B Siting the system

The process of placing AWMS components on the land is similar to that for integrating other conservation practices. The following process will help site the system as well as provide a means to document planning decisions.

During the planning process, a topographic survey or aerial photograph is prepared (fig. 8-4). (A conservation plan map may be sufficient for this purpose.)

Although the decisionmaker's objectives will influence the scope and detail of the survey, the data to be obtained should include:

• Property lines, easements, rights-of-way

• Names of adjacent parcel owners

• Positions of buildings, wells, culverts, walls, fences, roads, gutters and other paved areas

• Location, type, and size of existing utilities

• Location of wet areas, streams, and bodies of water

• Rock outcrops and other geological features

• Edges of wooded areas

• Elevations at contour intervals of 1 foot around anticipated storage/treatment areas and 2 to 5 feet around anticipated utilization areas

• Zoning ordinances and deed restrictions

• Geologic and soils data

• Climatic information

• Septic systems

Figure 8-4 Base map

Residential

Figure 8-4 Base map

Residential

Sycamore trees

Rickman property

Agricultural lands

Windbreak

Rickman property

Agricultural lands

Existing evergreen trees Existing deciduous trees Property line

Fence

Unimproved road Existing contours

Sycamore trees

Farm house TT« Well head

Windbreak

Survey - Moffitt property Scale: 1"=200'

(2) Site analysis

One method of understanding site conditions and implementing step 4 in the planning process (analyze the resource data) is to prepare a site analysis diagram. This step of the process is the identification of problems and opportunities associated with installation of the AWMS. A topographic map, aerial photograph, or conservation plan map should be taken into the field where site conditions and observations can be noted.

The site analysis should note such things as:

• Land use patterns and their relationships

• Potential impacts to or from the proposed AWMS

• Existing or potential odor problems

• Existing or potential circulation (animals, equipment, and people) problems or opportunities

• Soil types and areas of erosion

• Water quality of streams and water bodies

• Vegetation to be preserved and what can be removed

• Logical building locations, points of access, and areas for waste utilization

• Sun diagram documenting location of sunrise and sunset in winter and summer to determine sunny or shaded areas

• Prevailing summer and winter wind directions

• Frost pockets and heat sinks

• Areas where snow collects and other important microclimatic conditions

• Farmstead features that have special cultural value or meaning to the decisionmaker

• Options for removal or relocation of existing buildings to allow for more siting alternatives for AWMS components

Figure 8-5 illustrates a site analysis for a 100 cow dairy on which the decisionmaker wishes to install an AWMS. The decisionmaker has requested an open view of the dairy operation and adjoining cropland from the residence and does not want views of the barn blocked. During summer, several neighbors downwind of the operation have complained of unpleasant odors. The site includes a family cemetery and some large sycamore trees that have special meaning. The existing stone barn structure is unique to the area and is in good condition.

Figure 8-5 Site analysis diagram

Figure 8-5 Site analysis diagram

Survey - Moffitt property Scale: 1"=200'

_ _ Sycamore trees

Family cemetery Farm house * Well head Garage

Windbreak Limited access to

Survey - Moffitt property Scale: 1"=200'

(3) Concept plan

As a part of steps 5 and 6 (formulate and evaluate alternative solutions), a concept plan or plans are developed to begin to evaluate alternative solutions (fig. 8-6). The area required for collection, storage, treatment, transfer, and utilization of waste is determined and first displayed at this step of the process. This and such related information as associated use areas, access ways, water management measures, vegetated buffer areas, and ancillary structures should be drawn freehand to approximate scale and configuration directly on the site analysis plan or an overlay.

In instances where several sites may satisfy the decisionmaker's objectives, propose the site that best considers cost differences, environmental impacts, legal ramifications, and operational capabilities. Continued analysis can further refine the location, size, shape, and arrangement of waste facilities. If the best area for a component will require a buffer, provide adequate space. If no site seems viable, reassessment of the objectives in cooperation with the decision-maker is appropriate. Generally, a minor adjustment in goals and objectives offers viable alternatives. Where a potential for major adverse effects exists, however, it will be necessary to make significant adjustments in operations requiring a large economic commitment and attention to management.

Figure 8-6 Concept plan

Figure 8-6 Concept plan

Survey - Moffitt property Scale: 1"=200'

Key

O

Existing evergreen trees

o

Existing deciduous trees Property line

-x-x-

Fence

— — — —

Unimproved road

95---

Existing contours

«-

Animal circulation

It—1

Equipment circulation

Survey - Moffitt property Scale: 1"=200'

Completion of subsequent steps of the planning process results in the final site plan as preface to construction drawings and specifications (fig. 8-7). Final location and configuration of proposed components and ancillary structures, finished elevations, construc tion materials and exterior finishes, suitable plant species and planting areas, circulation routes, utility corridors, and utilization areas are examples of information to be included. This plan is submitted to the decisionmaker for approval.

Figure 8-7 Site plan

Figure 8-7 Site plan

Site plan - Moffitt property Scale: 1"=100'

Site plan - Moffitt property Scale: 1"=100'

Existing evergreen trees Existing deciduous trees Property line

Fence

Unimproved road Existing contours

Existing evergreen trees Existing deciduous trees Property line

Fence

Unimproved road Existing contours

Animal circulation

<N—' 1=1

Equipment circulation

1-1

Gate

Proposed trees

Paved area

coca

Bridge

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