C Swine waste management systems

Open systems (pastures, woodlots, and wetlands), feedlot systems, confinement systems, or a combination of these, are used for raising swine (fig. 9-13).

Raising hogs in an open system may appear to have a low initial investment, but often results in animal health and pollution control problems. Even if sufficient land is available, hogs tend to congregate and concentrate their waste. This can be prevented by moving the feeding, watering, and housing facilities and by rotating the hogs through a series of open lots. Hogs raised in an open system should not have unrestricted access to streams. Runoff is difficult to manage in an open system because of the large area and topographic limitations. Rather than invest the capital and time necessary to install and manage an extensive runoff management system, it may be more efficient to convert to a more concentrated operation.

Manure in feedlot systems can be handled as a solid if the feedlots are cleaned regularly, sufficient bedding is added to the manure, and the collected manure is protected from excessive precipitation. It can also be handled as a slurry or liquid, but measures must be taken to manage contaminated runoff (fig. 9-14). Total confinement systems eliminate the need to manage contaminated runoff and may allow for more automation in waste management.

Undesirable odors are often associated with swine operations. A swine waste management system should incorporate odor control measures where possible. A clean, neat appearance; efficient management system (fig. 9-15); and positive public relations with those affected by the odors eliminates many complaints.

Figure 9-14 Runoff control

Clean water diversion

Figure 9-14 Runoff control

Clean water diversion

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