The design of an AWMS must consider measures to improve and protect water quality. Water bodies in close proximity to the waste source are more susceptible to contamination. Relocating a pasture to an area further from a stream is often the best solution in preventing degraded streambanks and animal waste from entering the stream. Because this is not always possible, such measures as fencing, controlled stream crossings, and regraded and revegetated streambanks can aid in minimizing transport of contaminants in runoff from directly entering the stream (fig. 8-8).
Developing a new AWMS or adding to an existing system often presents an opportunity to improve runoff management. The addition of diversions, roof gutters to separate precipitation from waste sources, paved feedlots or loafing areas, drainage swales, and filter strips helps to minimize muddy areas and contaminated runoff. Landform mounds constructed from excess excavated material can be used to convey runoff and save the cost of hauling excess material to a disposal site. Either excess or imported soil can be used to fill depressions and improve drainage. As addressed in chapter 6 of this handbook, vegetation can serve many functions including nutrient and sediment filtration, erosion control, moisture reduction, and temperature control.
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