B Food wastes and wastewater

Food processing can result in considerable quantities of solid waste and wastewater. Processing of some fruits and vegetables results in more than 50 percent waste. Many of these wastes, however, can be used in by-product recovery procedures, and not all of the waste must be sent to use or disposal facilities. Food processing wastewater may be a dilute material that has a low concentration of some of the components of the raw product. On the other hand, solid waste from food processing may contain a high percentage of the raw product and exhibit characteristics of that raw product.

Tables 4-24 and 4-25 present characteristics of wastewater and sludge from the processing of milk and milk products.

Characteristics of wastewater and sludge from the meat and poultry processing industries are listed in tables 4-26 and 4-27.

Table 4-26 presents data on raw wastewater discharges from red meat and poultry processing plants.

Table 4-27 describes various sludges. Dissolved air flotation sludge is a raw sludge resulting from a separation procedure that incorporates dissolved air in the wastewater. The data on wastewater sludge is for sludge from secondary treatment of wastewater from meat processing.

Table 4-28 presents raw wastewater qualities for several common vegetable crops on the basis of the amount of the fresh product processed.

Characteristics of solid fruit and vegetable wastes, such as might be collected at packing houses and processing plants, are listed in table 4-29.

Table 4-24 Dairy food processing waste characterization Table 4-25 Dairy food waste characterization —

processing wastewater

Weight BOD5

lb/lb milk lb/1000 lb processed milk received

Component Units Industry- -----Whey----- Cheese wide Sweet Acid waste-

cheese cheese water sludge

Weight BOD5

lb/lb milk lb/1000 lb processed milk received

Bulk milk handling

6.1

1.0

Milk processing

4.9

5.2

Butter

4.85

1.46

Cheese

2.06

1.8

Condensed milk

1.85

4.5

Milk powder

2.8

3.9

Milk, ice cream, &

cottage cheese

2.52

6.37

Cottage cheese

6.0

34.0

Ice cream

2.8

5.76

Milk & cottage cheese

1.84

3.47

Mixed products

1.8

2.5

Component Units Industry- -----Whey----- Cheese wide Sweet Acid waste-

cheese cheese water sludge

Moisture

%

97.60

93.10

93.40

97.50

TS

% w.b.

2.40

6.90

6.60

2.50

VS

it

1.49

6.35

6.00

FS

h

0.91

0.55

0.60

COD

h

1.30

BOD5

h

2.00

N

h

0.077

7.48

0.18

P

h

0.050

0.12

K

h

0.067

0.05

Table 4-26

Meat processing

waste characterization —

wastewater

Component

Units

- Red meat -

Poultry 44

Broiler -

Slaughter -

Packing -

Processing -

Volume

gal/1000# 6/

696.0

1,046.0

1,26S.0

2,S00.0

Moisture

%

9S.0S

TS

% w.b.

4.9S

lb/1000# 6/

4.7

8.7

2.7

6.0

VS

ii

4.30

FS

ii

0.6S

BOD5

ii

S.8

12.1

S.7

8.S

N

ii

0.30

P

ii

0.084

K

ii

0.012

1 Slaughter—Killing and preparing the carcass for processing.

2 Packing—Killing, preparing the carcass for processing, and processing.

3 Processing—Butchering, grinding, packaging.

4 Quantities per 1,000 lb product.

6 Per 1,000 lb live weight killed.

Table 4-27 Meat processing waste characterization — wastewater sludge

Component Units - - - Dissolved air flotation sludge - - - Wastewater

Poultry Swine Cattle sludge

Moisture

%

94.20

TS

% w.b.

S.80

VS

% w.b.

4.80

FS

ii

1.00

COD

ii

7.80

N

ii

0.41

NH4-N

ii

0.17

p4

ii

0.12

92.S0

94.S0

96.00

7.S0

S.S0

4.00

S.90

4.40

3.40

1.60

1.10

0.60

0.S3

0.40

Table 4-28 Vegetable processing waste characterization — wastewater

Component Units

Cut bean

French style bean Pea

Potato

Tomato

Volume ft3/1000 lb

270*

TS lb/1000 lbt

15

43

39

53**

134

VS "

9

29

20

50**

FS "

6

14

19

3**

COD "

14

35

37

71***

96

BOD5 "

7

17

21

32

55

t Lb/1000 lb raw product. * Ft3 per lb processed.

** Total suspended solids. ***

Percent of TSS.

Table 4-29 Fruit and vegetable waste characterization

— solid waste

Fruit/vegetable Moisture content

Total solids

Volatile solids

Fixed solids

N

P

K

Pûrpûnt ïjminht Koeie

1 u 1,1,111 v v «__l vï ^iglll i 7í 1.11.1

Banana, fresh

84.0

16.0

13.9

2.1

0.53

Broccoli, leaf

86.5

13.5

0.30

Cabbage, leaf

90.4

9.6

8.6

1.0

0.14

0.034

" core

89.7

10.3

0.38

Carrot, top

84.0

16.0

13.6

2.4

0.42

0.03

" root

87.4

12.6

11.3

1.3

0.25

0.04

Cassava, root

67.6

32.4

31.1

1.3

1.68

0.039

Corn, sweet, top

79.8

20.2

19.0

1.2

0.67

Kale, top

88.4

11.6

9.7

1.9

0.22

0.06

Lettuce, top

94.6

5.4

4.5

0.9

0.05

0.027

Onion, top, mature

8.6

91.4

84.7

6.7

1.37

0.02

Orange, flesh

87.2

12.8

12.2

0.6

0.26

" pulp

84.0

16.0

15.0

1.0

0.24

Parsnip, root

76.3

23.7

0.47

Potato, top, mature

12.8

87.2

71.5

15.7

1.22

" tuber

1.60

0.25

1.9

Pumpkin, flesh

91.3

8.7

7.9

0.8

0.12

0.037

Rhubarb, leaf

88.6

11.4

0.20

Rutabaga, top

90.0

10.0

0.35

" root

89.5

10.5

0.20

Spinach, stems

93.5

6.5

0.065

Tomato, fresh

94.2

5.8

5.2

0.6

0.15

0.03

0.30

" solid waste

88.9

11.1

10.2

0.9

0.22

0.044

0.089

Turnip, top

92.2

7.8

0.20

" root

91.1

0.34

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