Several factors affect biological degradation of various agricultural waste organics when the waste is applied to soil. These factors interact during the biological degradation process and can be partitioned into soil and organic factors.
Soil factors that affect biological degradation are temperature, moisture, oxygen supply, pH, available nutrients (N, P, K, and micronutrients), porosity, permeability, microbial population, and bulk density. Organic factors are carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N), lignin content, and BOD.
The soil and organic factors interact and determine the environment for microbial growth and metabolism. The physical and chemical nature of this environment determines the specific types and numbers of soil micro-organisms available to decompose organic material.
The decomposition rate of organic material is primarily controlled by the chemical and biological composition of the waste material, soil moisture and temperature (figs. 5-1 & 5-2), and available oxygen supply. Rapid decomposition of organic wastes and mineralization of organic nitrogen and phosphorus by soil micro-organisms are dependent on an adequate supply of oxygen and soil moisture.
High loading rates or high BOD waste may consume most of the available oxygen and create an anaerobic environment. This process can cause significant shifts in microbial populations, microbial metabolisms, and mineralization by-products. Under anaerobic conditions, the by-products may be toxic and can be in sufficient concentrations to inhibit seed germination and retard plant growth, even after aerobic conditions have been restored. See section 651.0503(a).
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