by the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), which is the measured amount of sodium relative to calcium and magnesium in a water extract from a saturated soil paste. A high and moderate SAR, more than 4, interferes with the ability of the plant to absorb water from the soil and to exchange plant nutrients. This interference reduces plant growth and seed germination and limits the choice of crops that can be successfully grown. An SAR of more than 13 has a detrimental...

Nonpoint source pollution

While concentrated animal facilities are considered point sources of pollution, other potential agricultural sources of water pollution are considered to be nonpoint sources. Each State's comprehensive water quality plan includes controls for point sources (PS) and nonpoint sources (NPS) of water pollution. Features of point and nonpoint sources of water pollution are shown in table 1-1. The prescribed approach used for control of NPS is often different from that used for PS. PS controls...

Nutrient removal by harvesting of crops

The nutrient content of a plant depends on the amount of nutrients available to the plant and on the environmental growing condition. The critical level of nutrient concentration of the dry harvested material of the plant leaf is about 2 percent nitrogen, 0.25 percent phosphorus, and 1 percent potassium. Where nutrients are available in the soil in excess of plant sufficiency levels, the percentages can more than double. In forage crops, the percent composition for nitrogen can range from 1.2...

Nutrients

The principal nutrients of concern in the aquatic environment are nitrogen and phosphorus. An understanding of how these nutrients react in the environment is important to understanding the control processes discussed in later sections. (i) Nitrogen Nitrogen occurs throughout the environment in the soil, water, and surrounding air. In fact, 78 percent of the air we breathe is nitrogen. It is also a part of all living organisms. When plants and animals die or when waste products are excreted,...

Organic matter

All organic matter contains carbon in combination with one or more other elements. All substances of animal or vegetable origin contain carbon compounds and are, therefore, organic. When plants and animals die, they begin to decay. The decay process is simply the various naturally occurring micro-organisms converting the organic matter the plant and body tissue to simpler compounds. Some of these simpler compounds may be other forms of organic matter or they may be nonorganic compounds, such as...

Scrape alleys and open areas

Two kinds of manure scrapers are used to clean alleys (fig. 10-3). A mechanical scraper is dedicated to a given alley. It is propelled using electrical drives attached by cables or chains. The drive units are often Figure 10-2 Diversion of clean water around feedlot Figure 10-3 Scrape alley used in dairy barns used to power two mechanical scrapers that are traveling in opposite directions in parallel alleys in an oscillating manner. Some mechanical scrapers are in alleys under slatted floors. A...

Scrape gutters

Scrape gutters are frequently used in confined stall dairy barns. The gutters are 16 to 24 inches wide, 12 to 16 inches deep, and generally do not have any bottom slope. They are cleaned using either shuttle-stroke or chain and flight gutter cleaners (figs. 10-9 & 10-10). Electric motor driven shuttle stroke gutter cleaners have paddles that pivot on a drive rod. The drive rod travels alternately forward for a short distance and then backwards for the same distance. The paddles are designed...

Soil characteristics

Soil suitabilities and limitations for agricultural waste application are based on the most severely rated soil property or properties. A severe suitability rating does not necessarily infer that agricultural wastes cannot be used. It does, however, infer a need for careful planning and design to overcome the severe limitation or hazard associated with one or more soil properties. Care must be taken in planning and designing agricultural waste management systems that are developed for soils...

Soilagricultural waste mineralization relationship

The mineralization of agricultural waste material is governed by the biological, chemical, and physical properties of soil and organic waste the soil moisture and the soil temperature. Organic waste mineralization is a process where microbes digest organic waste, reduce the waste material to inorganic constituents, and convert it to more stable organic materials. Inorganic materials released during this process are the essential plant nutrient (N, P, K), macronutrients and micronutrients,...

State laws and regulations

All State laws dealing with air and water quality and disposal of solid wastes must meet the minimum requirements of the Federal laws. Most States have such laws. Many have laws, rules, or regulations specifically addressing management of agricultural wastes in terms of surface and ground water quality requirements, management facilities, and land application. Many of the State laws, rules, and regulations are more stringent than those promulgated by the Federal Government. In the absence of...

Summary6510309 References

Animal wastes can adversely affect water, air, and animal resources in a variety of ways. Nutrients can kill fish and create algae blooms in surface water. In ground water, nitrates can make well water unfit for human consumption, particularly for infants. In addition, organic matter can cause dissolved oxygen problems in surface water, while bacteria and other microorganisms can contaminate wells and create health problems in recreational waters. Certain constituents in animal waste can create...

Total systems

Agricultural waste management systems must be developed using the total systems approach. A total system accounts for all the waste associated with an agricultural enterprise throughout the year from production to utilization. In short, it is the management of all the waste, all the time, all the way. Figure 9-1 Relative handling characteristics of different kinds of manure and percent total solids

Utilization

Glands The Neck

Swine waste is used as a feed supplement and an energy source through methane production. With proper ventilation and sufficient bedding, the solid manure can be composted in confinement facilities, and the heat generated from the composting process can be used to supplement heat in the buildings. The most common use of the nutrients in swine waste is through land application. The waste can be hauled and distributed over the land by spreading devices. If odors are a problem, liquid waste can be...

Waste consistency

Waste of different consistencies require different management techniques and handling equipment. Agricultural waste may be in the form of a liquid, slurry, semi-solid, or solid. Waste, such as manure, can change consistency throughout the system or throughout the year. The total solids (TS) concentration of manure is the main characteristic that indicates how the material can be handled. Factors that influence the TS concentration of excreted manure include the climate, type of animal, amount...

Waste management systems design

An agricultural waste management system design will Describe the management, operation, and maintenance of the waste from production to utilization List the practices to be installed Locate the major components on a plan map Include an installation schedule Agricultural waste management systems are highly varied, and many alternatives are available. The various processes mentioned above are usually interdependent. For example, if a landowner wants to store waste as a dry material, the waste...

Water Air and Anim al Resources

Contents 651.0300 Introduction 3-1 651.0301 Pollution versus contamination 3-1 651.0302 Effects of animal waste on the water resource 3-2 (a) Constituents affecting surface water 3-2 (b) Constituents affecting ground water 3-15 651.0303 Factors affecting the pollution process 3-17 (b) Transformations on the soil 3-17 (c) Filtering in the upper soil 3-17 (d) Transformations within the deep soil 651.0304 Controlling the pollution process 3-19 (a) Limiting (b) Preventing (c) Interrupting 651.0305...

Worksheet 10A1Waste storage structure capacity design

Total volume of manure production for animal type for storage period, ft3 2Q 475 8. Total manure production for storage period, ft3 (TVM) ________ 27, 0 9. Daily wastewater volume per AU, ft3 AU day (DWW) 10. Total wastewater volume for animal description for storage period, ft3 0 11. Total wastewater volume for Q A D storage period, ft3 (TWW)---------------------------------9 450 12. Amount of bedding used daily for animal type, lbs AU day (WB) - 13....

Worksheet 10A2Waste storage pond design

Number of animals (N)_____________500 5. Daily volume of manure production per AU, ft3 AU day (DVM) 1.30 7. Total volume of manure production for 63 800 49 140 35 100 1 30 animal type for storage period, ft3 --------- B. Total manure production for storage period, ft3 (TVM) 9. Daily wastewater volume per AU, ft3 AU day (DWW) ll. Total wastewater volume for storage period, ft3 (TWW) 10. Total wastewater volume for animal description for storage period, ft3yr f*nn WWD DWW x...

Worksheet 10A3Anaerobic lagoon design

Daily volume of dally manure production per AU, ft3 AU day (DVM) _1. 6. Treatment period, days (D) 7. Total volume of manure production for animal type for treatment period, ft3.nnn VMD AU x DVM x D 62000 _ B. Total manure production for treatment period, ft3 (TVM)_ 10. Total wastewater volume for animal description for treatment period, ft3 WWD DWW x AU x D 11. Total wastewater volume for treatment period, ft3 (TWW) 12. Clean water added during treatment period, ft3 (CW) 13. Waste volume for...

Design considerations

Solid waste storage ponds and structures must be designed correctly to ensure desired performance and safety. Considerations include materials selection, control of runoff and seepage, necessary storage capacity, and proper design of structural components, such as sidewalls, floors, and roofs. The primary materials used in constructing timber structures for solids storage are pressure-treated or rot-resistant wood and reinforced concrete. These materials are suitable for long-term exposure to...

B Ground water

Many Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) programs deal with the development, control, and protection of ground water resources. The planners of agricultural waste management practices should be familiar with the principles of ground water. NRCS references that include information on ground water include National Engineering Handbook (NEH) Section 16, Drainage of Agricultural Lands NEH Section 18, Ground Water Engineering Field Handbook (EFH) Chapter 12, Springs and Wells and EFH...

G3G5 Effects of animal waste on the air resource

Livestock production facilities can be the source of gases, aerosols, vapors, and dust that, individually or in combination, can create such air quality problems as health problems for animals in confined housing units, corrosion of materials and the generation of deadly gases that can affect animals and humans. Different gases are produced as animal waste is degraded by micro-organisms. Under aerobic conditions, carbon dioxide is the principal gas produced. Under anaerobic conditions, the...

A Roof runoff management

Roof runoff should be diverted from feedlots and manure storage areas unless it is needed for some use, such as dilution water for waste storage ponds or treatment lagoons. This can be accomplished by roof gutters and downspouts with underground or open channel outlets (fig. 10-1). Gutters and downspouts may not be needed if the roof drainage will not come into contact with areas accessible to livestock. Figure 10-1 Roof gutter and downspout Figure 10-1 Roof gutter and downspout The area of a...

Flush alleys

Alleys can also be cleaned by flushing. Grade is critical and can vary between 1.25 and 5 percent. It may change for long flush alleys. The alley should be level perpendicular to the centerline. The amount of water used for flushing is also critical. An initial flow depth of 3 inches for underslat gutters and 4 to 6 inches for open alleys is necessary. The length and width of the flush alley are also factors. Most flush alleys should be less than 200 feet long. The width generally varies from 3...

Definitions of waste characterization terms

Table 4-1 gives definitions and descriptions of waste characterization terms. It includes abbreviations, definitions, units of measurement, methods of measurement, and other considerations for the physical and chemical properties of manure, waste, and residue. The first four physical properties weight (Wt), volume (Vol), total solids (TS), and moisture content (MC) are important to agricultural producers and facility planners and designers. They describe the amount and consistency of the...

Landscape resources

Landscape features need to be evaluated during the inventory to make the AWMS compatible with the surrounding landscape. Earth mounds, fencing, vegetation, and position on the landscape are alternatives to enhance the landscape. In addition, structures can be painted to complement other farm buildings. Similarity in construction materials and texture should be promoted. When planning AWMS components that will be visible, the planner should consider planting fast-growing trees or shrubs that...

Siting and area considerations

Compost Procedure

The location of the composting facility is a very important factor in a successful compost operation. To minimize material handling, the composting facility should be located as close as possible to the source of organic waste. If land application is the preferred method of utilization, the facility should also be located with convenient access to the land application sites. Several other important considerations when locating a compost facility are discussed below. i Wind direction Improperly...

Composting methods

Forced Aeration Pressure Compost

Three basic methods of composting windrow, static pile, and in-vessel are described below. i Windrow method The windrow method involves the arrangement of compost mix in long, narrow piles or windrows fig. 10-30 . To maintain an aerobic condition, the compost mixture must be periodically turned. This exposes the decomposing material to the air and keeps temperatures from getting too high gt 170 F . The minimum turning frequency varies from 2 to 10 days, depending on the type of mix, volume, and...