A Residential waste

Rural residential waste components are identified in tables 4-21 and 4-22. Table 4-21 lists the characteristics of human excrement. Household wastewater (table 4-22) can be categorized as graywater (no sanitary wastes included) and blackwater (sanitary wastewater). In most cases a composite of both of these components will be treated in a septic tank. The liquid effluent from the septic tank generally is treated in a soil absorption field.

Residential wastewater of municipal origin is usually categorized into raw (untreated) and treated types (table 4-23). Secondary (biological) treatment is common for wastewater that is to be applied to agricultural land. Municipal wastewater sludge may also be in the raw, untreated form or in the treated (digested) form. Municipal compost is usually based on dewatered, digested sludge and refuse, but can contain other waste materials as well (table 4-23).

Liquid and solid wastes of residential origin generally are not a source of toxic materials. Some industrial waste, however, may contain toxic components requiring careful handling and controlled distribution. Planning of land application systems for industrial waste must include thorough analyses of the waste materials.

Table 4-21 Human waste characterization — as excreted

Dairy

Gal/d/ft2 alley surface Gal/d/cow

Gated tank 2.5 80.0

Pump flush 15.0 550.0

Component

Units

Adult

Dairies that have gated tank flush cleaning and automatic cow washing commonly use 100 to 150 gal/d/ cow, but multiple flushing and alternative equipment may double this amount.

Poultry — (pump flush) 1.0 to 1.5 gal/bird/flush.

For more information on flush systems, refer to chapter 10.

Weight Volume Moisture TS

30.00 0.55 89.10 10.90 3.30 1.93 1.40 3.00 1.30 0.20 0.02 0.07

Table 4-22 Residential waste characterization — household wastewater

Component

Units

Graywater

Composite*

Septage

Volume

ft3/d/1000# of people

27.00

38.00

35.00

Moisture

%

99.92

99.65

99.75

TS

% w.b.

0.08

0.35

0.25

lb/d/1000# of people

1.33

7.75

5.50

VS

% w.b.

0.024

0.20

0.14

FS

it

0.056

0.15

0.11

N

h

0.0012

0.007

0.0075

NH4-N

h

0.0018

p4

h

0.0004

0.003

0.0019

K

h

0.003

0.0025

* Graywater plus blackwater.

* Graywater plus blackwater.

Table 4-23 Municipal waste characterization — residential

Component

Units

Raw Secondary

Digested

Compost*

Volume

Moisture

BOD5

NH4-N

ft3/d/1000# of people

0.001 0.001

0.0025

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.0012

0.32 0.036

40.00 60.00

0.78

Origin is household refuse.

Suspended solids 0.03%; dissolved solids 0.02%.

Suspended solids 0.0025%; dissolved solids 0.0475%.

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